What is DakNet ?
Developed by MIT Media Lab researchers.
Derives from the Hindi word for “post” or “postal,”.
It is an ad hoc network.
It uses wireless technology to provide asynchronous digital connectivity.
Combines a physical means of transportation with wireless data transfer
Simple, low- cost, and easy to deploy.
DakNet runs on computers that are
powered by solar panels fixed on
rooftops or generators attached to a
Architecture of DakNet
Components of Architecture
Mobile access point
MAP(Mobile Access Point)
A movable transceiver, which
may periodically receive
and/or transmit digitized
information to and from kiosk
and periodically received
and/or transmit, digitized
information to and from a
server acting as the gateway
to the internet and/or
The facilities at a physically
location where a client computer
may be available for customer
access or the physical locations
where a physically movable
device may be made available
for customer access.
A client computer kiosk may be
sited to enable effective
transmission to and from a
Mobile Access Point.
Hub(Internet Access Point)
A Computer device with
direct, real-time connection to
the Internet and/or other
national and/or international
or a common connection point
for devices in a network.
Hubs are commonly used to
connect segments of a LAN. A
hub contains multiple ports.
How it works ?
• Transmits data over short point-to-point links between kiosks and portable
storage devices, called Mobile Access Point(MAPs).
• MAPs are mounted on and powered by a bus, a motorcycle, or even a
bicycle with a small generator.
• MAP physically transports data among public kiosks and private
communications devices and between kiosks and a hub.
• Low-cost Wi-Fi radio transceivers automatically transfer the data stored in
the MAP at high bandwidth for each point-to-point connection.
• The primary advantages of a VAN(Value-added Network) are its low cost and ease
of set up.
• No laying of copper or fiber to each village or trying to establish costly long-
distance wireless links or satellite uplinks.
• A VAN takes advantage of existing transportation infrastructure to create an
affordable broadband network.
• Latency or delay of this network is higher than other networks.
• Higher per day data throughput than other low-bandwidth technologies such as
• DakNet provides the ability to seamlessly upgrade to the always-on
• The wireless broadband connectivity provides sophisticated
services like voice over internet protocol which allows “normal”
• DakNet supports easy user-interface and low cost hardware that
allows individuals, with no professional skills of using
communication devices, operate the software and get connected.
• A capital investment of $15 million could equip each of India’s 50,000
rural buses with MAP and thereby provide connectivity to about 750
million people living in rural India.
• Costs for the interactive user devices that DakNet supports—including
thin-client terminals, PDAs, and VoIP telephones—may also soon become
far more affordable than traditional PCs or WLL equipment.
Real-time communications not required for public kiosks
1. Communications tend to be asynchronous
2. Villager’s trade –off latency for affordability
Leverages two major trends
1. Cost of wireless broad (Wi-Fi)
2. Cost of digital storage
Easy to implement on widespread basis
Lower uplink costs and maintenance requirements
Bandwidth does not decrease with distance
Seed infrastructure that is scalable with demand
Reduced regulatory challenges and licensing fees
• Token ring constraint if a lower tier goes down, all higher tier goes down.
• Experience and Expertise person can only handled kiosk.
• Efficiency of bandwidth reduced for each tier.
• Internet/Internet messaging
• Information distribution/Broadcasting
• Information collection
• Rural supply chain management
• Information searching & web searching
DakNet in action
• A Mobile Access Point network was
deployed for Bhoomi, a
computerization of land records
initiative in Karnataka (India) which
has been acknowledged as the first
national eGovernance initiative in
• A MAP was mounted on an existing
public government bus that provides
connectivity to villages up to 70km
Projects In Different Countries
Hybrid Real-Time, Store-
and-Forward Wi-Fi Mesh in
Internet Village Motoman
Expands to Pailin,
Rural Costa Rica
DakNet provides extraordinarily low-cost digital communication, letting
remote villages leapfrog past the expense of traditional connectivity
solutions and begin development of a full-coverage broadband wireless
Its biggest benefit, according to United Villages, is that it provides
people in under-serviced rural areas with a digital identity -- a lifetime
phone number and email address.