• Vehicular automation involves the use of
to assist a vehicle's operator.
• These features and the vehicles employing them may be labeled as
intelligent or smart.
• A vehicle using automation for difficult tasks, especially navigation,
may be referred to as semi-autonomous.
• An autonomous car is an
autonomous vehicle capable of
fulfilling the human transportation
capabilities of a traditional car.
• As an autonomous vehicle, it is
capable of sensing its environment
and navigating without human input.
• Transmitting Antennae
• Embedded circuits and radio controllers
• Detector Circuits
• Special Radio Receivers
• Audible And Visual Warning Devices
• Electronically Controlled Highways
• Powered And Controlled By Buried Cables
• Wayside Communicators Relaying Computer Messages
Inspired by the efforts,
the electric utility company,
Central Power and Light
an advertorial that was
posted on many leading
newspapers throughout 1956
and 1957 and predicted
ELECTRICITY MAY BE THE DRIVER.
• laser radar, computer vision and autonomous robotic control
• off-road map and sensor-based autonomous navigation
• Extensive systems engineering work and research
• video cameras on board and use of stereoscopic vision algorithms
• Real-Time Control System
• Artificial Intelligence
• GPS, Lidar, 3D mapping, cameras, Sensors, etc.
Sting 1 Porsche
Cayenne. This autonomous
vehicle was designed by
the Georgia Institute of
Technology in collaboration
with Science Applications
(SAIC) for the Defense
Projects Agency’s (DARPA)
Urban Challenge in 2007.
• Traditional RADAR sensors are used to detect
dangerous objects in the vehicle’s path that are
more than 100 meters away.
• Accident-Prevention systems trigger alerts when
they detect something in a blind car’s blind spot.
• The radar chirps between 10 and 11 GHz over a
5 millisecond period, transmitting the radar signal
from a centrally located antenna cone.
• Two receive cones, separated by approximately 14
inches, receive the reflected radar energy.
• A camera mounted near the rear-view
mirror build a real-time 3D images of
the road ahead, spotting hazards like
pedestrians and animals.
• It is also used to identify road markings
and traffic signals.
• The Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) which is mounted on the roof of
the vehicle is the most important device in the Autonomous vehicles.
• The LIDAR consists of an emitter, mirror and receiver.
• The emitter sends out a LASER beam that bounces off a mirror that is
rotating along with the cylindrical housing at 10 revolutions per minute.
• After bouncing off objects, the LASER beam returns to the mirror and is
bounced back towards the receiver, where it can be interpreted into data.
• The vehicle can then generate a map of its surroundings and use the map
to avoid objects.
• A Global Positioning System
keeps the car on its intended
route with an accuracy of 30
• With GPS covering the macro
location of car, smaller on-deck
cameras can recognize smaller
details like red lights, stop signs
and construction zones.
• Some 7 dual-core 2.13 GHz processors and 2Gb of RAM are needed to
make sense of the data collected by the car’s instruments.
• Some car run as many as 17 processors to dispense the computing
Wheel Speed Sensors
• Wheel Speed Sensors measure the
road-wheel speed and direction of
• These sensors provide input to a
number of different automotive
systems including the anti-lock
brake system and electronic stability
• The signal from the sensors are used by the Electronic Control Unit for
decision making using a software code.
• Based on the information from the sensors, the Electronic Control Unit
gives signal to the actuators, which in turn control the vehicle.
• Also, real time information of the surroundings is output to the user
interface located inside the vehicle.
• Fewer traffic collisions
• Increased roadway capacity and reduced traffic congestion
• Relief of vehicle occupants from driving and navigation chores.
• Higher speed limit for autonomous cars.
• Removal of constraints on occupants' state.
• Alleviation of parking scarcity.
• Elimination of redundant
• Reduction of space required for vehicle parking.
• Reduction in the need for traffic police and vehicle insurance.
• Reduction of physical road signage .
• Smoother ride.
• Liability for damage.
• Resistance for individuals to forfeit control of their cars.
• Software reliability.
• Cyber Security
• Implementation of legal framework and establishment of government regulations for self-
• Reliance on autonomous drive produces less experienced drivers for when manual drive is
• Loss of driver-related jobs
• Loss of privacy.
• Autonomous cars relying on lane markings cannot decipher faded, missing, or incorrect lane
• Temporary construction zones which are not posted to any maps or data bases.
• Determination of the severity of traffic lane obstacles, as in the question of safely straddling a
pothole or debris
Google Driverless Car
Toyota Prius modified to operate as a Google driverless car
World’s first commercially available driverless car by France-based robotics
• By 2014, Israeli company Mobileye expects to release semi-autonomous car technology.
• By 2015, Audi plans to market vehicles that can autonomously steer, accelerate and brake
at lower speeds, such as in traffic jams.
• By 2016, Mobileye expects to release fully autonomous car technology.
• By 2018, Google expects to release their autonomous car technology.
• By 2020, Volvo envisages having cars in which passengers would be immune from injuries.
• By 2020, Mercedes-Benz, Audi, Nissan and BMW all expect to sell autonomous cars.
Vehicular communication systems are an emerging type of networks in
which vehicles and roadside units are the communicating nodes,
providing each other with information such as safety, warnings and
traffic information. Autonomous cars integrated with vehicular
communication systems can be more effective in avoiding crashes and