• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Autonomous car
 

Autonomous car

on

  • 527 views

An autonomous car, also known as a driverless car, self-driving car or robot car,is an autonomous vehicle capable of fulfilling the human transportation capabilities of a traditional car.

An autonomous car, also known as a driverless car, self-driving car or robot car,is an autonomous vehicle capable of fulfilling the human transportation capabilities of a traditional car.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
527
Views on SlideShare
512
Embed Views
15

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
0
Comments
0

6 Embeds 15

http://seminarlinks.blogspot.in 7
http://seminarlinks.blogspot.kr 3
http://seminarlinks.blogspot.com 2
http://seminarlinks.blogspot.ca 1
http://www.seminarlinks.blogspot.de 1
http://www.seminarlinks.blogspot.kr 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Autonomous car Autonomous car Presentation Transcript

    • Autonomous Car
    • Vehicular Automation • Vehicular automation involves the use of Mechatronics Artificial Intelligence Multi-agent System to assist a vehicle's operator. • These features and the vehicles employing them may be labeled as intelligent or smart. • A vehicle using automation for difficult tasks, especially navigation, may be referred to as semi-autonomous.
    • Introduction • An autonomous car is an autonomous vehicle capable of fulfilling the human transportation capabilities of a traditional car. • As an autonomous vehicle, it is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input.
    • History 1920s • Transmitting Antennae 1930s • Embedded circuits and radio controllers 1950s • Detector Circuits • Special Radio Receivers • Audible And Visual Warning Devices 1960s • Electronically Controlled Highways • Powered And Controlled By Buried Cables • Wayside Communicators Relaying Computer Messages
    • Inspired by the efforts, the electric utility company, Central Power and Light Company, launched an advertorial that was posted on many leading newspapers throughout 1956 and 1957 and predicted autonomous cars: ELECTRICITY MAY BE THE DRIVER.
    • 1980s • laser radar, computer vision and autonomous robotic control • off-road map and sensor-based autonomous navigation 1990s • Extensive systems engineering work and research • video cameras on board and use of stereoscopic vision algorithms 2000s • Real-Time Control System • RFID-tags 2010s • Artificial Intelligence • GPS, Lidar, 3D mapping, cameras, Sensors, etc.
    • Sting 1  Porsche Cayenne. This autonomous vehicle was designed by the Georgia Institute of Technology in collaboration with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s (DARPA) Urban Challenge in 2007.
    • Vehicle Hardware • RADAR • Optics • LIDAR • GPS • Processors • Wheel Speed Sensors
    • RADAR • Traditional RADAR sensors are used to detect dangerous objects in the vehicle’s path that are more than 100 meters away. • Accident-Prevention systems trigger alerts when they detect something in a blind car’s blind spot. • The radar chirps between 10 and 11 GHz over a 5 millisecond period, transmitting the radar signal from a centrally located antenna cone. • Two receive cones, separated by approximately 14 inches, receive the reflected radar energy.
    • Optics • A camera mounted near the rear-view mirror build a real-time 3D images of the road ahead, spotting hazards like pedestrians and animals. • It is also used to identify road markings and traffic signals.
    • LIDAR • The Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) which is mounted on the roof of the vehicle is the most important device in the Autonomous vehicles. • The LIDAR consists of an emitter, mirror and receiver. • The emitter sends out a LASER beam that bounces off a mirror that is rotating along with the cylindrical housing at 10 revolutions per minute. • After bouncing off objects, the LASER beam returns to the mirror and is bounced back towards the receiver, where it can be interpreted into data. • The vehicle can then generate a map of its surroundings and use the map to avoid objects.
    • LIDAR
    • GPS • A Global Positioning System keeps the car on its intended route with an accuracy of 30 centimeters. • With GPS covering the macro location of car, smaller on-deck cameras can recognize smaller details like red lights, stop signs and construction zones.
    • Processors • Some 7 dual-core 2.13 GHz processors and 2Gb of RAM are needed to make sense of the data collected by the car’s instruments. • Some car run as many as 17 processors to dispense the computing load.
    • Wheel Speed Sensors • Wheel Speed Sensors measure the road-wheel speed and direction of rotation. • These sensors provide input to a number of different automotive systems including the anti-lock brake system and electronic stability control.
    • Working • The signal from the sensors are used by the Electronic Control Unit for decision making using a software code. • Based on the information from the sensors, the Electronic Control Unit gives signal to the actuators, which in turn control the vehicle. • Also, real time information of the surroundings is output to the user interface located inside the vehicle.
    • Potential Advantages • Fewer traffic collisions • Increased roadway capacity and reduced traffic congestion • Relief of vehicle occupants from driving and navigation chores. • Higher speed limit for autonomous cars. • Removal of constraints on occupants' state. • Alleviation of parking scarcity. • Elimination of redundant • Reduction of space required for vehicle parking. • Reduction in the need for traffic police and vehicle insurance. • Reduction of physical road signage . • Smoother ride.
    • Potential Obstacles • Liability for damage. • Resistance for individuals to forfeit control of their cars. • Software reliability. • Cyber Security • Implementation of legal framework and establishment of government regulations for self- driving cars • Reliance on autonomous drive produces less experienced drivers for when manual drive is needed. • Loss of driver-related jobs • Loss of privacy. • Autonomous cars relying on lane markings cannot decipher faded, missing, or incorrect lane markings. • Temporary construction zones which are not posted to any maps or data bases. • Determination of the severity of traffic lane obstacles, as in the question of safely straddling a pothole or debris
    • Google Driverless Car Toyota Prius modified to operate as a Google driverless car
    • Navia World’s first commercially available driverless car by France-based robotics company Induct.
    • Official Predictions • By 2014, Israeli company Mobileye expects to release semi-autonomous car technology. • By 2015, Audi plans to market vehicles that can autonomously steer, accelerate and brake at lower speeds, such as in traffic jams. • By 2016, Mobileye expects to release fully autonomous car technology. • By 2018, Google expects to release their autonomous car technology. • By 2020, Volvo envisages having cars in which passengers would be immune from injuries. • By 2020, Mercedes-Benz, Audi, Nissan and BMW all expect to sell autonomous cars.
    • Conclusion Vehicular communication systems are an emerging type of networks in which vehicles and roadside units are the communicating nodes, providing each other with information such as safety, warnings and traffic information. Autonomous cars integrated with vehicular communication systems can be more effective in avoiding crashes and traffic congestions.
    • References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_car http://www.techradar.com/us/news/car-tech/google-wants-some-form-of-self-driving-cars-on- roads-by-2018-1130660 http://www.cvel.clemson.edu/auto/AuE835_Projects_2011/Vallabhaneni_project.html www.matronic.de http://auto.howstuffworks.com/under-the-hood/trends-innovations/driverless-car1.htm Info graphics http://drivesteady.com/how-autonomous-vehicles-work
    • Visit www.seminarlinks.blogspot.com to download