Recap• North more urbanized and industrial than south• South more agricultural and rural than north• Northern politics dominated by Whigs• Southern politics dominated by Democrats• South and democrats dominated federal politics – Up to 1860: • 50/70 years of presidents been Southern • 23/36 Speakers of the House been Southern • Every supreme court had Southern majority
1820 Missouri Compromise• 1819 = 22 states – 11 free (NJ, PA, CT, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT, OH, IN, IL) – 11 slave (DE, GA, MD, SC, VA, NC, KY, TN, LA, MS, AL)• Missouri (slave state) applies to join USA• Missouri Compromise: – Missouri join as a slave state – Maine get created as a free state – No new state in Louisiana Purchase (North of 36° 30’) to be slave state
1828 Tariff of Abomination• Federal tariff designed to help Northern industry. Unpopular in South.• South Carolina – lead by VP Calhoun – claimed not every state had to follow federal law – “States rights” were greater than federal law• Eventually a compromise was reached• Showed potential split in USA
Up to 1850• Only Arkansas (slave) and Michigan (free) had been admitted. 13 vs 13.• 1848 USA won US vs Mexico War – Gained California, New Mexico – Also gained Oregon from the UK – California, Utah, New Mexico, Kansas, Texas and Nebraksa all close to seeking admission to USA
3 Options1. Wilmot Proviso – Slavery outlawed in every state – The Proviso was defeated, but it proved a rallying cry in the North2. Calhoun Doctrine – Slaves are property. People are free to take property anywhere in USA. Congress has no right to enforce Missouri Compromise.3. Popular Sovereignty – Let each new state decide using popular voting
1850 Compromise• California admitted as a free state• Utah & New Mexico can apply under popular sovereignty• Slave trade abolished in Washington DCBut…• Slave Fugitive Act passed – Southern slave owners could go into the North to retrieve run-away slave
Harriet Beecher Stowe• 1851 Stowe published Uncle Tom’s Cabin• Highly influential, especially in the north• Summary of the book
1854 Kansas-Nebraska• Law passed that both Kansas and Nebraska could apply for statehood under popular sovereignty.• This goes against Missouri Compromise.• Outcry in the north – seen as southern dominated congress pushing it through.• Nebraska too northern to be slave state• Kansas however becomes a battle ground – Bleeding Kansas• Brooks beats Sumner in Congress
1857 Dred Scott Case• Scott was a Missouri owned slave who travelled to Illinois with his master.• Scott claimed he was now a free citizen, as Illinois was a free state• Main argument put forward here• Supreme court voted against 5:4 – 5 southerners vs 4 northerners• Outcry in North
Rise of Republican Party• Whigs became very unpopular – 2 died in office (Harrison & Taylor) – Last Whig Pres (Fillmore) passed Slave Fugitive Act – This ensured party was dead in the North• Republican Party created 1854 – Platform of progress and anti-slavery – Very popular in the North• Little-known Lincoln joins 1856. 1860 he is President.
Lincoln-Douglas debates• Lincoln (R) and Douglas (D) entered 7 debates for 1858 Senate race of Illinois• Legendary for debates on slavery• Made Lincoln (and Douglas) into national figures – debates heavily followed and read• Lincoln lost senate race – Had last laugh as in 1860 he was President – Video
1858 Lecompton Constitution• Following fraudulent elections, Kansas voted for slave state• Despite obvious fraud, Pres Buchanan sided with vote• Republicans and North very anti Lecompton• Eventually House of Reps demanded revote• 1861 Kansas joined as free state• More info
1859 John Brown’s Raid• John Brown raided Harpers’ Ferry arsenal• Attempt to arm slaves and encourage rioting• Large Northern financial backing• Took most of the weapons• Ultimately defeated by Robert E Lee• Concerned Southerners• YouTube video
1860 Election of Lincoln• Lincoln was surprise nominee for Republicans• He was Northern and not a slave owner• Lincoln’s stated stance was that slavery shouldn’t be abolished but its growth halted.• Southerners didn’t trust him• Lincoln’s election was final straw
Reasons why South should NOT secede1. Lincoln stated he would not interfere with states who currently have slavery • ”I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.” (Lincoln’s first inaugural speech)2. The South still controlled Supreme Court, and Senate3. Secession would mean end of the Slave Fugitive Act – no more collecting slaves4. If no other states seceded, you’d be on own.
Reasons to secede• South had enough – Relations between the North and South had deteriorated beyond repair. North was beginning to gain upper hand in politics – esp. Republicans.• Lincoln was an unknown and unpopular in South• No slave state voted for him• Lincoln was depicted as an abolitionist.
Secession• Lincoln elected Nov 6 but not inaugurated until March 4th Date seceded State 20 Dec 1860 South Carolina 9 Jan 1861 Mississippi 10 Jan Florida 11 Jan Alabama 19 Jan Georgia 26 Jan Louisiana 1 Feb Texas
Confederacy• 4 Feb Confederacy created• Jefferson Davis made president• Robert E Lee Commander• Created flag, taxes and army
Lincoln’s reaction• Viewed it as slave-owner conspiracy – Only Texas had referendum, rest done by caucus of slave owners• Viewed secession as illegal “You have no oath registered in Heaven to destroy the government, while I shall have the most solemn one to preserve, protect and defend it.”• Abhorred war, but accepted it as the only means to save the Union• Called for states to send men for armies
Boarder States• Both sides realised these were highly important
• Charm offensive from both sides.• Eventually Virginia, Arkansas, N Carolina and Tennessee all secede and join Confederacy• But Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky and W Virginia become the only slave states in the Union. Large moral victory for North.
Start of Civil War• Attack at Fort Sumter• Federal fort in S Carolina – It needed supplies• South would not allow new supplies• Opened fire on Fort Sumter on April 12 1861.
Who had the upper hand at the start?• YouTube clip