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Methods of Learning


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It contain methods of learning task and method variable

It contain methods of learning task and method variable

Published in: Education

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  • 1. Presented By ASEEM R.
  • 2. Introduction Concept of Learning Learning can be defined as any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience. It is also defined as acquisition of a new behaviour pattern. It involves new ways of doing things, and it operates in an individual’s attempt to overcome obstacles or to adjust to new situations.
  • 3. Definitions Gates defined learning as the modification of behaviour through experience. Skinner considers learning as a process of progressive behaviour adaptation. Crow and Crow defined learning as the acquisition of habits, knowledge and attitudes.
  • 4. Variables in Learning 1. Individual Variable (Nature of the learner) 2. Task Variable (Nature of the learning material) 3. Method Variable (Nature of the learning situation)
  • 5. Task Variables • Length of material: If the length of the learning task exceeds the memory span of the learner, the time taken to learn will be more. • Meaningfulness of material: It is easier to learn ad retain a meaningful material than a meaningless one. Meaning enable the leaner to identify previous experience to which the new task can be associated.
  • 6. Task Variables • Difficulty level of material: The learner has to spend more energy and time and this create fatigue which in turn slows down the rate of learning of such material. • Organisation of material: The learning material should be arranged in order of increasing difficulty.
  • 7. Method Variables • Method of learning: Learning success depends upon whether the learner is adopting the whole method or part method. • Amount of practice: Retention increases with practice. Over-learning is recommended for better retention. • Availability of Incentives: It has been found that availability of incentives in learning situation encourages better learning and longer retention.
  • 8. Method Variables • Nature of Sensory approach: Senses are the gateway of knowledge. Effectiveness of learning depends upon the number of senses involved in the learning process. • Distribution of practice: is a learning strategy, where practice is broken up into a number of short sessions - over a longer period of time.
  • 9. Method Variables • learn items in a list more effectively when they are studied in several sessions spread out over a long period of time, rather than studied repeatedly in a short period of time, a phenomenon called the spacing effect. • The opposite, massed practice, consists of fewer, longer training sessions.