Presentation ounce of prevention module 1

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  • It is often easier to change our behavior or our environments than it is to change the child.
  • The terms routines and schedules are often used interchangeably. Schedules represent the big picture. Main activities to be completed daily. Routines represent the steps done to complete the schedule.
  • Rather than assuming that all children will pick up on center routines and schedules, service providers should teach students each activity in the schedule and all of the smaller steps needed to complete routines. Sometimes schedules must be altered due to fire drills, field trips, assemblies, etc .
  • Here is a partially completed daily routine chart. Use four different routines and write down their corresponding steps.
  • Just because you told children ( and PARENTS or caregivers) the steps to arrival doesn’t mean you have taught them anything. TEACH children explicitly
  • Before children come to your school send home VISUALS of the steps and procedures to your day ---it will help parents and children How could a parent help teach YOUR routine at school –they don’t have time to read dense material ---when children “don’t’ get it” they can refer to books you send home These are LITERACY and math activities all by themselves
  • Problem: Children often try to play on the computer when it is not computer time. Modification: Environmental Support– Two teachers visually let children know when the computer is closed in different ways. One simply drapes a cloth over the computer and another puts up a stop sign.
  • Transitions take a great deal of time During transition time, children often spend much time waiting (e.g., wait until everyone has finished snack, wait for buses) Some children (and adults) have stressful and frustrating experiences during transitions between activities(e.g., children arguing over who took out what toys and should put them away; children not knowing where to put certain toys when they are done with them) Skills such as cleaning up toys, and lining up may reduce transition times and may lead to more time for children to become engaged in learning activities As children become independent and are taught what they "should be doing," we are less likely to see problem behaviors. Many preschool teachers and other caregivers consider children's ability to independently make transitions between activities one of the essential skills needed in group contexts such as kindergarten and preschool.
  • We will complete this handout during the next 30 minutes. For now, complete Col. 1 by listing the time of day and transitions between activities Discussion question - do you have too many transition during the day? Are there some you can adapt or eliminate? How?
  • There are numerous strategies that support smooth transitions between activities Examples of strategies you can do Before the transition- Plan your daily schedule to include the minimal number of transition times possible. Consider what the children and adults will do during these times (e.g., which adult is responsible for greeting the children and who will begin looking at books on the carpet with children?). Provide verbal and nonverbal cues before transitions (e.g., “5 minutes ‘til snack,” “It’s almost time for clean-up,” show pictures of the next activity, ringing a bell). Teach children expectations such as which shelves hold which blocks. Minimize the number of transitions in which all children have to do the same thing at the same time (e.g., Do all children have to go to the restroom at the same time? Can some children come over to the rug and get ready for large group while others are finishing an activity?)
  • Problem: A child become upset when it is time to clean up and he has not finished his jigsaw puzzle Modification: Materials Adaptation– building the puzzle on a tray allows the child to put the puzzle away, yet keep it intact. He can then finish the puzzle at another time.
  • Problem: A few children are engaging in challenging behaviors during their wait to wash their hands. Modification: The teacher provided “Environmental Support” by posting ideas of things to do while waiting. Children are encouraged to engage in these activities during their wait.
  • Examples of strategies to use During the transition- Sing songs, play word or guessing games, recite rhymes, or do finger plays with children so that the time passes more quickly when they have to wait for long periods of time for new activities to begin Plan a gradual increase or decrease in the level of activity (e.g., outdoor play followed by snack) and a good balance of active and quiet play (e.g., center time followed by story time) Allow children adequate time to finish projects or activities so they do not become frustrated by activities ending too soon Plan something for those children who finish an activity quickly so they are not waiting without something to do (e.g., if some children finish cleaning up and getting to large group quickly might they look at books while waiting for other children to finish cleaning up?)
  • Examples of strategies to use After the transition- Provide positive attention or feedback to children during AND following smooth transitions (e.g., the times that children pick up toys without much prompting tell them how this shows how well they take care of their “ things ” and how much you appreciate their working independently). Give very specific positive feedback after transitions (e.g., “ Nicholas and Jorge did a great job cleaning up the block area and moving to the carpet. ” ).
  • Have participants take out their handout and fill in ideas (in columns 2, 3, and 4) to consider within their schedule. The slide has one example on it- read this example aloud to the group. If necessary, have one participant share a transition time (and what it is like in his/her site and what problems he/she encounters during this transition time). Other participants can brainstorm strategies to use before/during/after as a way to get the group started.
  • Problem: A child repeatedly builds the same structure each time he is in the block area Modification: Environmental Support– displaying pictures and photographs of different structures may help him come up with new ideas
  • This girl is waiting for a turn on the trampoline. In order to simplify this process, the teacher provides children in line with a counting card. The children count along with the numbers while a fiend is having a turn jumping. When the reach the end of the number line, the child gets off of the trampoline and gives a waiting child a turn.
  • Problem: This child will only choose to eat one food during meals. Modification: Environmental Support– the teacher provides the child with a “menu” of 4 food and drink choices. At the beginning of the meal, the child places picture symbols on his menu of the different foods or drinks he is going to taste. As he tastes or eats each one he removes the picture until he gets to his number one choice (or favorite food).
  • Problem: A child engages in the small group activity for only a few minutes before running away from the table. Modification: Environmental Support-- A visual is placed on the table listing his options for when he is finished with the activity.
  • This child holds chart at circle time featuring reminders of expected behavior at circle time.
  • Presentation ounce of prevention module 1

    1. 1. Promoting Social Emotional Competence Promoting Children’s Success: Building Relationships and Creating Supportive Environments Module 1 Handout
    2. 2. Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) Angela Searcy, M.S. Simple Solutions Educational Services www.overtherainbowsimplesolutions.com [email_address] 708-845-2343/866-660-3899
    3. 3. Angela Searcy [email_address] 708-845-2343 <ul><li>Angela Searcy M.S., D.T. holds a B.A. degree in English and secondary education with teacher certification though the state of Illinois and a M.S. degree in early childhood development from Erikson Institute, with a specialization in Infant Studies and a credential in developmental therapy. Angela is a Diversifying in Higher Education in Illinois Fellow at Argosy Univers ity in the Doctor of Education Program </li></ul><ul><li>Angela is the owner and founder of Simple Solutions Educational Services , has over 20 years of experience in the field of education, is an approved professional development provider by the Illinois State Board of Education , an educational consultant for the Multisensory Training Institute (MTI) in Needham, MA, , Lakeshore Learning, Carson CA and Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) at Vanderbilt University. Angela is also a professor at Rasmussen College </li></ul><ul><li>A former associate at the Neuropsychology Diagnostic Center in Orland Park, Illinois, Angela has specialized training in the neurosciences and is a nationally recognized speaker with extensive experience working with professionals, young children, and their families as an early childhood teacher, child development specialist, staff developer, mental health consultant, parent educator, language arts teacher, college professor and tutor. Her expertise encompasses developing behavior modification programs from a neuropsychological perspective, and creating professional development grounded in neuroscience research related to adult learning. </li></ul><ul><li>She has been featured on Chicago Public Radio’s Chicago Matters , Chicago Parent and Chicago Baby Magazines and is a regular speaker for the Learning and the Brain Conference Sponsored by Harvard, Yale and Stanford Universities. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Home | About | Contact Resources by Type:  • Chat Sessions  • Decision Making    Guidelines    • En Español  • Family Tools  • Research Syntheses  • Practical Strategies  • State Planning  • Training Kits  • Training Modules     •  Infant/Toddler     •  PreSchool     •  Parent  • Videos  • What Works Briefs Resources by Group:  • For States  • For Trainers/Coaches  • For Families  • For Teachers/Caregivers Order Materials Links Search   Resources: PreSchool Training Modules/M ó dulos de Capacitaci ó n <ul><li>Quicklinks: </li></ul><ul><li>Module 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Module 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Module 3a </li></ul><ul><li>Module 3b </li></ul><ul><li>Module 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting Social and Emotional Competence: These modules were designed based on input gathered during focus groups with program administrators, T/TA providers, early educators, and family members about the types and content of training that would be most useful in addressing the social-emotional needs of young children. The content of the modules is consistent with evidence-based practices identified through a thorough review of the literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Modules last updated: May 2006 View Module Archive for Modules from 2003. The Archive has has Spanish and HTML versions available. M ó dulos actualizados en espa ñ ol se presentar á n dentro de poco! </li></ul><ul><li>View Ordering Information (PDF) </li></ul>Presenter Facilitator ’ s Guide PDF | HTML / Gu í a del presentador HTML Adobe Acrobat Reader .
    5. 5. National Centers & Resources <ul><li>Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) - www.vanderbilt.edu/csefel </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Assistance Center for Social Emotional Intervention (TACSEI) www.challengingbehavior.org </li></ul>
    6. 6. Some Sobering Facts
    7. 7. (Campbell & Ewing, 1990; Egeland et al., 1990; Fischer, Rolf, Hasazi, & Cummings, 1984) Children who are identified as hard to manage at ages 3 and 4 have a high probability (50:50) of continuing to have difficulties into adolescence.
    8. 8. Early appearing aggressive behaviors are the best predictor of juvenile gang membership and violence. (Reid, 1993)
    9. 9. Of the young children who show early signs of challenging behavior, it has been estimated that fewer than 10% receive services for these difficulties. (Kazdin & Kendall, 1998)
    10. 10. When aggressive and antisocial behavior has persisted to age 9, further intervention has a poor chance of success. (Dodge, 1993)
    11. 11. Preschool children are three times more likely to be “expelled” then children in grades K-12. (Gilliam, 2005)
    12. 12. It begins early...
    13. 13. There are evidence based practices that are effective in changing this developmental trajectory… The problem is not what to do, but rests in where and how we can support children and help families access services. We Know What to Do!
    14. 14. Taking Care of Yourself: Put on Your Mask First Before You Can Help Someone Else!
    15. 15. Examining Our Attitudes about Challenging Behaviors <ul><li>What behaviors push your buttons? </li></ul><ul><li>How do these behaviors make you feel? </li></ul><ul><li>How does this impact your relationship with a child and his/her family? </li></ul>
    16. 16. Managing Personal Stress: Thought Control Calming Thoughts “ This child is testing to see where the limits are. My job is to stay calm and help him learn better ways to behave.” “ I can handle this. I am in control. They have just learned some powerful ways to get control. I will teach them more appropriate ways to behave.” Upsetting Thoughts “ That child is a monster. This is getting ridiculous. He’ll never change.” “ I’m sick of putting out fires!”
    17. 17. Managing Personal Stress: Thought Control Calming Thoughts “ I feel undervalued right now – I need to seek support from my peers and supervisor.” “ Having her in my class is going to be a wonderful Professional Development experience.” Upsetting Thought “ I wonder if the corner grocery is hiring?” “ He ruins everything! This is going to be the worst year of my career.”
    18. 19. Mean Age Expectation in Months for Milestone Attainment <ul><li>Caucasian Puerto Rican Filipino </li></ul><ul><li>Eat Solid Food 8.2 10.1 6.7* </li></ul><ul><li>Training Cup 12.0 17.1 21.9* </li></ul><ul><li>Utensils 17.7 26.5 32.4* </li></ul><ul><li>Finger Food 8.9 9.4 9.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Wean 16.8 18.2 36.2* </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep by Self 13.8 14.6 38.8* </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep all Night 11.4 14.5 32.4* </li></ul><ul><li>Choose Clothes 31.1 44.2 33.1* </li></ul><ul><li>Dress Self 38.2 44.2 39.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Play Alone 25.0 24.8 12.3* </li></ul><ul><li>Toilet Trained-Day 31.6 29.0 20.4* </li></ul><ul><li>Toilet Trained-Night 33.2 31.8 34.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Carlson & Harwood (2000) </li></ul>
    19. 20. Behavioral Expectations of Two Groups of Mothers ( Farver & Lee-Shin, 2000) Korean-American Mothers European-American Mothers Believe parents and children should play together 54% 96% Prefer children play with sex-typed toys (e.g., boys play with trucks) 71% 43% Provide children with many chances to decide (e.g., give child choices) 11% 66%
    20. 21. Contrasting Values—What do you Believe? <ul><li>Collectivism </li></ul><ul><li>Process living </li></ul><ul><li>Here and now orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Inner harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Goal oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on time/future </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Outside appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul>
    21. 22. What Get’s on my nerves! Reason Behind Behavior What is your job as a professional Parent in denial <ul><li>The parent had a negative experience in school as a child </li></ul><ul><li>The parent was abused </li></ul><ul><li>The parent does not know typical child development </li></ul>It is not our job to change adult behavior-but understand that denial is a normal stage of development that adults go through That being said keep lines of communication open and focus on classroom strategies with the child Parents that don’t follow through <ul><li>The parent doesn’t know how to the do skill </li></ul><ul><li>The parent is focused on the here and now </li></ul>It is our job to teach children and follow through with our work. It is our job to develop relationships with families and support parents and provide resources
    22. 23. What Get’s on my nerves! Reason Behind Behavior What is your job as a professional
    23. 24. Ideas to Consider… <ul><li>Our actions don’t always match our values </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional values are subject to change </li></ul><ul><li>Each person appropriates various values in an individualistic way </li></ul>
    24. 25. Research on PBS <ul><li>Effective for all ages of individuals with disabilities 2-50 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective for diverse groups of individuals with challenges: mental retardation, oppositional defiant disorder, autism, emotional behavioral disorders, children at risk, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>PBS is the only comprehensive and evidence-based approach to address challenging behavior within a variety of natural settings. </li></ul>
    25. 26. Wrong Way – Right Way <ul><li>Wrong Way </li></ul><ul><li>General intervention for all behavior challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention is reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on behavior reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Quick fix </li></ul><ul><li>Right Way </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention matched to purpose of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention is proactive </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on teaching new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term interventions </li></ul>
    26. 27. Behavior support Plans <ul><li>This is a THREE tier approach to dealing with challenging behaviors </li></ul>
    27. 28. Tim’s Support Planning Chart- Hypothesis Function : obtain toy/play Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence <ul><li>Group play: centers and outside play </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Events (if applicable): </li></ul>Verbal aggression (threats), physical aggression (hit, push, kick, punch), property destruction <ul><li>Peers give up toys/items </li></ul><ul><li>Peers leave area </li></ul><ul><li>Adults intervene with negative attention on Tim </li></ul>Preventions New Skills New Responses
    28. 29. Setting Event <ul><li>Event that occurs at another time that increases the likelihood the child will have challenging behavior. Setting events serve to “set the child up” to have challenging behavior. </li></ul>
    29. 30. Behavior Equation Quan approaches computer and sees child working on program. Quan moves his picture to indicate that he is next. Quan observes and waits for his turn. Child leaves computer and Quan sits down and begins working. Setting Event Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence
    30. 31. Behavior Equation Maintaining Consequence Behavior Trigger Setting Event Child leaves computer and Quan sits down and begins working. Quan hits child and pushes his body on the child’s chair. Quan approaches computer and sees child working on program. Quan was up most the night with an asthma attack. He arrives at school looking sleepy and with dark circles under his eyes.
    31. 32. Sample Setting Event Chart Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri How does he come to school? Rides the bus    Mom brings   Tantrum at a.m. circle    His behavior? Tantrum at snack    Tantrum at small group   
    32. 33. Sample Setting Event Chart MON TUES WED THURS FRI SAT SUN What happened the night before? Slept Poorly Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Mom on Midnight Shift Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No How was his behavior? Tantrum in A.M. Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Tantrum in P.M. Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No
    33. 34. Tim’s Support Planning Chart Function : attention Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence Parents Setting Events (if applicable): Hits cries Want’s her way <ul><li>No recess </li></ul>Preventions New Skills New Responses To Challenging Behavior: To Use of New Skill:
    34. 35. Tim’s Support Planning Chart Function : to get what he wants Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence <ul><li>ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote note for home </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Events (if applicable): </li></ul>Throws objects Doesn’t listen <ul><li>Teacher talks softly to him </li></ul><ul><li>Sit in thinking chair </li></ul><ul><li>Move to red light </li></ul>Preventions New Skills New Responses To Challenging Behavior: To Use of New Skill:
    35. 36. Consider this… <ul><li>Things you can’t change </li></ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Your organization </li></ul><ul><li>Your coworker </li></ul><ul><li>This new generation </li></ul><ul><li>Things you can change </li></ul><ul><li>How you present information </li></ul><ul><li>How you speak to the child (ren) </li></ul><ul><li>How long, how fast, the location </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher directed, child directed, small groups, large groups </li></ul><ul><li>You expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Materials you use </li></ul><ul><li>Your approach </li></ul>
    36. 37. Tim’s Support Planning Chart Function: Obtain toy/play Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence <ul><li>Group play: centers and outside play with peers </li></ul><ul><li>Circle Time </li></ul><ul><li>Setting Events (if applicable): </li></ul>Verbal aggression (threats), physical aggression (hit, push, kick, punch), property destruction <ul><li>Peers give up toys/items </li></ul><ul><li>Peers leave area </li></ul><ul><li>Adults intervene with negative attention to Tim </li></ul>Preventions New Skills New Responses <ul><li>Pre-teach skills by role playing via scripted story </li></ul><ul><li>Use visual cards to help him remember lessons when in difficult situation </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher will subgroup during centers </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher will change location of circle time </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher will allow Tim to ask for a break </li></ul><ul><li>Asking to play </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone can play with the toys </li></ul><ul><li>Asking for teacher’s help </li></ul><ul><li>To Challenging Behavior: </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate & cue to use new skill: asking to play/help </li></ul><ul><li>Intervene to prevent harm by providing attention/support to child who is attacked </li></ul><ul><li>To Use of New Skill: </li></ul><ul><li>When asks, respond </li></ul><ul><li>Provide certificate and acknowledge positive behavior. Fade certificate. </li></ul>
    37. 38. <ul><ul><ul><li>If there is anything that we wish to change in the child, we should first examine it and see whether it is not something that could better be changed in ourselves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carl Jung – psychiatrist </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 39. Designing Supportive Environments Building Positive Relationships Social Emotional Teaching Strategies Individualized Intensive Interventions
    39. 40. <ul><li>Students respond better to adults who take a personal interest in them. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop positive relationships with all students </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the ratio between positive and negative experiences for students is about 5-7 positives for every negative. </li></ul>
    40. 41. <ul><li>Paper Clip Test </li></ul><ul><li>Take 10 paper clips-Move a paper clip from right pocket to left each time you make a negative comment ---if you don’t have any paper clips after a half hour add more positives! </li></ul>Building Positive Relationships with Children Play Time & Attention Home visits Share Empathy Notes home Happy Grams
    41. 43. Your Behavior Is Key <ul><li>“ </li></ul><ul><li>Do As I Say, Not As I Do” does not work </li></ul><ul><li>Short phrases are key—two sentences or less—even things like “Stay on task” or “Focus” </li></ul><ul><li>Brain reacts to positive statements </li></ul><ul><li>Lengthy arguments muddy the waters </li></ul><ul><li>Youth look to role models, and at-risk youth may not have many </li></ul>
    42. 44. Self –Reflect <ul><li>Do you yell in the classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you ever wish some children did not come to school today? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think young children are manipulating you? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have good relationships with colleagues? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you expect children to come to school knowing what to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you dream about the “good ole days” </li></ul><ul><li>If you put in all this work is it undone on the weekend? </li></ul>
    43. 45. Activity- Building Relationships <ul><li>How do you build positive relationships with: </li></ul><ul><li>Children? </li></ul><ul><li>Families? </li></ul><ul><li>Colleagues? </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm a list of things you could do to build or strengthen relationships with children, families, or other colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Share with the large group </li></ul><ul><li>Identify 2-3 things you are going to do to build stronger relationships with children, families, and colleagues. Note these on The Inventory of Practices (p. 16, Action Plan) </li></ul>
    44. 47. <ul><li>Greet every child at the door by name. </li></ul><ul><li>Post children’s work around the room. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a “star” of the week who brings in special things from home and gets to share them during circle time. </li></ul><ul><li>Call a child’s parent in front of them to say what a great day she is having or send home positive notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Call a child after a difficult day and say, “I’m sorry we had a tough day today. I know tomorrow is going to be better!” </li></ul><ul><li>Give hugs, high fives and thumbs up accomplishing tasks. </li></ul>Ideas for Making Deposits
    45. 48. <ul><li>When a child misses school tell him how much he was missed. </li></ul><ul><li>Write on a t-shirt all the special things about a given child and let him/her wear it. </li></ul><ul><li>Find time to read to individual children or a few children at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge children’s efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>Find out what a child’s favorite book is and read it to the whole class. </li></ul><ul><li>Give compliments liberally. </li></ul><ul><li>Play with children, follow their lead. </li></ul><ul><li>Let children make “All About Me” books and share them at Circle Time. </li></ul>
    46. 49. Designing Supportive Environments Building Positive Relationships Social Emotional Teaching Strategies Individualized Intensive Interventions
    47. 50. Planning Sensory and Motor Activities
    48. 51. What do you dislike about workshops?
    49. 52. Teach how you want to be taught!
    50. 53. NAEYC says…Read Story While children Act it Out
    51. 56. Let children Discover new things at Center Time
    52. 57. 2. Establish a Predictable Environment <ul><li>Define and teach classroom routines </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to enter room and begin to work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to predict the schedule for the day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What to do if you do not have materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What to do if you need help </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What to do if you need to go to the bathroom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What to do if you are tired </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What to do if someone is bothering you. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to determine if you are doing well in class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to ask a friend to play </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What to do if you are hungry </li></ul></ul></ul>
    53. 58. <ul><li>Discipline: Concerns how students BEHAVE. </li></ul><ul><li>-HAS penalties and rewards </li></ul><ul><li>PROCEDURES: Concern how things are DONE. </li></ul><ul><li>-Has NO penalties or rewards. </li></ul>
    54. 59. Schedules and Routines <ul><li>Develop a schedule that promotes child engagement and success. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance activities: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>active and quiet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>small group and large group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teacher-directed and child-directed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach children the schedule. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a routine and follow it consistently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When changes are necessary, prepare children ahead of time. </li></ul></ul>
    55. 60. Routines vs. Schedules <ul><li>The terms routines and schedules are often used interchangeably. </li></ul><ul><li>Schedules represent the big picture. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main activities to be completed daily. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Routines represent the steps done to complete the schedule. </li></ul>
    56. 61. Routines vs. Schedules <ul><li>Routines and schedules need to be directly taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Routines and schedules may vary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on level of children’s interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be inherently flexible (to allow for fire drills, field trips etc.) </li></ul></ul>
    57. 62. Steps in Daily Routines Routine Steps Story time Sit in a circle, listen, look at pictures, answer questions about story
    58. 64. Steps to Arrival
    59. 65. Telling Isn’t Teaching
    60. 67. Parent book:How I should Hang out my Coat
    61. 68. Individualize for children that struggle
    62. 69. How to put on and take off my coat
    63. 72. Arrival Visual Sequence
    64. 77. Daddy, Papa, This is what I can do when I feel sad…
    65. 78. Before Children come to school
    66. 80. Practice the “Help” Procedure <ul><li>To curtail your interruptions, it is important to create a procedure on how children get assistance when you are unavailable. </li></ul><ul><li>One procedure you may choose to use is the “ Three Before Me” method: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think to myself. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check the direction chart. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask a classmate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>*If you still need help clip your name to the help chart. </li></ul><ul><li>Once you have established a procedure, model it and then have the children practice the technique. </li></ul><ul><li>At the onset of small group instruction, don’t forget to consistently use the help system you have developed, otherwise children will ignore it and go back to interrupting your instruction. </li></ul>
    67. 81. 3 Before Me 1. Think to myself 2. Check the direction chart. 3. Ask a Classmate If you still need help clip your name to the chart for teacher help. In order to minimize interruptions during small group guided reading, children will need to know what to do if they need help. This technique is something I learned at an inservice I attended and it has worked well. Not only does it allow me time to work with my small groups, but it also makes students accountable for their learning.
    68. 82. <ul><li>Center Procedures For Children </li></ul><ul><li>Work Quietly. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay at your center. </li></ul><ul><li>Finish your work. </li></ul><ul><li>Clean up. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete center ticket. </li></ul><ul><li>Put your work in your center folder. </li></ul><ul><li>Fix or finish an old center. </li></ul><ul><li>Read a book from your book basket. </li></ul>
    69. 83. Teach Rules in the Context of Routines
    70. 84. Classroom Arrangement and Design: Traffic Patterns <ul><li>Minimize large open spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize obstacles and other hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the needs of children with physical and sensory disabilities </li></ul>
    71. 85. Environmental Support HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module
    72. 86. Classroom Arrangement and Design: Learning Centers <ul><li>Physical Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual prompts when centers are not an option </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate number of centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size and location of centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of children in centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization of materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of centers </li></ul></ul>
    73. 87. Classroom Arrangement and Design: Learning Centers <ul><li>Create meaningful and engaging learning centers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant to children’s needs, interests, and lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly engaging and interesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety of materials in each center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed and rotated on a regular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basis </li></ul></ul>
    74. 88. Create Meaningful and Engaging Learning Areas <ul><li>Stand in center of the room </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a clear entry to each center? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is each center inviting? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there enough materials (3 units of play per child allowed in center)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a system in place for entering and exiting centers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are centers and materials/shelves labeled? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a rotation of materials? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are materials highly engaging? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the activities relevant to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>children’s needs, interests and lives? </li></ul></ul>
    75. 89. How Can This Circle Area Be Improved?
    76. 90. Circle Time
    77. 91. Logan Square
    78. 92. Logan Square
    79. 93. Classroom Arrangement and Design Activity <ul><ul><ul><li>With a partner, sketch a classroom. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revise your sketch of the environment and then share major changes with other participants at the table. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask participants to think of one child who has more significant challenging behavior. What might need to be done to the environment to support that child? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For additional ideas, refer to the Inventory of Practices. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    80. 97. Teach with Visual Schedules
    81. 98. Sign Language! <ul><li>NO one can talk when they are upset!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Sign language helps children and their language development! </li></ul><ul><li>Give your child an alternative </li></ul>
    82. 99. Visual Object Schedule Change Diaper Wash Breakfast Music Use real objects.
    83. 100. Photograph Visual Schedule
    84. 101. Morning Meeting Mini-Schedule
    85. 103. 1. Turn on water. 2. Wet hands. 3. Get soap. 4. Rinse hands.
    86. 104. 5. Turn off water. 7. Throw away towel. 6. Dry hands. 8. Go play.
    87. 106. Activity Turn-Taking Cue
    88. 107. Activity Using Visual Schedules <ul><li>You say it’s time for circle. One little boy roams away from circle. When you try to guide him to circle, he drops to the ground and will not budge. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you use your visual schedule to teach? </li></ul></ul>
    89. 108. Activity Using Visual Schedules <ul><li>You announce that it’s time for centers and a girl runs to go out the door yelling “No! Play out!” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you use your visual schedule to teach? </li></ul></ul>
    90. 109. Activity Using Visual Schedules <ul><li>A child goes to play with her favorite train. When you go over to her and tell her it’s time for snack she starts screaming and throwing train pieces. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you use your visual schedule to teach? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What else might you be able to do/use to teach? </li></ul></ul>
    91. 110. Activity Using Visual Schedules <ul><li>A new little boy arrives in your classroom and he is very scared. When Mommy says bye, he screams, cries, pulls on her leg, and tries to climb up Mommy’s body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can you use your visual schedule to teach? </li></ul></ul>
    92. 111. Activity Using Visual Schedules <ul><li>Today you have scheduled water play outside. All of the children are excited and have been anticipating the outside fun all week. But we have been given a tornado warning and it’s raining, so there will be no outside fun today. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you teach using your visual schedule to prevent challenging behavior? </li></ul></ul>
    93. 112. Transitions <ul><li>Plan for transitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize the number of transitions that children have during the day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize the length of time children spend waiting with nothing to do. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare children for transitions by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing a warning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure the transitions so that children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have something to do while they wait. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach children the expectations related to transitions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualize supports and cues. </li></ul></ul>
    94. 113. Why is it important to address transitions between activities? <ul><li>Transitions take time </li></ul><ul><li>Children often spend a lot of time waiting </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions can be stressful and frustrating </li></ul><ul><li>Skills such as cleaning up may reduce transition times and may lead to more time for children to be engaged in activities </li></ul><ul><li>When children are taught what they &quot;should be doing,&quot; we are less likely to see problem behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Many preschool teachers consider children's ability to independently make transitions a key skill </li></ul>
    95. 114. Identify Transitions times in your classroom <ul><li>Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Time of the day </li></ul><ul><li>Transition between which activities </li></ul>8:20-8:25 Arrival from buses and go to classroom 8:25-8:30 Put away things in cubbies and come to circle
    96. 115. Strategies that support smooth transitions between activities <ul><li>Before the transition- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan your schedule to include a minimum number of transition times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider what the children and adults will do during these times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide verbal and nonverbal cues before transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach children the expectations for the routine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize the number of transitions in which all children have to do the same thing at the same time </li></ul></ul>
    97. 116. By building this puzzle on a tray, this child is able to put the puzzle away intact, and continue working on it at a later time. HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module
    98. 117. HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Environmental Support
    99. 119. How WE Wait –Mom/ Dad/Ya Ya!
    100. 120. Uptown! 1.Stand on a square 2.Stand behind a friend 3.Catch a bubble 4. Hold on to the railing
    101. 121. Strategies that support smooth transitions between activities <ul><li>During the transition- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sing songs, play word or guessing games, recite rhymes, or do finger plays with children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan a gradual increase or decrease in the level of activity and a good balance of active and quiet play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow children adequate time to finish activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan something for those children who finish an activity quickly so they are not waiting without something to do </li></ul></ul>
    102. 122. Strategies that support smooth transitions between activities <ul><li>After the transition- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide positive attention or feedback to children following smooth transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give very specific positive feedback after transitions </li></ul></ul>
    103. 123. Activity 3 <ul><li>Transition </li></ul><ul><li>Time of the day </li></ul><ul><li>Transition between which activities </li></ul>Strategies to use before the transition Strategies to use during the transition Strategies to use after the transition 8:20-8:25 Arrival from buses and go to the classroom Adult is present to greet and wait for students; prompt children to line up with a buddy Teacher guides discussion about things the children saw as they rode the bus to school Teacher gives the children a “high 5” as they enter the classroom
    104. 124. Video 1.2: Transitions to Centers
    105. 125. Video 1.3: Providing Individualized Transition Cues to Gabby
    106. 126. Transition with Visual and Timer
    107. 127. Transition with Visual
    108. 128. Transition with Choice
    109. 129. Choice Chart
    110. 130. Choice Chart
    111. 131. Transition with Visual Choice
    112. 132. Circle Time – Universal Design Environmental Support From: www.headstartinclusion.org
    113. 133. Circle Time Simplify the Activity From: www.headstartinclusion.org
    114. 134. Environmental Support HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module
    115. 135. HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module Counting card helps child count to 20 while waiting for a turn on the trampoline.
    116. 136. Environmental Support HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module
    117. 137. Environmental Support HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module
    118. 138. Child holds chart at circle time featuring reminders of expected behavior HSCI Curriculum Modifications Module
    119. 139. Transition with Center Necklaces
    120. 140. Teaching Children Expectations
    121. 141. Wet hands . Get soap . Wash hands . Dry hands . Throw away. 1 2 3 4 5 Washing Hands Activity Analysis Using Clip Art
    122. 145. Individual Schedule First Then
    123. 146. Large Group Activities <ul><li>Planning the activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be clear about the purpose and goals of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use circle time to teach new things </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementing the activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for all children to be actively involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign jobs to children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vary your speech and intonation patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have children lead activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay attention to children’s behavior </li></ul></ul>
    124. 147. Small Group Activities <ul><li>Importance of small group activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized attention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning and implementing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be clear about the goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use peers as models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure participation by all children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make them fun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide feedback throughout </li></ul></ul>
    125. 148. Schedule/Routine/Transition Activity <ul><li>Divide into groups of people who currently </li></ul><ul><li>work together. </li></ul><ul><li>Write down a schedule from one of the </li></ul><ul><li>participant’s classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the things we have just talked </li></ul><ul><li>about. What changes could you make in what you are currently doing that might increase engagement and prevent challenging behaviors? </li></ul><ul><li>Share your major changes with others at </li></ul><ul><li>your table and brainstorm possible solutions. </li></ul>
    126. 149. Giving Directions <ul><li>Make sure you have the children’s attention before you give the direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize the number of directions given to children. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualize the way directions are given. </li></ul><ul><li>Give clear directions. </li></ul>
    127. 150. Giving Directions <ul><li>Give directions that are positive. </li></ul><ul><li>Give children the opportunity to respond to a direction. </li></ul><ul><li>When appropriate, give the child choices and options for following directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow through with positive acknowledgment of children’s behavior. </li></ul>
    128. 151. General Guidelines About Rules <ul><li>Have a few simple classroom rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve the children in developing the rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Post the rules visually. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the rules systematically. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce the rules at high rates initially and at lower rates throughout the year. </li></ul>
    129. 152. Involving Children in Developing the Rules <ul><li>Have children help generate the rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the rule and have a child </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrate the rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the rule and have the children </li></ul><ul><li>identify the visuals that might go on a </li></ul><ul><li>poster. </li></ul><ul><li>Have children help decorate a rules </li></ul><ul><li>poster. </li></ul>
    130. 153. Circle Time Rules
    131. 154. Rules <ul><li>Should Address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement inside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions with peers </li></ul></ul>
    132. 155. Logan Sqaure
    133. 156. Video 1.5: Stop/Go Teaching Rules
    134. 157. Teach the Rules- Just like time tables! <ul><li>Telling a rule is different from teaching it </li></ul><ul><li>Use a variety of strategies and manipulatives to teach </li></ul><ul><li>It takes time to learn new things!!!! Practice often to maintain the skill </li></ul>
    135. 158. Rules Activity <ul><li>Develop a list of 3-5 rules you use or would use in a classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss these rules with others at the table. </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm fun and creative ways for teaching the rules. </li></ul>
    136. 159. Fun Ways to Reinforce the Rules <ul><li>Rules Bingo! </li></ul><ul><li>Make a big book about school rules </li></ul><ul><li>Homework– what are your rules at home? </li></ul><ul><li>Play “rule charades” </li></ul>
    137. 160. Video 1.6: Children Demonstrating Classroom Rules
    138. 162. Ongoing Monitoring and Positive Attention <ul><li>Give children attention when they </li></ul><ul><li>are engaging in appropriate behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor our behavior to ensure that we are spending more time using positive descriptive language and less time giving directions or correcting inappropriate behavior. </li></ul>
    139. 163. Positive Attention Activity <ul><li>Count the number of positive comments the teacher makes (and positive nonverbals). </li></ul><ul><li>Have a large group discussion about what types of comments and nonverbal behaviors the teacher exhibited. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate some ideas to help adults remain focused on the positive throughout the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage participants to include some of these ideas on their Action Planning Form. </li></ul>
    140. 164. Using Positive Feedback and Encouragement: 4 Principles <ul><li>Contingent on appropriate behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Conveyed with enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent on effort </li></ul>
    141. 170. Using Positive Feedback and Encouragement <ul><li>Remember to use nonverbal forms of positive feedback and encouragement. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualize use of positive feedback and encouragement based on children’s needs and preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage other adults and peers to use positive feedback and encouragement. </li></ul>
    142. 171. Increasing Positive Behaviors: Activity <ul><li>What are 3-5 behaviors you would like to see increase in your setting? </li></ul><ul><li>Review item 8 on the Inventory. </li></ul><ul><li>What changes might you make in your use of positive feedback and encouragement in order to increase the behaviors you just identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Add this to your Action Plan . </li></ul>
    143. 172. Sample Certificate SUPER FRIEND AWARD!!! This certificate is to certify that Marleco is a SUPER FRIEND!! Today, Marleco used his words to ask Malen nicely for a turn on the swing. When he was done swinging, he asked Malen if she wanted another turn and then helped to push her. At circle time, he gave his friend Cesar a compliment! YAY Marleco!! What a Super Friend you are!! Give yourself a pat on the back!! Signed by: Miss Gail & Mr. Jim Date: January 7, 2006
    144. 173. <ul><ul><ul><li>If there is anything that we wish to change in the child, we should first examine it and see whether it is not something that could better be changed in ourselves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carl Jung – psychiatrist </li></ul></ul></ul>
    145. 174. Major Messages <ul><li>The first and most important thing that we can do is to build positive relationships with every child and family. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on prevention and teaching appropriate skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting social emotional development is not easy. There are no quick fixes to challenging behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires a comprehensive approach that includes building relationships, evaluating our own classrooms and behaviors, and TEACHING . </li></ul>

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