First division of the trigeminal nerve.
Is a sensory nerve.
Smallest of the three divisions of the trigeminal.
Arises - upper part of the semi lunar ganglion as a short,
flattened band, passes forward along the lateral wall of the
• Before entering the orbit through superior orbital fissure, it
divides into three branches,
• Smallest of the three branches.
• Enters orbit through the narrowest part of the superior orbital
• In orbit - runs along the upper border of the lateral Rectus
with the lacrimal artery - communicates with the zygomatic
branch of the maxillary nerve.
• Enters the lacrimal gland - gives off several filaments, which
supply the gland and the conjunctiva.
• Finally - pierces the orbital septum - ends in the skin of the
upper eyelid, joining with filaments of the facial nerve.
OPHTHALMIC NERVE BRANCHES
B. Anterior Ethmoid
C. Posterior Ethmoid
• Largest branch of ophthalmic.
• Enters the orbit - superior orbital fissure and runs forward between the
Levator palpebræ superioris and the periosteum.
• Midway between the apex and base of the orbit it divides into two
• Smaller of the two .
Escapes from the orbit between the superior oblique and the supraorbital
Supplies - skin of the lower part of the forehead close to the middle
- sends filaments to the
conjunctiva and skin of
the upper eyelid.
• Passes - supraorbital foramen - gives off palpebral filaments to
the upper eyelid.
• Then ascends upon the forehead and ends in two branches
which supply the integument of the scalp,
reaching nearly as far back as the lambdoidal suture.
• Both branches supply small twigs to the pericranium.
• Intermediate in size b/w the frontal and lacrimal and is more
• Enters - orbit b/w the two heads of the lateral Rectus and
between the superior and inferior rami of the oculomotor
nerve -to medial wall of the orbital cavity.
• Passes through the anterior ethmoidal foramen and enters the
• Supplies - Internal nasal branches - to the mucous membrane
of the front part of the septum and lateral wall of the nasal
• Finally emerges as - external nasal branch b/w the lower
border of nasal bone and the lateral nasal cartilage - passing
down beneath the Nasalis muscle - supplies the skin of the ala
and apex of the nose.
• Branches of nasociliary
Long root of the ciliary ganglion
LONG ROOT OF CILIARY GANGLION:
• Supplies ciliary ganglion.
LONG CILIARY NERVE:
• Two or three in number
• Accompany the short ciliary nerves from the ciliary ganglion pierce the posterior part of the sclera and running forward b/w
it and the choroid - distributed to the iris and cornea.
• Given off from nasociliary just before it enters the anterior
• Runs forward along the upper border of the medial Rectus.
• Then passes to - medial angle of the eye.
• Supplies - skin of the eyelids and side of the nose,
- the conjunctiva,
- lacrimal sac, and
- caruncula lacrimalis.
• Supply the ethmoidal cells.
• Posterior branch leaves the orbital cavity through the posterior
ethmoidal foramen and gives some filaments to the sphenoidal
• Transmits sensory innervations from
Skin of upper face,
Lining of upper part of nasal cavity, air cells.
Meninges of anterior cranial fossa.
• Conveys parasympathetic fibers to the ciliary
and iris muscle for accommodation and pupillary
constriction and to the lacrimal gland.
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