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  1. 1. Cannabis
  2. 2. What is Cannabis Family: Cannabaceae Species: sativa, indica, ruderalis COMMON NAMES: Marijuana, Pot, Weed, Ganja, Mary Jane EFFECTS: Intoxicant, Stimulant, Psychedelic, Depressant DESCRIPTION: Cannabis, a fast-growing bushy annual with dense sticky flowers,produces the psychoactive THC. It is the most widely used illegal psychoactive and has a long history of medicinal, recreational, and industrial use. The fibrous stalks of the plant are used to produce clothing and rope but that is usually in reference to hemp.Cannabis is the scientific name for a herb that produces a psychotropic cannabinoidcalled THC along with an array of cannabinoids. It is the only plant in the world toproduce these chemicals, usually produced in humans and animals.
  3. 3. UsesCannabis sativa which is the larger species of cannabis, also known as hemp can beused for many things including Food and Nutrition Hempseeds and hemp oil are highly nutritious and delicious. Hempseeds are an excellent source of protein, minerals, and dietary fibre. Hemp is the only plant that contains all of the essential fatty acids and amino acids required by the human body., PaperHemp is an ideal material for making paper. It regenerates in the field in months (unlike trees which can take 30 years or more to become harvestable after planting.), PlasticMost plastic is made from fossil fuels using toxic chemicals. Almost everything we buy iswrapped in cellophane and our landfills are full of it. A variety of alternatives to plasticcan be made from hemp,Building MaterialsHemp based materials can replace wood and other materials used to build homes andother buildings including foundations, walls, shingles, paneling, pipes, and paint,Fuel, drugs, Fabric, Textiles, and Rope
  4. 4. HistoryCannabis is indigenous to Central and South Asia. Evidence of the inhalation of cannabissmoke can be found in the 3rd millennium BCE, as indicated by charred cannabis seedsfound in a ritual brazier at an ancient burial site in present day Romania.Cannabis was also known to the ancient Assyrians, who discovered its psychoactiveproperties through the Aryans. Using it in some religious ceremonies, they called itqunubu (meaning "way to produce smoke"), a probable origin of the modern word"cannabis". Cannabis was also introduced by the Aryans to the Scythians, Thracians andDacians, whose shamans (the kapnobatai—"those who walk on smoke/clouds") burnedcannabis flowers to induce a state of trance.Cannabis has an ancient history of ritual use and is found in pharmacological cultsaround the world. Hemp seeds discovered by archaeologists at Pazyryk suggest earlyceremonial practices like eating by the Scythians occurred during the 5th to 2nd centuryBCE, confirming previous historical reports by Herodotus. One writer has claimed thatcannabis was used as a religious sacrament by ancient Jews and early Christiansdue tothe similarity between the Hebrew word "qannabbos" ("cannabis") and the Hebrewphrase "qené bósem" ("aromatic cane"). It was used by Muslims in various Sufi ordersas early as the Mamluk period.A study published in the South African Journal of Science showed that "pipes dug upfrom the garden of Shakespeares home in Stratford-upon-Avon contain traces ofcannabis. The chemical analysis was carried out after researchers hypothesized that the"noted weed" mentioned in Sonnet 76 and the "journey in my head" from Sonnet 27could be references to cannabis and the use thereof.Cannabis was criminalized in various countries beginning in the early 20th century. Inthe United States, the first restrictions for sale of cannabis came in 1906. It wasoutlawed in South Africa in 1911, in Jamaica (then a British colony) in 1913 and in the
  5. 5. United Kingdom and New Zealand in the 1920s. Canada criminalized cannabis in theOpium and Drug Act of 1923, before any reports of use of the drug in Canada.In 1937 in the United States, the Marihuana Tax Act was passed, and prohibited theproduction of hemp in addition to cannabis. The reasons that hemp was also included inthis law are disputed. Some scholars believe the Act was passed in order to destroy thehemp industry, largely as an effort of businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst,and the Du Pont family. Hemp became a very cheap substitute for the paper pulp thatwas used in the newspaper industry. Hearst felt that this was a threat to his extensivetimber holdings. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America,had invested heavily in the DuPonts new synthetic fiber, nylon, and considered itssuccess to depend on its replacement of the traditional resource, hemp. (Chinese character "ma" for hemp.)
  6. 6. Cannabis a drug?Medical uses-Cannabis used medically has several documented beneficial effects including;prevention of nausea and vomiting, stimulation of hunger in chemotherapy and AIDSpatients, lowered intraocular eye pressure (effective for treating glaucoma), as well asgeneral analgesic effects (pain reliever)Less confirmed individual studies also have been conducted indicating cannabis to bebeneficial to a gamut of conditions running from multiple sclerosis to depression.Synthesized cannabinoids are also sold as prescription drugs, including Marinol andCesametrecreational drug-Cannabis has psychoactive and physiological effects when consumed. The minimumamount of THC required to have a perceptible psychoactive effect is about 10micrograms per kilogram of body weight. The most common short-term physical andneurological effects include increased heart rate, lowered blood pressure, impairment ofshort-term and working memory, psychomotor coordination, and concentration. Long-term effects are less clear.Overdose from cannabis is extremely rare. Due to the fact that it takes 40,000 timesthe amount of THC required to intoxicate someone, to kill them. Compared to alcohol, itonly takes about 5 to 10 times the amount of alcohol required to intoxicate, to be fatal.For example, if it requires 3 beers to intoxicate you, it only requires 15 to 30 beers tokill you. However, if it takes you 3 hits of marijuana to intoxicate you, it would require120,000 hits to kill you. Thus, it is basically impossible to die of a marijuana overdose(you would probably die from lack of oxygen first).Psychoactive effects:Most psychoactive drugs fall into the category of stimulant, depressant, or hallucinogen,cannabis exhibits a mix of all properties, though mostly hallucinogenic or psychedelic.Cannabis is ranked one of the least harmful drugs by a study published in the UKmedical journal, The Lancet.
  7. 7. Forms:Unprocessed- Dried CannabisThe terms cannabis or marijuana usually refer to the dried flowers, leaves and stems ofthe female cannabis plant. This is the most commonly consumed form, containing 3%to 22% THC. In contrast, cannabis varieties used to produce industrial hemp containless than 1% THC and are thus not valued for recreational use.Processed-Kief is a powder, rich in trichomes, which can be sifted from the leaves and flowers ofcannabis plants and either consumed in powder form or compressed to produce cakesof hashish.Hashish- (or hash) is a concentrated resin produced from the flowers of the femalecannabis plant. Hash can often be more potent than marijuana. It varies in color fromblack to golden brown depending upon purity.
  8. 8. Hash oilHash oil is a mix of essential oils and resins extracted from mature cannabis plant. Ithas a high proportion of cannabinoids (ranging from 40 to 90%).and is used in a varietyof cannabis foods.