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SPEECH
  COM-143
SPEECH
  COM-143




            "Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far"

                                  ...
SPEECH
  COM-143




            "Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far"

                                  ...
The Rhetorical
  Situation
The Rhetorical
        Situation

• The condition in which human
  understanding can be changed through
  messages.
"Unlike great dramatic or literary works, which speak to the ages, the
principle test of a good speech is whether it respo...
Audience-
those who are listening to your speech
Audience-
    those who are listening to your speech


•   Factors in assessing the audience:
Audience-
    those who are listening to your speech


•   Factors in assessing the audience:

    •   Demographics-statis...
Audience-
    those who are listening to your speech


•   Factors in assessing the audience:

    •   Demographics-statis...
Audience-
    those who are listening to your speech


•   Factors in assessing the audience:

    •   Demographics-statis...
Audience-
    those who are listening to your speech


•   Factors in assessing the audience:

    •   Demographics-statis...
Audience-
    those who are listening to your speech


•   Factors in assessing the audience:

    •   Demographics-statis...
•   Demographics   (continued)
•   Demographics         (continued)
    •   cultural diversity
•   Demographics         (continued)
    •   cultural diversity

    •   racial background
•   Demographics         (continued)
    •   cultural diversity

    •   racial background

    •   economic and social st...
•   Demographics         (continued)
    •   cultural diversity

    •   racial background

    •   economic and social st...
•   Demographics         (continued)
    •   cultural diversity

    •   racial background

    •   economic and social st...
•   It is also meaningful to consider the attitudes, beliefs and
    values of the audience that constitute the frame of r...
The occasion encompasses the time,
place, medium and purpose for a speech
The occasion encompasses the time,
place, medium and purpose for a speech

• Ceremonial
The occasion encompasses the time,
place, medium and purpose for a speech

• Ceremonial
 •   Speaking that focuses on the ...
The occasion encompasses the time,
place, medium and purpose for a speech

• Ceremonial
 •   Speaking that focuses on the ...
The occasion encompasses the time,
place, medium and purpose for a speech

• Ceremonial
 •   Speaking that focuses on the ...
The occasion encompasses the time,
place, medium and purpose for a speech

• Ceremonial
    •   Speaking that focuses on t...
The occasion encompasses the time,
place, medium and purpose for a speech

• Ceremonial
    •   Speaking that focuses on t...
The Speaker-                      The same speech delivered
 by different speakers can produce quite different results
The Speaker-                       The same speech delivered
  by different speakers can produce quite different results

...
The Speaker-                       The same speech delivered
  by different speakers can produce quite different results

...
The Speaker-                       The same speech delivered
  by different speakers can produce quite different results

...
The Speaker-                       The same speech delivered
  by different speakers can produce quite different results

...
The speech itself -contributes to
      the rhetorical situation
The speech itself -contributes to
        the rhetorical situation

• effective organization
The speech itself -contributes to
        the rhetorical situation

• effective organization
• interesting examples
The speech itself -contributes to
        the rhetorical situation

• effective organization
• interesting examples
• memo...
The speech itself -contributes to
       the rhetorical situation

• effective organization
• interesting examples
• memor...
Constraints and
Opportunities
Constraints and
    Opportunities
• Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker.
Constraints and
    Opportunities
• Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker.
 • physical properties of the room
Constraints and
    Opportunities
• Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker.
 • physical properties of the room
 • the ...
Constraints and
    Opportunities
• Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker.
 • physical properties of the room
 • the ...
Constraints and
     Opportunities
• Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker.
 • physical properties of the room
 • the...
Constraints and
     Opportunities
• Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker.
 • physical properties of the room
 • the...
A major mission:
A major mission:


• devise a strategy for your speech which will
  respond to constraints and take advantage
  of the opp...
Some thoughtful, constructive comments......
Some thoughtful, constructive comments......
I believe Miss Teen South Carolina was completely unprepared for the question...
Some thoughtful, constructive comments......
Some thoughtful, constructive question, I believe
“Regarding Miss South Carolina's answer to the
                         ...
Some thoughtful, constructive comments......
Some thoughtful, constructive comments......

 “Several different mistakes were made by Miss South
 Carolina apart from th...
In your group, briefly analyze the Rhetorical
Situation as it pertains to Miss South Carolina
Miscommunication


• An error in the imparting or exchanging of
  information.
Miscommunication
•   Analyze and discuss the miscommunication suggested
    in the comic.

•   Summarize the miscommunicat...
Assignment


• Read Chapter 2 of text
• Define three potential topics for a one point
  speech. (in writing)
Speech Class #2 09 Copy
Speech Class #2 09 Copy
Speech Class #2 09 Copy
Speech Class #2 09 Copy
Speech Class #2 09 Copy
Speech Class #2 09 Copy
Speech Class #2 09 Copy
Speech Class #2 09 Copy
Speech Class #2 09 Copy
Speech Class #2 09 Copy
Speech Class #2 09 Copy
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  • Transcript of "Speech Class #2 09 Copy"

    1. 1. SPEECH COM-143
    2. 2. SPEECH COM-143 "Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far" -Theodore Roosevelt, Jr (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) Twenty-sixth President of the United States
    3. 3. SPEECH COM-143 "Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far" -Theodore Roosevelt, Jr (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) Twenty-sixth President of the United States
    4. 4. The Rhetorical Situation
    5. 5. The Rhetorical Situation • The condition in which human understanding can be changed through messages.
    6. 6. "Unlike great dramatic or literary works, which speak to the ages, the principle test of a good speech is whether it responds most effectively to the needs of the situation in which it is given." David F. Zarefsky
    7. 7. Audience- those who are listening to your speech
    8. 8. Audience- those who are listening to your speech • Factors in assessing the audience:
    9. 9. Audience- those who are listening to your speech • Factors in assessing the audience: • Demographics-statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it
    10. 10. Audience- those who are listening to your speech • Factors in assessing the audience: • Demographics-statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it • age
    11. 11. Audience- those who are listening to your speech • Factors in assessing the audience: • Demographics-statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it • age • sex
    12. 12. Audience- those who are listening to your speech • Factors in assessing the audience: • Demographics-statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it • age • sex • family affiliation
    13. 13. Audience- those who are listening to your speech • Factors in assessing the audience: • Demographics-statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it • age • sex • family affiliation • sexual orientation
    14. 14. • Demographics (continued)
    15. 15. • Demographics (continued) • cultural diversity
    16. 16. • Demographics (continued) • cultural diversity • racial background
    17. 17. • Demographics (continued) • cultural diversity • racial background • economic and social standing
    18. 18. • Demographics (continued) • cultural diversity • racial background • economic and social standing • political identification
    19. 19. • Demographics (continued) • cultural diversity • racial background • economic and social standing • political identification • religious or philosophical orientation
    20. 20. • It is also meaningful to consider the attitudes, beliefs and values of the audience that constitute the frame of reference members of the audience bring to the situation: • An attitude is the predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward a topic. • A belief is a position or standard that audience members hold as valid or truthful. • A value is a deeply seated attitude commonly rooted in core beliefs, usually about the intrinsic worth of something.
    21. 21. The occasion encompasses the time, place, medium and purpose for a speech
    22. 22. The occasion encompasses the time, place, medium and purpose for a speech • Ceremonial
    23. 23. The occasion encompasses the time, place, medium and purpose for a speech • Ceremonial • Speaking that focuses on the present and is usually concerned with praise.
    24. 24. The occasion encompasses the time, place, medium and purpose for a speech • Ceremonial • Speaking that focuses on the present and is usually concerned with praise. • Forensic
    25. 25. The occasion encompasses the time, place, medium and purpose for a speech • Ceremonial • Speaking that focuses on the present and is usually concerned with praise. • Forensic • Speaking that focuses on the past and is usually concerned with justice.
    26. 26. The occasion encompasses the time, place, medium and purpose for a speech • Ceremonial • Speaking that focuses on the present and is usually concerned with praise. • Forensic • Speaking that focuses on the past and is usually concerned with justice. • Deliberative
    27. 27. The occasion encompasses the time, place, medium and purpose for a speech • Ceremonial • Speaking that focuses on the present and is usually concerned with praise. • Forensic • Speaking that focuses on the past and is usually concerned with justice. • Deliberative • Speaking that focuses on the future and is usually concerned with what should be done.
    28. 28. The Speaker- The same speech delivered by different speakers can produce quite different results
    29. 29. The Speaker- The same speech delivered by different speakers can produce quite different results • The speaker’s interest and credibility (ethos) in the subject through:
    30. 30. The Speaker- The same speech delivered by different speakers can produce quite different results • The speaker’s interest and credibility (ethos) in the subject through: • voice
    31. 31. The Speaker- The same speech delivered by different speakers can produce quite different results • The speaker’s interest and credibility (ethos) in the subject through: • voice • delivery
    32. 32. The Speaker- The same speech delivered by different speakers can produce quite different results • The speaker’s interest and credibility (ethos) in the subject through: • voice • delivery • imagery
    33. 33. The speech itself -contributes to the rhetorical situation
    34. 34. The speech itself -contributes to the rhetorical situation • effective organization
    35. 35. The speech itself -contributes to the rhetorical situation • effective organization • interesting examples
    36. 36. The speech itself -contributes to the rhetorical situation • effective organization • interesting examples • memorable phrases
    37. 37. The speech itself -contributes to the rhetorical situation • effective organization • interesting examples • memorable phrases • enthusiasm/commitment
    38. 38. Constraints and Opportunities
    39. 39. Constraints and Opportunities • Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker.
    40. 40. Constraints and Opportunities • Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker. • physical properties of the room
    41. 41. Constraints and Opportunities • Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker. • physical properties of the room • the make-up of the audience
    42. 42. Constraints and Opportunities • Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker. • physical properties of the room • the make-up of the audience • the occasion, itself
    43. 43. Constraints and Opportunities • Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker. • physical properties of the room • the make-up of the audience • the occasion, itself • Opportunities- a set of circumstances that makes it possible to do something
    44. 44. Constraints and Opportunities • Constraint- limitation placed on a speaker. • physical properties of the room • the make-up of the audience • the occasion, itself • Opportunities- a set of circumstances that makes it possible to do something • a chance to promote a message of importance
    45. 45. A major mission:
    46. 46. A major mission: • devise a strategy for your speech which will respond to constraints and take advantage of the opportunities
    47. 47. Some thoughtful, constructive comments......
    48. 48. Some thoughtful, constructive comments...... I believe Miss Teen South Carolina was completely unprepared for the question. Some parts of her answer lead me to think that she may not have heard or understood the question properly. Instead of focusing on the fact that 1/5 of Americans can't find the US on a world map, she began bringing South Africa and "the" Iraq into the answer. I'm not really sure why, but she completely strayed from the question. The only part of the answer that had anything to do with the question was the word "education." Maybe she was frantically searching for an answer, and used the words "education," "South Africa," and "Iraq," to compare the level of education between the countries. Maybe, on the other hand, she was reaching for some kind of information to cover the fact that she had no idea how to respond. If I were coaching her, I would tell her that throwing words around to mask the fact that she didn't know what to say, is a terrible choice. Honesty would've probably suited her better. It appears that she also allowed the pressure to really get to her. She tried to recover by tossing in a completely miss-placed "such as." In order to buy her a little time, she could've asked to have the question repeated (even if she initially heard it). Hindsight is 20/20, though, so I honestly couldn't be so sure that I would've been any better than her at answering the question on the spot. With time to compose my thoughts, however, this is my answer: "One-fifth of Americans are most likely unable to locate the US on a world map, because simplicities such as these are frequently overlooked in the education process. Students are allowed to forget--or not learn at all-- these facts, and are, instead, pushed to focus on advanced mathematics, sciences, and the like, in order to compete with other countries' educational systems and progress. Apparently, only a small percent of high school seniors are able to pass the United States Citizenship Test. Why is that? Probably the same reason they are unable to locate the US on a world map." JS
    49. 49. Some thoughtful, constructive comments......
    50. 50. Some thoughtful, constructive question, I believe “Regarding Miss South Carolina's answer to the comments...... one of the explanations was that she was confused on the question. She should have asked to repeat the question. However, I believe she felt pressured to answer the question being in front of thousands and having the camera pointing toward her. Another thing she could have done to save herself, was to take a deep breath and go over in her mind on what the question was asking for. Taking a moment to go over your thoughts can save you from "uhs" and "ums". One of Miss South Carolina's mistakes was that she went from one idea to the next. She should have talked about one idea at a time. After supporting one idea, she then could have moved on to the next. Another mistake I believe that Miss South Carolina did was instead of finishing her sentences, and the answer all together, she ended with incomplete sentences. She should have stopped and collected her thoughts, and then proceede d. In the end, I believe Miss South Carolina's problem was that nervousness took over her ability to make a speech. She needed to remember that although she was nervous, taking your time instead of throwing out words can save you from a speech disaster like this.” JM
    51. 51. Some thoughtful, constructive comments......
    52. 52. Some thoughtful, constructive comments...... “Several different mistakes were made by Miss South Carolina apart from the obvious witch was answering the question correctly. I personally feel that many times people who know that they will be asked to speak publicly prepare themselves with a few key talking points. In this situation she already had rehearsed points, which she confused because she did not take a pause to analyze the question and put it into context. This would have given her the time to gather thoughts and ideas.” JG
    53. 53. In your group, briefly analyze the Rhetorical Situation as it pertains to Miss South Carolina
    54. 54. Miscommunication • An error in the imparting or exchanging of information.
    55. 55. Miscommunication • Analyze and discuss the miscommunication suggested in the comic. • Summarize the miscommunication in a sentence or two on the back of your sheet. • Share your own examples of miscommunication. • Summarize these on the back of your sheet. • Each group member should sign the sheet. • Prepare to share your conclusions with the rest of the class.
    56. 56. Assignment • Read Chapter 2 of text • Define three potential topics for a one point speech. (in writing)
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