Synergies between climate change
mitigation and adaptation: A landscape
perspective
Lalisa A. Duguma
World Agroforestry Ce...
Outline
 Adaptation and mitigation in the current climate change
dialogues and actions
 Limitations of the current appro...
Evolution of the approaches to address
climate change measures
Knowledge about Climate change

Synergy
MITI

ADA

ADA

ADA...
Adaptation and mitigation so far seen as:
a) Separate policy streams
- Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA), R...
Limitations of the approaches used so far
1) Inadequate (Klein et al. 2007)
2) Concerns of inefficiency [↑ cost of climate...
The Synergy Concept
Synergy is the interaction or cooperation of two or
more organizations, substances, or other agents to...
For synergy to happen….
Resource relatedness: common resources and
activities. For example, between mitigation and
adaptat...
Why synergy is important in the land
use sector
At operational scales (e.g. landscapes), synergy 1. Increases linkages bet...
Mitigation and adaptation linkages at
landscape level
Reduced deforestation and
forest degradation [M]

Improved adaptive
...
A case study from Shinyanga
landscapes, Tanzania
Understanding the context and the history of the
landscape (Step 1)
General Features
• 600-800 mm RF
• Semiarid
• Agropast...
Identifying the practices (step 2) and understanding the
processes and impact pathways (step 3)
Practice 6: Fodder
banks [...
Realizing the values (Step 4): Social, environmental,
livelihood benefits …

Other ES benefits
Hydrological
functions: Dam...
Key enabling conditions
1. Supportive national policies and strategies including
political will and support to link landsc...
Some key reflections
• Our preliminary assessment reveals that synergy
enhances the effectiveness and efficiency of climat...
Thank You!
Acknowledgement of
contributors:
- Peter A Minang
- Meine van Noordwijk
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Synergies between mitigation and adaptation..ppt glf nov 16

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There is growing recognition of the potential for jointly achieving climate change mitigation and adaptation through land management. Landscape approaches to enhancing multi-functionality have been identified as a promising pathway to synergies between mitigation and adaptation besides helping achieve other livelihood needs through ecosystem services and functions provision. This presentation explores what is known and gaps in understanding of synergies and trade-offs. It also explores the necessary enabling conditions that help promote synergies in order to realize the benefits of the approach. We build on an ex-post analysis of the Ngitili systems in Tanzania and selected examples from agroforestry practices to inform the discussion.

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Synergies between mitigation and adaptation..ppt glf nov 16

  1. 1. Synergies between climate change mitigation and adaptation: A landscape perspective Lalisa A. Duguma World Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) & ASB Partnership for Tropical Forest Margins GLF Discussion Forum 16-17 November 2013 Warsaw Poland
  2. 2. Outline  Adaptation and mitigation in the current climate change dialogues and actions  Limitations of the current approaches  The synergy concept  Mitigation and adaptation linkages at landscape level  Case study  Assessing the progress towards synergy: the enabling conditions  Some reflections on the way forward
  3. 3. Evolution of the approaches to address climate change measures Knowledge about Climate change Synergy MITI ADA ADA ADA MITI MITI MITI Complementarity ADA era MITI ADA MITI MITI MITI ADA Mitigation era ADA MITI Separate measures ADA MITI Time and scope MITI ADA MITI ADA MITI Separate measures MITI Synergy Complementarity ADA MITI MITI ADA MITI MITI [SYS] ADA ADA MITI [SYS] ADA ADA MITI 2013 Complementarity Time Time and scope Synergy
  4. 4. Adaptation and mitigation so far seen as: a) Separate policy streams - Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA), REDD+ - National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) b) Separate roles of different institutions - Adaptation: e.g. Ministry of Environment - Mitigation: e.g. Ministries in charge of Forestry, Energy, … c) Separate financing schemes - Adaptation: e.g. Adaptation fund, ….. - Mitigation: e.g. REDD+ funds, etc… 1. How effective and efficient are the approaches so far taken looking at the dynamics of elements and processes in tropical and subtropical landscapes? 2. Are such approaches the only option?
  5. 5. Limitations of the approaches used so far 1) Inadequate (Klein et al. 2007) 2) Concerns of inefficiency [↑ cost of climate policy] (Kane and Yohe 2000) 1) Activity duplication e.g. in Tanzania there is an overlap of 60% between in activities in REDD+ strategies and NAPA activities. 3) ↑ Competition for resources b/n M & A (Tol 2005) 4) Mask the apparent potentials of practices that provide both M and A benefits
  6. 6. The Synergy Concept Synergy is the interaction or cooperation of two or more organizations, substances, or other agents to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate effects”. [Oxford dictionary] Three main goals of pursuing synergy 1. Increases effectiveness 2. Minimizes costs (enhances efficiency) 3. Reduces risks to ensure continuity and become resilient to shocks
  7. 7. For synergy to happen…. Resource relatedness: common resources and activities. For example, between mitigation and adaptation: Land Land resources management activities Skills and know-hows of NRM Similar goal – reducing the impacts of climate Resource complementarity change – The increase in one resource increases the return to the other resource (Harrison et al 2001).
  8. 8. Why synergy is important in the land use sector At operational scales (e.g. landscapes), synergy 1. Increases linkages between climate change and sustainable development objectives. 2. Helps to understand and value the interconnections between practices and processes at landscape level 3. Helps to bring together actors and stakeholders active at landscape level. At a global level, synergy may 1. Enhance the engagement of developing countries in mitigation efforts 2. Enhance the engagement of developed countries in adaptation efforts in the south. 3. Enable making climate policy cost effective.
  9. 9. Mitigation and adaptation linkages at landscape level Reduced deforestation and forest degradation [M] Improved adaptive capacity of the society [A] Improved livelihood [A] Less GHG emission [M] Improved agricultural productivity [A] Land resources management Enhanced ecosystem services provision [A+M] Biodiversity conservation [A] Soil and water conservation [A +M] Agroforestry [M + A] Sustainable forest management [M + A] Avoidance of soil carbon stock loss [M] Enhances carbon sinks [M] Afforestation and reforestation [M] In tropical landscapes, if we fail in ADAPTATION, we may not achieve MITIGATION and the vice versa.
  10. 10. A case study from Shinyanga landscapes, Tanzania
  11. 11. Understanding the context and the history of the landscape (Step 1) General Features • 600-800 mm RF • Semiarid • Agropastoral communities • „The desert of Tanzania‟ The measures taken • Ecosystem restoration by • Using local practices complementing it with • New practices e.g. agroforestry The drivers of change • Woodland clearance due to Tse Tse fly • Expansion of cotton farms • Climate change • Villagization The threats • Drought • Ecosystem degradation • Wood, food and feed scarcity • Perishing social and
  12. 12. Identifying the practices (step 2) and understanding the processes and impact pathways (step 3) Practice 6: Fodder banks [M+A] Practice 7: Livestock rearing [A-M] Household consumables and livestock products increased [A] Abundant livestock feed and thus enhanced productivity Practice 1: Ngitili [M+A] Less dependence on Practice 2 (Cotton farming) and Practice 3 (maize and sorghum farming) [A-M] Better vegetation cover in the area due to reduced forest clearance [M+A] Income from grazing contracts and carbon money from pilot REDD+ projects Improved ecosystem services provision [A+M] Edible wild fruits, edible insects, herbal traditional medicines Improved honey production Better habitat for wildlife [A] Enhanced carbon storage [M] Sufficient wood for energy and construction Practice 4: Agroforestry [A+M] Enhanced water availability both for household use and livestock [A] Reduced land degradation through control of wind and water erosion [A+M]
  13. 13. Realizing the values (Step 4): Social, environmental, livelihood benefits … Other ES benefits Hydrological functions: Dam construction and water management (“Water markets”) Soil management: Erosion control SOM build-up Economic values (Monela et al. 2005) Per capita economic value : 168 USD /year Rural per capita expenditure : 102 USD /year Carbon sequestration 1986 - 611 ha (27428 t C) 2005 - 377756 ha (16,957,467 t C)
  14. 14. Key enabling conditions 1. Supportive national policies and strategies including political will and support to link landscape level interventions with national level processes 2. Long-term commitment for technical and financial support for the programmes (e.g. NORAD for the HASHI programme in Shinyanga) 3. Blending of local knowledge and practices with complementary technologies e.g. Ngitili and agroforestry woodlots and fertilizer tree systems
  15. 15. Some key reflections • Our preliminary assessment reveals that synergy enhances the effectiveness and efficiency of climate actions. • Policy and financing mechanisms need a paradigm shift to address synergy as an important component of climate policy. Such interventions should be happening at all scales. • To assess how synergy performs there is a need to develop the appropriate metrics that can help the implementation schemes and guide policy and decision making processes. • More work needs to be done in exploring practices that demonstrate synergy to provide a robust evidence for policy makers.
  16. 16. Thank You! Acknowledgement of contributors: - Peter A Minang - Meine van Noordwijk
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