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Sbsta 38 side event on non market based approaches final (nx power lite)

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Agroforestry systems can deliver a multitude of benefits (market and non market) simultaneously Change processes need to empower the people most affected if they are to be sustainable We must embrace ...

Agroforestry systems can deliver a multitude of benefits (market and non market) simultaneously Change processes need to empower the people most affected if they are to be sustainable We must embrace complexity and diversity

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    Sbsta 38 side event on non market based approaches final (nx power lite) Sbsta 38 side event on non market based approaches final (nx power lite) Presentation Transcript

    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Can PES secure livelihoods andecosystems?Ravi PrabhuWorld Agroforestry Centre(ICRAF)Based on material provided by ICRAF’s ASB,landscape and PES teams
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Key pointsPayments can work, co-investment often worksbetterMarkets are part of the solution, not the wholesolutionPut local communities squarely in the centre ofall initiativesSolutions need to be sensitive to nested scales –from plot through landscape to continentConsidering the whole system is the onlyguarantee
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Change is rapid and pervasive
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Soil Organic Carbon in the Mau Forest of Kenya
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Soil Organic Carbon in the Mau Forest of Kenya
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Agrarian dynamics: stages & trajectories
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Agriculture and other uses have to beseen as part of a LandscapePractices andactivities will bepart of landscapesand competeagainst other landuses. Hence trade-offs and synergiesneed to beunderstood.
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Mosaic Landscapes in Indonesia and Kenya:The dominant reality
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013What constitutes LandscapeApproaches?Heterogeneity (Mosaic ofLanduses)Integration• Synergies, trade-offs• Multiple sectors,participants• CSA vs REDD vs NAMA vs …• Multiple practices• Mitigation and adaptationScale• Appropriate Scale?• Multiple scales (3 nestedscales)• What problem?Why?For Analyzing andUnderstanding REDD+For Planning andImplementing REDD+,CSA and adaptationMost experience• Geography• Biodiversity conservation• Water management….
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Where we work:
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 20132005:• Introduction of strict and normative definition of PES:• voluntary scheme• involving at least one ES buyer and one seller• with conditionality: only and if only the seller provides ES provisionas stated in a contractual agreement with the buyer.• Emphasizing in effectiveness and efficiency of PES in providing ES• Excluding the poverty alleviation issue (because it reduces theeffectiveness of the scheme)• Monetizing ES• Giving monetary value to ES• Transferring some money from ES beneficiaries (which assumedhaving willingness and ability to pay) to ES providers for offsettingtheir full opportunity and transaction costs.
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Preconditions forapplication of the PESconcept with strictconditionality are not metin many developingcountries’ contexts and awider PES interpretationis needed.Outcome based paymentscan shift risk to the poor -Sumberjaya1Method:Implementing and analyzingaction research and learningsites in AsiaObserving the implementationof PES elsewhereBroad paradigms of PES
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Only under specificcircumstances, will cashincentives from PEScontribute substantially toincrease disposable incomeand alleviate poverty of ESproviders.2Method:• Analyzing downstream/upstreamproportion of area, income,population density, transaction cost,opportunity cost and willingness topay of beneficiaries• Calculating minimum proportions forRES value for increasing at least 5%of upstream incomeBalance of fairness andefficiency in PES scoping anddesign
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Indirect non-financial benefitat community scalecontributes to reducingpoverty or a common-goodsPES design (Pascual et al.2010)Bakun HEP royalty benefit-transfer to local indigenous groupKulekhani Watershed - 12%Government royalty collectedfrom Hydropower generationchanneled back to the district3Method:• Organizing a series of focusgroup discussions with 534respondents in Indonesia, thePhilippines and Nepal• Discussing with potential ESproviders the expectedpayment/rewards for ES basedon five livelihood capitalsBalance of fairness andefficiency in PES scoping anddesign
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013A PES procurementcontract auctionincreases efficiency ofPES contract allocation.Specific elements ofprocurement auctionhave to be designed andadministered for fairnessof farmers with lowformal education, proneto social conflicts andinfluenced by powerstructures within theircommunity4Method:• Designing a reverse auction forreducing sedimentation• Calculating the value of willingnessto accept for a conservationcontract• Testing a contract for a PESmechanism for 1 yearBalance of fairness andefficiency in PES scoping anddesign
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Reducing discrepanciesand improving synergiesof ecological knowledge ofall actors in PES balanceefficiency and fairness of aPES scheme.5Method:• Applying Rapid HydrologicalAssessment of ICRAF SEA and• Analysing its implications to PESschemes at each siteBalance of fairness andefficiency in PES scoping anddesign
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Risks of PES not being pro-poorPRICE SETTING: opportunity costsunderestimated in Willingness to AcceptauctionsLOW WILLINGNESS TO PAY• Low private sector coverage• High policy-driven levies and fees• Limited legal mandateHIGH TRANSACTION COSTS
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Principles of Fairness and EfficiencyPayment, Compensation or Co-investment?• Lack of money available for conservation fund• Paying local communities undermining social norms• Social jealousy of non-participants – no multipliereffects of the payment• Lack of scientific skills, institutional capacities, datafor ES monitoring• Is the strict definition of PES still relevant?• A‘PES-like’ term in existence• Should we include fairness as an additional principle to PESefficiency?• How to respond it positively?Wunder (2005)2010: case studies showing the application of strict conditionality of PES andmonetization of ES not working
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Pro-poor designand benefitsFree and priorinformed consentEfficiency FairnessBalancing act is neededAdapted from van Noordwijk et al (2011)ES ProvisionsandEnvironmentalGoal
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Commoditized Environmental ServicesDirect interaction ES providers &beneficiariesRecurrent monetary paymentsCo-Investment in(landscape) StewardshipA flexible contract with broadsanctionsEntrust resource management tolocal communitiesBased on management plan highsocial capitalRewards are too small and abroader outlook of PESmechanisms is necessary
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013CES: CommoditizedEnvironmentalServicesDirect interaction ESproviders &beneficiariesRecurrent monetarypayments: supply anddemandNo explicit povertytargetActual ES delivery &direct marketability:Conditionality Level ICOS: Compensating forOpportunities SkippedPaying for acceptingrestrictionsAchievement of acondition of (agro)-ecosystem or effort (orrestrictions in inputuse).Poverty target addedwith certain conditionsConditionality Level II/IIICIS: Co-Investment in(landscape)StewardshipEntrust the localresource managementFull trust ofmanagement plan&local monitoring withhigh social capital levelA flexible contract,broad sanctions and amonitoring requirementConditionality Level IVvan Noordwijk and Leimona
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013Way forwardMinimum set of Indicators and metrics for multi-functional landscapes (productivity and functionaleco-efficiency)Balancing design and emergent properties insustainable landscapesEnhancing Investment mechanisms for multi-functionality (from local people through privatesector investments, PES bundling and stacking asoptions, sustained government investments)
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013ConclusionsAgroforestry systems can deliver a multitudeof benefits (market and non market)simultaneouslyChange processes need to empower thepeople most affected if they are to besustainableWe must embrace complexity and diversity
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013WWW.ASB.CGIAR.ORGThank you!
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) is aCGIAR Consortium Research CentreVision: rural transformation in the developingworld using trees in agric. landscapes toimprove smallholder householdsMission: Generate science-based knowledgeabout the diverse roles that trees play inagricultural landscapes, and to use its researchto advance policies and practices, and theirimplementation, that benefit the poor and theenvironment
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013About ASBWhat is ASB?• Consortium of over 50 Institutions (International, Universities and National)created in 1994• Research on Forest-Agriculture-Environment interactions along tropical forestmarginsGoal• To raise productivity and income of rural households in the humid tropicswithout increasing deforestation or undermining essential environmentalservices.Research Programmes• Landscape approaches to REDD+, Reducing Emissions from All Land Use- REALU• Synergies between Mitigation & Adaptation for Rural Transformations 2-SMART• Swiddens in Poverty Reduction, Climate and Environmental Services- SPACES
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013AgroforestryThe inclusion of trees in farming systems andtheir management in rural landscapes toenhance productivity, profitability, diversity andecosystem sustainability.• A dynamic, ecologically based, natural resourcemanagement system that, through integration oftrees on farms and in the agricultural landscape,diversifies and sustains production and builds socialinstitutions.Agroforestation is the increasing use of trees onfarm and recognition of farmers in the forest andas shapers of landscapes.
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 201329Security of tenureHigh standards of land use, investment andreturns, and resilienceLower standards of land use,investment and returns, andresilience
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013There are strong economic gains fromsecure, (freehold) tenure ……(Net Returns as $ per hectare per year)FreeholdUnadjudicatedLand Tenure0100200300400500NetReturnstoLand($/ha/yr)198.0397.0
    • Non-Market Based Aproaches to reducing deforestation …Side Event SBSTA #38, June 5, 2013PRESA sites