0
Climate Smart Agricultural Practices for
Food Security in the Mountain Areas of
Eastern Himalayas
V. P. Singh*, D. Nayak*,...
Eastern Himalayas: Case Studies
Some features
• Rainfed upland/hill (high slope
land) agro-ecosystem
• Area : 90 % hills & 10 % valley
• Climate : Mild tr...
Sand deposit over highly fertile lowlands
Some major farming systems in
Mountain Areas of Eastern Himalayas
• Jhum cultivation
system (clearing-
burning- cultivatin...
Issues related to the target
environment/ecosystem
* No income during initial one and half year
* Degradation of forest/ve...
Manipur, India and Salamjee, Bhutan
Discussion and diagnosis camps
at pilot villages
Participating farmers at Kairembikhok village
Benefits of working in group
• Solution to labor shortage
• Sharing of indigenous knowledge
• Completing work within short...
The group decided that the
interventions:
• Cover entire landscape
• Provide early income, increase with
time
• Be regular...
Technology adoption to be accelerated for the
target site
• Agro-horti-silviculture farming
• Intercropping between hortic...
Agro-horti-silvicultural farming system adopted
*Timber crops - 1. Teak (Tectonia grandis)
2. Champa (Michelia champaka)
3...
Start of income
• Field crops, including tubers - 4-6 months
• Pineapple - 18 months onwards
• Passion fruit - 24 months o...
Cultivation system of agro-horti-
silviculture
1. Timber crops as pure crops at the upper
most crest (upper slopes)
2. Pin...
New crops introduced by farmers
themselves
1. Passion fruit in eroded lands.
2. Ginger, turmeric and colocassia
as inter-c...
Forest resource mapping, and citrus nursery raising
 Citrus Patch and T-budding, and backyard kitchen gardening
Nursery raisin and tree plantation and management
Performance of timber crops
Tree species Planted %Survival
Teak (Tectonia grandis) 1,000 67.6
(1,980) (60.2)
Champa (Miche...
Performance of fruit crops
Fruit species Planted % Survival
Citrus sp. 3,690 68.5
(3,250) (57.7)
Pineapple 1,20,000 91.9
(...
Performance of intercrops
with pineapple
Intercrop Productivity(kg/ha)
Current yr. previous yr.
Arhar(Cajanus cajan) 1,450...
Pineapple intercropped with
ground nuts and pigeon pea
Pineapple – ginger and Pineapple – soybean
intercropping in old tree systems, Manipur
Kairenbikhok Awang hill in Saram hill range, Thoubal Dist.
(Manipur), then
Kairenbikhok Awang hill in Saram hill range, Thoubal Dist.
(Manipur), Now
Agro-horti-silviculture system, now
Salamjee, Bhutan then
Salamjee, Bhutan Birds eye view now
Salamjee, Bhutan at present
Locally fabricated equipment for measuring soil erosion
Soil erosion loss under different land uses
Land use Soil erosion loss
Mild slope Steep slope
up to 30 % > 30 %
Jhum (Trad...
Key results so far
1. Area covered by the adopted technologies is increasing
2. Productivity of introduced crops is increa...
Problems faced in the implementation of
the project
1. Lack of seedlings and quality planting
material of desired species....
Lessons learnt
• Land degradation issues can better addressed
through community-based approach
• Manageable group size is ...
Lessons learnt
• Farmers wanted a high level of biodiversity at the
farm level and were interested in mixed planting
rathe...
Thank
you
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Climate Smart Agricultural Practices for Food Security in the Mountain Areas of Eastern Himalayas

145

Published on

The participation of entire village community was a key to the success of the project, e.g. protecting from stray cattle and stealing, etc.

Published in: Technology, Self Improvement
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
145
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Climate Smart Agricultural Practices for Food Security in the Mountain Areas of Eastern Himalayas"

  1. 1. Climate Smart Agricultural Practices for Food Security in the Mountain Areas of Eastern Himalayas V. P. Singh*, D. Nayak*, L. Nabachandra Singh** and Gyambo Tshering*** * ICRAF, India, **CAU, India,*** RDC, Bajo, Wangdue, Bhutan
  2. 2. Eastern Himalayas: Case Studies
  3. 3. Some features • Rainfed upland/hill (high slope land) agro-ecosystem • Area : 90 % hills & 10 % valley • Climate : Mild tropical to temperate • Rainy season : May to October • Rainfall : 1500 mm (Annual average) • Temperature : 0.5 to 350C • Humidity : 40 to 100 % • Soil : Clay to clay loam(valley), Red lateritic soil (hills) • pH : 4.5 to 6.5 • Severe soil erosion
  4. 4. Sand deposit over highly fertile lowlands
  5. 5. Some major farming systems in Mountain Areas of Eastern Himalayas • Jhum cultivation system (clearing- burning- cultivating for 6-7 years- abandoning for 4-5 years and coming back there again) • Maize, Potato, Pastoral, Tree crops, and Rice based farming
  6. 6. Issues related to the target environment/ecosystem * No income during initial one and half year * Degradation of forest/vegetation in jhum system due to shortening of jhum cycle * In-situ depletion of soil productivity due to surface soil erosion, and at ex-situ due to sand deposits * Lack of moisture during dry season * Flooding due to excessive run off during rains * Unavailability of appropriate technology for sustainable productivity
  7. 7. Manipur, India and Salamjee, Bhutan
  8. 8. Discussion and diagnosis camps at pilot villages
  9. 9. Participating farmers at Kairembikhok village
  10. 10. Benefits of working in group • Solution to labor shortage • Sharing of indigenous knowledge • Completing work within shorter time period • Sharing of harder part of the work by stronger and weaker populace • Strengthened social relations and improved cooperation and cohesion • Equity for the weaker sections of society to be taken on-board • Capacity to extend their efforts through coordinated effort and united decision making process
  11. 11. The group decided that the interventions: • Cover entire landscape • Provide early income, increase with time • Be regular source of income • Focus on crops farmers are familiar with • Build capacity on specific aspects
  12. 12. Technology adoption to be accelerated for the target site • Agro-horti-silviculture farming • Intercropping between horticultural and silvicultural plants with adapted varieties of suitable crop species as filler crop • Agronomic measures for soil and water conservation, such as the contour planting, mixed cropping, etc.
  13. 13. Agro-horti-silvicultural farming system adopted *Timber crops - 1. Teak (Tectonia grandis) 2. Champa (Michelia champaka) 3. Wang (Gmelina arborea) *Fruit crops - 1. Citrus sp.(Citrus raticulata, C. aurantifolia, C. macrotera) 2. Pineapple (Ananas comosus) 3. Jackfruit (Autocarpus heterophyllus) 4. Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.) * Field crops - 1. Arhar (Cajanus cajan) 2. Ricebean (Vigna umbellata) 3. Groundnut (Arachis hypogae) 4. Soybean (Glycine max) 5. Rice and Wheat
  14. 14. Start of income • Field crops, including tubers - 4-6 months • Pineapple - 18 months onwards • Passion fruit - 24 months onwards • Grafted citrus - 24 months onwards • Jackfruit - 5 years onwards • Timber trees - After 10 years
  15. 15. Cultivation system of agro-horti- silviculture 1. Timber crops as pure crops at the upper most crest (upper slopes) 2. Pineapple, citrus, Jackfruit and some timber planted on mid slopes as pure as well as inter-crop with pulses/oilseeds and other crops 3. Bottom lands are grown to rice and upland crops
  16. 16. New crops introduced by farmers themselves 1. Passion fruit in eroded lands. 2. Ginger, turmeric and colocassia as inter-crops in between pineapple. 3. Mustard and peas in bottom lands after rice.
  17. 17. Forest resource mapping, and citrus nursery raising
  18. 18.  Citrus Patch and T-budding, and backyard kitchen gardening
  19. 19. Nursery raisin and tree plantation and management
  20. 20. Performance of timber crops Tree species Planted %Survival Teak (Tectonia grandis) 1,000 67.6 (1,980) (60.2) Champa (Michelia champaka) 1,000 68.9 (545) (58.2) Wang (Gmelina arboria) 1,000 63.4 (765) (65.4) Total 3,000 66.6 (3,290) (61.3) Figures in parenthesis are for previous year
  21. 21. Performance of fruit crops Fruit species Planted % Survival Citrus sp. 3,690 68.5 (3,250) (57.7) Pineapple 1,20,000 91.9 (1,39,000) (100) Jackfruit 300 81.1 (447) (48.8) Passion fruit 570 74 Figures in parenthesis are for the year before
  22. 22. Performance of intercrops with pineapple Intercrop Productivity(kg/ha) Current yr. previous yr. Arhar(Cajanus cajan) 1,450 665 Ricebean(Vigna umbellate) 1,635 - Groundnut (Arachis hypogae)1,055 678 Soybean(Glycine max) 683 -
  23. 23. Pineapple intercropped with ground nuts and pigeon pea
  24. 24. Pineapple – ginger and Pineapple – soybean intercropping in old tree systems, Manipur
  25. 25. Kairenbikhok Awang hill in Saram hill range, Thoubal Dist. (Manipur), then
  26. 26. Kairenbikhok Awang hill in Saram hill range, Thoubal Dist. (Manipur), Now
  27. 27. Agro-horti-silviculture system, now
  28. 28. Salamjee, Bhutan then
  29. 29. Salamjee, Bhutan Birds eye view now
  30. 30. Salamjee, Bhutan at present
  31. 31. Locally fabricated equipment for measuring soil erosion
  32. 32. Soil erosion loss under different land uses Land use Soil erosion loss Mild slope Steep slope up to 30 % > 30 % Jhum (Traditional) 140 t/ha/year 170 t/ha/year Agroforestry 15 t/ha/year 27 t/ha/year (Adopted)
  33. 33. Key results so far 1. Area covered by the adopted technologies is increasing 2. Productivity of introduced crops is increasing 3. Farm level biodiversity is increasing 4. Cropping intensity is increasing 5. Soil losses are decreasing 6. System is providing regular income; seasonal, yearly, after two years and so on 7. Farm income is increasing with the progress of time 8. Employment opportunities are increasing The introduced agro-horti-silvi culture system as chosen and modified by the farmers is increasingly contributing to the livelihoods of these farmers
  34. 34. Problems faced in the implementation of the project 1. Lack of seedlings and quality planting material of desired species. 2. Farmer’s new interventions making the comparison difficult.
  35. 35. Lessons learnt • Land degradation issues can better addressed through community-based approach • Manageable group size is between 20-25 HH • A start up fund support is a must • Capacity building should be the integral component • Committed leadership required (to start and to take it further) • HH be in dire need for implementing SLM
  36. 36. Lessons learnt • Farmers wanted a high level of biodiversity at the farm level and were interested in mixed planting rather than pure crop block planting (minimizing risk from failure • Joint planning with multi-stakeholders made the implementation easy • Providing support for weakest input (seedlings) was essential for accelerating the technology adoption • The participation of entire village community was a key to the success of the project, e.g. protecting from stray cattle and stealing, etc.
  37. 37. Thank you
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×