Africa in Post 2012 Climate Change Negotiations: Some Policy Perspectives

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Presented by Peter Akong Minang, ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins/World Agroforestry Centre
at the PAN AFRICAN PARLIAMENTARY CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE, 25-27 JUNE 2009, YAOUNDÉ, CAMEROON

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Africa in Post 2012 Climate Change Negotiations: Some Policy Perspectives

  1. 1. Africa in Post 2012 Climate Change Negotiations: Some Policy Perspectives Peter A Minang World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) / ASB Partnership PAN AFRICAN PARLIAMENTARY CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE 25-27 JUNE 2009, YAOUNDÉ, CAMEROON
  2. 2. Post 2012 Options: Mitigation • REDD Plus • Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA)- Sectors including REDD Plus and Agriculture • Clean Development Mechanism
  3. 3. Africa in Current Negotiations (1) • 2 Key sets of African Actors • COMIFAC: Central African Forest Commission have a submission on REDD. • Futuristic rather than Historic Baselines • Favour degradation • Development Adjustment Factor • Support a Fund
  4. 4. Africa in current negotiations (2) • COMESA: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa • Support broad AFOLU (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses) Perspective • Inclusion of agriculture = better opportunities for Adaptation benefits and more impact on livelihoods • Landscape perspective that includes Forest Core, Forest Frontier and Agriculture / Forest mosaics • Favour a combination of Market and Non-market mechanisms • Small land holders be strongly considered • AFRICA BIOCARBON INITIATIVE
  5. 5. AMCEN on Major issues • Supports Adaptation as No. 1 Issue • Calls for firm and effective emission reduction targets • Supports fund-based mechanisms • Supports REDD • Supports inclusion of Agriculture and Agroforestry in CDM • Support CDM Reform BUT “devil is always in the detail”
  6. 6. Message No. 1: • Africa should support a REDD Plus Mechanism in Copenhagen
  7. 7. What is REDD? • Forests store vast amounts of carbon, therefore preventing deforestation and degradation of forests = keeping carbon = mitigation of climate change • Voluntary International System to motivate forest management in developing countries • Countries that are willing and able to reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation are compensated
  8. 8. What are the stakes for Africa? • Carbon Finance can provide Gibbs and Brown (2007) crucial funding for sustainable forest management and poverty alleviation in Africa • Carbon markets worth about US$118 Billion and could triple with REDD • E.g. RIL in Cameroon could make USD 12 Million ( at price $ 12 / tc; cost of $20 / tc on 150000 ha)- Brunner 2001
  9. 9. Message No. 2 • Africa should support progressive extension of REDD Plus to include Agriculture, Agroforestry and Trees in the Landscape
  10. 10. Why Agriculture and other land uses? • Better opportunities for Africa • Smallholders’ land activities (agric +) are largely responsible for deforestation and forest degradation in Africa • Tenure and ownership less controversial in small farm / land holdings than forest areas • Agric and Other land uses would potentially yield more co-benefits than REDD • C Markets = 118 US$ Billion while Adaptation Fund = <200 Millions
  11. 11. Africa BioCarbon Initiative: Interactions between land uses and carbon pools Agriculture – Forest Forest Core Forest Frontier Areas Mosaic Areas Areas Intensive arable agriculture
  12. 12. Mitigation Potential of Agriculture in Africa • AFOLU 1004 Mt CO2-eq/yr until 2030
  13. 13. 3) Conservation Agriculture with Faidherbia albida Faidherbia is indigenous in many African countries 60 years of research shows on each hectare, mature trees supply the equivalent of 300kg of complete fertiliser and 250kg of lime. This can sustain a maize yield of 4 tons/ha.
  14. 14. 3) CO-BENEFITS- Conservation Agriculture benefits (2008/9 Trials) • At recommended spacing of 10m x 10m – 100 trees per hectare
  15. 15. 2007/8 Faidherbia Trial Results Maize yield - zero fertiliser Tons/ha _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________ With Faidherbia 4.1 Without Faidherbia 1.3 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________ Data averaged from 15 trials
  16. 16. Message No. 3 • Africa should advocate for further Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Reforms
  17. 17. How is Africa doing on CDM • CDM allows Afforestation and reforestation projects from developing countries in the carbon market • Africa’s participation in Clean Development Mechanism = Poor – Less than 4% of Projects • Only four out 40 forestry projects in the CDM pipeline (Mali, Tanzania, DRC, Uganda) as at 09/08 • 1 Energy Project now in Tanzania (others in South Africa and North Africa) • Post 2012 CDM Scenario unclear
  18. 18. Challenges Demand side • Complicated rules (additionality, registration, MRV) • Costs- upto 200 000 USD per project (15 k for consultant to review project) • Price differential (EU-ETS = 16 $ t C and Other developing countries = 4tC) • Contracts under international law is arbitrated in international courts- Costs, language etc.
  19. 19. Message No. 4 • Africa should advocate for VOLUNTARY Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) for Sub-Saharan Africa
  20. 20. Message No. 5 • Africa should continue advocating for appropriate combinations of funds and markets in the post 2012 financial mechanisms
  21. 21. Fund vs Market: What Motivations • Adaptation Fund = 300 Option 1: Funds only Million USD to date means we may never get as much Option 2: Markets have • Vs more money, but we may have to fight harder • 1Billion dollars in 2 for better and fairer years + rules- Auctions • Carbon Market = 118 Can also raise adaptation Billion in 2008 money from mitigation
  22. 22. Message No. 6 • Africa must maintain adaptation as top priority and promote actions that contribute to both adaptation and mitigation
  23. 23. What are the stakes for Africa? (3)- Adaptation • Africa is most vulnerable continent • Costs of strong and urgent action on climate change will be less than the costs thereby avoided of the impacts of climate change under business as usual (Stern 2006)
  24. 24. How is Africa doing on Climate Forestry? - Adaptation • About 24 African Countries have prepared National Adaptation Plans of Action. Most of which has been done driven • Few of these adaptation plans articulate the role of SFM in climate change adaptation • A collection of small projects are ongoing at sub-national level in various countries- few in forestry – e.g. CIFOR in Central and West Africa
  25. 25. Adaptation Finance / Capacity / Technology Transfer • Only about 300 Million dollars from CDM money, not donors • Governance issues (developing countries need a greater say) • Is G77 and China the best forum for adaptation finance?
  26. 26. Message No. 7 • African countries must improve the numbers, quality of delegations and strengthen climate change negotiation strategies
  27. 27. How to Improve Negotiations? • Increase number of negotiators (only one or two now compared to 50 for US and 10s for European delegations) • Increase number of disciplines represented in delegations (multi-disciplinary teams) • Improve sceintific input and analysis into African country positions (what if scenarios for various decisions) • Language support especially for Francophone, Lusophone Africa)
  28. 28. Thank You Merci www.asb.cgiar.org

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