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Business of Farming Conference 2013: N.C. Fresh Produce Safety-Field to Family
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Business of Farming Conference 2013: N.C. Fresh Produce Safety-Field to Family


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Fresh Produce Safety Introduction …

Fresh Produce Safety Introduction

Presented by: Jeremy DeLisle, Area Ag Agent, Mitchell/Yancey Counties, NC
Why does it matter?
What are the pathogens of concern?
How does contamination happen?
What can we do to reduce contamination?

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  • Photo: Johnston Co, NC 9/16/2009
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    • 1. Fresh Produce SafetyIntroductionPresented by:Jeremy DeLisleArea Ag AgentMitchell/Yancey Counties, NChttp://ncfreshproducesafety.ncsu.eduVersion 2 1N.C. Fresh Produce Safety-Field to FamilyA program of NC Cooperative Extension
    • 2. Topics• Why does it matter?• What are the pathogensof concern?• How does contamination happen?• What can we do to reduce contamination?• GAPs/GHPs/GMPs/HACCPVersion 2Version 2 2
    • 3. Why Is Produce Becoming a Risky Food?• Each person consumes about 20 pounds more freshproduce today compared to two decades ago.• Fresh produce is increasingly imported.• Pathogens not previously associated with fresh produce(e.g., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Norovirus)have emerged.• The distribution chain of produce is much different than25 years ago:– Produce now comes from all over the world – it’s notlimited by seasonality.Version 2Version 2 3
    • 4. Why Should We Care?Every year, about 76 million cases of food-borneillnesses result in an estimated:• 325,000 hospitalizations• 5,200 needless deaths• Economic losses between $10-83 billionA recent study suggested that produce-relatedillnesses accounted for the largest number of cases --29 percent.Version 2 Version 2 4
    • 5. Large Chain Grocers’ Response• Our first priority is to make sure that thefruits and vegetables we sell are safe andwholesome.• Our suppliers must implement GAPs.• Food suppliers will need to provide a copyof their third-party food safety audit.Version 2 5
    • 6. Pathogens of Concern• Bacteria – Single-celledorganisms that liveindependently• Viruses – Small particlesthat live and replicate in ahost• Parasites – Intestinalworms or protozoa thatlive in a host animal orhumanParasitesVirusesBacteriaVersion 2 6
    • 7. Bacterial ReproductionTime (hr) # of Bacteria0 11 82 324 2,0486 131,0728 16,777,21610 1,073,741,824Adapted from www.fda.govVersion 2 7
    • 8. Where Do These MicrobialPathogens Normally Live?Residents of human and animal intestinaltracts• Salmonella• E. coli O157:H7• Shigella• Campylobacter• Viruses Courtesy of Cornell UniversityVersion 2 8
    • 9. Pathogen Management Throughoutthe Fresh Produce Chain•Pre-plant•Production•Harvest•Postharvest handling•TransportationVersion 2 9
    • 10. Eight Principles of GoodAgricultural Practices1. Prevent microbial contamination2. Start program of GAPs3. Human/animal feces4. Water5. Animal manure6. Worker hygiene/sanitation7. Follow all applicable laws8. Traceback/recordkeeping/documentationVersion 2 10
    • 11. GAPs Third-Party Audits• Program initiated by retailers asking fordemonstration of adherence to foodsafety practices• Many different auditors• NCDA information:– Website for NCDA 3rd Party Audit:– Phone: 252-792-1672Version 2 11
    • 12. Topics• Water Use• Fertilization• Animal Hazards• Worker Hygiene• Harvest Operations12Version 2
    • 13. 13Sources of Contamination#1 Source = WaterAnytime water comes in contact with freshproduce, its quality determines thepotential for pathogen contamination sincewater may carry different types ofmicroorganisms.Courtesy of FDAVersion 2
    • 14. 14Water Source Will Determine the PossibleFrequency of TestingSource Possible Water Testing FrequencyMunicipal/District watersystemTest annually and keep records from themunicipality/district water system (monthly,quarterly or annual report).Closed system, under theground or covered tankOne annual test at the beginning of season.Uncovered well, opencanal, water reservoir,collection pondEvery month during the production season.Version 2
    • 15. 15Fertilization Practices• Inorganic fertilizers originate from syntheticchemicals, so pathogenic bacteria are notlikely to be present.• Incompletely composted manure maycontain pathogenic bacteria.– Use only well-composted manure.• Maintain records of safe fertilizationpractices.Version 2
    • 16. 16Survival of Human Pathogens in RawManure• Pathogens have been reported to survive in rawmanure for one year or longer.• No one knows precisely how long manure-bornepathogens survive after application to fields.• Where it is not possible to maximize the timebetween application and harvest, raw manureshould not be used.Version 2
    • 17. 17Animal Hazards• Animal feces are a main source for pathogenicorganisms.• Since animals are in contact with soil, manureand water, they can easily pick upcontaminants from these sources.• Some pathogenic bacteria commonly found onanimals include Salmonella, Staphylococcusand Streptococcus.• Maintain records of pest control program.Courtesy of FDAVersion 2
    • 18. 18Proximity of AnimalsVersion 2
    • 19. 19Control Sources ofRodent and Bird ContaminationVersion 2
    • 20. 20Worker HygieneVersion 2
    • 21. 21Personal Health and Hygiene• The major source of human pathogens areworker’s hands, so the single most effectivepublic health measure to prevent disease isproper hand washing.Version 2
    • 22. What’s Wrong?37Version 2 22
    • 23. Good Example23Version 2
    • 24. 24Mmmm – Tastes Good!Version 2
    • 25. 25Good IntentionsVersion 2
    • 26. 26Learner GoalRecognize potential sources of contamination during the harvestoperation.Topics to Be Covered• Soil contact with produce, totes, bins, boxes, workers’ hands,harvesters• Mechanical injury/damage by workers, equipment• Do not field wash produce; do not pre-cool using nonpotable water• Avoid animal contamination following harvest• Sanitizing totes, harvest equipment, etc.• Packing container storage: clean, dry place - not in fields• Field identification system for produce containers (traceback)Harvest OperationsVersion 2
    • 27. 27Recognize and Eliminate Sources ofContamination• In the field• At harvest• In the packinghouse• In refrigerated storage roomsVersion 2
    • 28. 28Field Hazards• Field Hazards includecontact with:– Soil– Fertilizers– Water– Workers– Harvesting equipment– Animals, birds andinsectsCourtesy of FDAVersion 2
    • 29. Packinghouse Facility Santation
    • 30. Learners’ Objectives• Recognize potential sources ofcontamination during the grading, packingand storing of fresh produce.30
    • 31. Topics• Packing House Water• Pest Management• Sanitation31
    • 32. Pest Management• Pest control traps and bait stations shouldbe stationed inside and outside the facilityat key locations.• Measures are taken to excludeanimals/pests from facilities.• Established pest-control program withservice reports will be maintained.32
    • 33. 33Packing Line
    • 34. 34Pest Control Trap Placement
    • 35. 35Accountability—someone incharge at all levels (field, packingfacility, distribution center,transport operation)—is essentialfor a successful food safetyprogram.Good Agricultural Practice (GAPs)# 8: Manage
    • 36. Employee Health & Hygiene
    • 37. Topics• Importance of hygiene• Pathogens and illness• Health policies/injuries• Restrooms• Hand washing• What can I do?37Version 2
    • 38. How Do Poor Health and HygieneImpact the Farm?• Diseases and pathogens• Outbreaks of food-borne illnesses• Accidents• Restroom practices and policies• Proper hand-washing practices and policies• Practices and policies of proper glove use38Version 2
    • 39. Hand-Washing Facilities39Version 2
    • 40. What Growers Can Do?Version 2 40• Create policies anprocedure• Educate employees• Enforcement• Document
    • 41. Eight Principles of GoodAgricultural Practices1. Prevent microbial contamination2. Start program of GAPs3. Human/animal feces4. Water5. Animal manure6. Worker hygiene/sanitation7. Follow all applicable laws8. Traceback/recordkeeping/documentationVersion 2 41