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  • 1. AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE IN TEACHING SPEAKING SPOKEN DESCRIPTIVE TEXT USING THE COLOR HUNTING GAME: A Case Study of the Seventh Grade Students of SMP N 2 Demak In Academic Year 2012/2013 a final project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan in English by Ratih Ika Chrisnindyasari 09420156 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION IKIP PGRI SEMARANG 2013 i
  • 2. DECLARATION I certify that this final project is definitely my work. I am completely responsible for the content of this final project. Other writer’s opinions or findings included in the final project are quoted or cited in accordance with ethical standards. Semarang,........ July 2013 Ratih Ika Chrisnindyasari NPM. 09420156 ii
  • 3. APPROVAL This final TEACHING project entitled SPEAKING “AN SPOKEN ALTERNATIVE DESCRIPTIVE TECHNIQUE TEXT USING IN THE COLOR HUNTING GAME: A Case Study of the Seventh Grade Students of SMP N 2 Demak In Academic Year 2012/2013” written by: Name : Ratih Ika Chrisnindyasari NPM : 09420156 Department : English Education Faculty : Language and Arts Education Has been approved by the team of advisors of Department of English Education, Faculty of Language and Arts Education, IKIP PGRI Semarang on: Day : Date : Semarang, July 2013 First Advisor Second Advisor Dias Andris Susanto, S.Pd, M.Pd Rahmawati Sukmaningrum, S.Pd, M.Pd NPP. 097901226 NPP. 117901340 iii
  • 4. RATIFICATION This final project has been approved by team of examiners on .... July 2013 1. AB. Prabowo K.A, S.Pd, M.Hum .............................................. NPP. 047001157 Examiner 2. Dias Andris Susanto, S.Pd, M.Pd ............................................... NPP. 097901226 Examiner/Advisor I 3. Rahmawati Sukmaningrum, S.Pd, M.Pd NPP. 117901340 ............................................... Examiner/Advisor II 4. Drs. A. Wiyaka, M.Pd ................................................ NIP. 196412261990031002 Head of English Department 5. Dra. Sri Suciati, M.Hum NIP. ................................................ 1965031611990032002 Dean of FPBS iv
  • 5. DEDICATION This final project is particularly dedicated to: 1. My beloved parents, Sutrisno and Rini Haristyastuti. 2. My beloved grandmother’s big family. 3. My lovely little brother and sister, Aditya Nova Kristiawan and Dewi Risnawati Trisnawati. 4. My special person, Darmawan. 5. My classmates PBI ’09 class D. 6. My beloved friends, Dian, Leni, Monik, Muna, Yulia, Hilda, Putri, Melia, Juli, Dyah, Yani, and Tiara. v
  • 6. MOTTO Spread love everywhere you go. Let no one ever come to you without leaving happier (Mother Teresa) vi
  • 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, the writer would like to thank to God the Almighty for the blessing, mercy, and inspirations during the process of this final project until finish. In this occasion, the writer also would like to express the gratitude and appreciation for the valuable assistance given by many persons in completing this final project. The writer would say thanks to: 1. Dra. Sri Suciati, M.Hum., the Dean of Language and Arts Education IKIP PGRI Semarang. 2. Drs. A. Wiyaka, M.Pd., the Head of English Department IKIP PGRI Semarang. 3. Dias Andris Susanto, S.Pd, M.Pd., as the first advisor who has guided in writing this final project. 4. Rahmawati Sukmaningrum, S.Pd, M.Pd., as the second advisor who has guided in writing this final project. 5. All of the lecturers of English Department of IKIP PGRI Semarang for their guidance given to the writer during her study. 6. Drs. Setyobudi, M.Pd., the headmaster of SMP N 2 Demak who has given permission to do the observation. 7. Widyastuti Anna, S.Pd, M.M., the English teacher of SMP N 2 Demak who has given permission to the writer to observe her class. vii
  • 8. 8. The seventh grade students of SMP N 2 Demak, especially VIIA class who have participated in her study. Finally, the writer believes that without their advice and support during the study, this final project can not be finished in time. The writer hopes that this final project will be useful for the readers. Semarang, The writer viii July 2013
  • 9. ABSTRACT Ratih Ika,Ch. 2013. An Alternative Technique in Teaching Speaking Spoken Descriptive Text Using the Color Hunting Game: A Case Study of the Seventh Grade Students of SMP N 2 Demak In Academic Year 2012/2013. Final Project. English Department, Faculty of Language and Arts Education. IKIP PGRI Semarang. Advisor I: Dias Andris Susanto, S.Pd, M.Pd. Advisor II: Rahmawati Sukmaningrum, S.Pd, M.Pd. This final project discussed about the use of color hunting game in teaching spoken descriptive text to the seventh grade students of SMP N 2 Demak in academic year 2012/2013. The writer did the observation to the VIIA class students to get the data. The purposes of this final project are to describe the implementation of using color hunting game in teaching spoken descriptive text in the seventh grade students of SMP N 2 Demak, to find out the problems encountered by the students in learning spoken descriptive text using color hunting game, and to find out the possible solutions to solve the problems encountered by the students in learning spoken descriptive text using color hunting game. Descriptive text is one of the genres that are taught in Junior High School and becomes one of the criterion of the assesment. There are two cycles to teach descriptive text, spoken and written. In this final project, the writer observed the spoken descriptive text. This study used descriptive qualitative as a research method to describe and analyze the use of color hunting game in teaching spoken descriptive text. The writer acted as a passive participant observer. The sources to get the data were the English teacher and the students of VIIA of SMP N 2 Demak. After analyzing the data, the writer concluded that there are some problems encountered by the students in learning spoken descriptive text using color hunting game. They are as follows: (1) The students had difficulties in arranging sentences because they were still lack of vocabularies. (2) The students had difficulties in pronouncing some words and sometimes make mistakes. (3) The students felt doubt in conveying their sentences because they were lack of self confidence. (4) The students sometimes can not understand the teacher’s instruction during the teaching and learning process. From this final project, the writer hopes that the reader could get some information, advantages, knowledge about the use of media especially color hunting game in teaching spoken descriptive text. Keywords: Teaching speaking, spoken descriptive text, color hunting game. ix
  • 10. TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE ................................................................................................................ i DECLARATION ............................................................................................... ii APPROVAL ....................................................................................................... iii RATIFICATION ................................................................................................ iv DEDICATION ................................................................................................... v MOTTO ............................................................................................................. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................... vii ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................... ix TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... x LIST OF APPENDICES .................................................................................... xiii CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study .................................................. 1 B. Reasons for Choosing the Topic ....................................... 3 C. Statements of the Problem ................................................ 4 D. Objectives of the Study ..................................................... 4 E. Significances of the Study ................................................ 5 F. Definition of the Key Terms ............................................. 6 x
  • 11. G. Outline of the Study .......................................................... 7 CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Teaching English in Junior High School .......................... 9 B. Teaching Speaking ............................................................ 11 1. Definition of Speaking ................................................. 11 2. Types of Classroom Speaking Performances ............... 15 3. Problems in Speaking English ...................................... 18 4. The Roles of the Teacher in Speaking Class ................ 21 C. Game as an Alternative Technique in Teaching Speaking 22 D. Spoken Descriptive Text ................................................... 27 E. The Use of Color Hunting Game in Teaching Spoken Descriptive Text ................................................................ 29 1. Definition of the Color Hunting Game ....................... 29 2. The rules of the Color Hunting Game ......................... 30 3. The Application of the Color Hunting Game in Teaching Spoken Descriptive Text ............................................. 30 CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY A. The Approach of the Study ............................................... 32 B. Role of the writer .............................................................. 34 C. Object of the Study ........................................................... 34 D. Sources of the Data ............................................................ 34 xi
  • 12. E. Technique of Data Collection ............................................ 36 1. Methods of Collecting Data .......................................... 36 2. Procedures of Collecting the Data ................................ 38 F. Instruments of the Study ................................................... 38 G. Technique of Data Analysis .............................................. 38 H. Triangulation ..................................................................... 39 CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A. Research Findings ............................................................. 43 1. The Implementation of Teaching Spoken Descriptive Text using Color Hunting Game .................................. 44 2. The Problems Encountered by the Students in Learning Spoken Descriptive Text using Color Hunting Game .. 48 3. The Possible Solutions to Solve the Problems Encountered by the Students in Learning Spoken Descriptive Text using Color Hunting Game .......................................... 49 B. Discussion ......................................................................... 51 CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions ....................................................................... 54 B. Suggestions ....................................................................... 56 BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES xii
  • 13. LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix 1: List of VIIA students of SMP N 2 Demak Appendix 2: Observation sheet for observing the teacher and the students Appendix 3: Observation sheet for observing the teaching and learning process Appendix 4: List of interview Appendix 5: The result of the questionnaire xiii
  • 14. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of background of the study, reasons for choosing the topic, statements of the problem, objectives of the study, significances of the study, definition of the key terms and outline of the study. A. Background of the Study English as an international language is used by many countries all over the world. It is used to communicate with each other in present or future. It proves that English plays a major role in international communication such as in conference and congress. That is why English should be mastered by everyone around the world. People learn English for many purposes. For instance, learning English will help you to communicate with relatives, in-laws or friends who speak a different language, the majority of the electronically stored information around the world is in English so we need to learn it, you can travel to any English speaking country without the need of having a translator. To reach these purposes, they have to move into target-language community and they need to be able to communicate successfully within that community. Those are why people have to get more success in their foreign language learning. Teachers have the primary influence to create successful language learning, because language learning mostly happens in the classroom. In the
  • 15. 2 process of teaching, the teacher should create good learning situation, so the students will be stimulated to learn. It is then, an absolute requirement for teachers to have the variety of experiences in method. English consists of four language skills. The four skills such as listening, speaking, writing and reading must be taught in Junior High School. The teacher should know the good method that must be used in each skill. Speaking is assumed as the most important skill to be acquired by the students. But, most of them say that it is hard to speak English. We know that for Indonesian students, English is not their mother tongue. The fact that we will interact with the other countries causes English is very important to be acquired. Of course, we have to learn English in order to have good relationship in all sectors, as business, friendship, school, etc. Teaching speaking is not as easy as we imagine. Most of the students say that it is hard to speak English since they are afraid to make mistakes. The others say that learning speaking is getting bored because they do not like with the teacher’s method in teaching speaking. The teachers should have an alternative way to teach speaking so that the students will not get bored. It is not difficult to realize that playing was once our own "natural way of learning" as well. So, teachers should not look at games as just child's play, but rather as a tool that can (and should) be used for teaching English learners at all ages. Firstien describes games as a way to have fun dealing with grammar as a change of pace (2002 : 526). However we would suggest that
  • 16. 3 there is more to it than that. Games can be a safe opportunity to practice without fear of ridicule. Due to the competitive nature of many games, they can provide a great sense of accomplishment for many students and their teammates as they watch their progression. Game is assumed as helpful media to make language learning becomes positive and exciting experience, which will be important and motivating to the students. Due to the mentioned reasons above, the writer is going to analyze the teaching poken descriptive text using the color hunting game. By using game, the writer hopes that the students will not get bored easily in teaching and learning process. In this final project, the writer analyzes the use of color hunting game in teaching speaking spoken descriptive text to the seventh grade tudents of SMP N 2 Demak in cademic year 2012/2013. B. Reasons for Choosing the Topic There are some reasons that make the writer chooses this title as the topic. They are as follow: 1. There are many kinds of Genres that are taught in Junior High School. The writer chooses descriptive text because it is taught in the seventh grade students and it becomes one of the criterions of the assessment. 2. Spoken cycle is rarely used to teach descriptive text. The teacher often teaches descriptive text in written cycle, so the writer observes the teaching and learning process in spoken cycle.
  • 17. 4 3. There are many techniques in teaching peaking, especially poken descriptive text. In this study, the writer observes the use of an alternative teaching in teaching speaking spoken descriptive text using color hunting game. C. Statements of the Problem The statements of the problem can be stated as follows: 1. How does the teacher implement the teaching of spoken descriptive text using color hunting game to the seventh grade students of SMP N 2 Demak in Academic Year 2012/2013? 2. What are the problems encountered by the students in learning spoken descriptive text using color hunting game? 3. What are the possible solutions to solve the problems encountered by the students in learning spoken descriptive text using color hunting game? D. Objectives of the Study Based on the statements of the problem, so the objectives of the study are as follows: 1. o describe the implementation of using color hunting game in teaching spoken descriptive text to the seventh grade students of SMP N 2 Demak in Academic Year 2012/2013. 2. o find out the problems encountered by the students in learning spoken descriptive text using color hunting game.
  • 18. 5 3. o find out the possible solutions to solve the problems encountered by the students in learning spoken descriptive text using color hunting game. E. Significances of the Study There are some significances of this final project. Those are as follows: 1. For the teacher The writer hopes that the result of this study will be useful for English teachers to enrich their strategy in teaching spoken descriptive text using olor hunting game. 2. For the students a. The students can improve their speaking ability through color hunting game. b. The students are able to get more understanding about descriptive text. 3. For the reader a. By reading the result of this study, the readers can enlarge their knowledge about one of the alternative techniques in teaching spoken descriptive text. b. By reading the result of this study, the readers can enlarge their knowledge about the difficulties in teaching speaking and how to solve it.
  • 19. 6 F. Definition of the Key Terms In order to avoid the misunderstanding and misinterpreting for the reader, the writer gives the definition of the terms in this final project. They are as follows: 1. Teaching speaking Teaching speaking is offering courses in technical subjects with making practice of speaking fluently or conversing (with another or each other). In teaching speaking, we should make the students to be more active. Leading them to share or convey their feeling and their thought orally. Like Scott Thornbury suggests in Harmer that the teaching of speaking depends on their being a classroom culture of speaking, and that classrooms need to become talking classroom. In other words, students will be much more confident speakers (and their speaking will improve) if this kind of speaking activation is a regular feature of lessons (2007: 12). So, in teaching speaking we should let the students to speak up their mind in order to make them become confident speakers. 2. Spoken descriptive text According to Siahaan and Shinoda, descriptive text is a text to describe a particular person, place or thing (2008: 89). There are two cycles in teaching descriptive text; they are written and spoken cycles. In this thesis, the writer chooses spoken cycle. It means that descriptive text is taught orally and directly.
  • 20. 7 3. Color hunting game Color Hunting Game is a game for hunting things that have certain color, and then the students should describe about where they find the things and how the things are. As stated by Claire Maria Ford that it is suitable for all ages and ability levels. It is a good idea to pair a less fluent speaker with a more fluent one (n.d: 6-7). 4. The seventh grade students of SMP N 2 Demak The seventh grade students of SMP N 2 Demak is the object of this study. G. Outline of the Study Chapter I: Introduction. This chapter consists of background of the study, reasons for choosing the topic, statements of the problem, objectives of the study, significances of the study, definition of the key terms, and outline of the study. Chapter II: Review of related literature. This chapter consists of teaching English in Junior High School, teaching speaking, game as an alternative technique in teaching speaking, spoken descriptive text, the use of color hunting game in teaching spoken descriptive text. Chapter III: Methodology of the study. It consists of the approach of the study, the role of the writer, the object of the study, the sources of the data, technique of data collection, Instruments of the study, technique of data analysis, and triangulation.
  • 21. 8 Chapter IV: Research Findings and Discussion. The writer describes about the result of the study. Chapter V: Conclusions and Suggestions. The writer draws the conclusion of the study and offers some suggestions.
  • 22. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter presents review of related literature as a theoretical foundation. The discussion includes teaching English in Junior High School, teaching speaking, game as an alternative technique in teaching speaking, spoken descriptive text, the use of color hunting game in teaching spoken descriptive text. A. Teaching English in Junior High School Language is an instrument to send and understand the idea, mind, opinion and feeling in oral or write. Language is the first foreign language in Indonesia that considered important to absorb and develop the science of technology, art of culture and create the relation with other countries in the world. Teaching English as a foreign language in Junior High School has a purpose to help the students to master English properly and fluently. But, it seems does not work very well. It can be seen from the students who still can not speak and write English correctly, although they have studied English for several years. Based on the concept and function of English as stated in the curriculum, there are four of language skills that are taught in Junior High School, they are: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. As an English learner, we have to learn four skills if we want to master English. We do not
  • 23. 10 have to use these skills at the same time altogether. It depends on the form of language that we faced. Mulyasa states that curriculum is an educational component referenced by each educational unit either by the manager or organizer, especially by teachers and headmaster (2007:4). Curriculum which is used in Junior High School is KTSP (Education Unit Level Curriculum). It forces the students to be more active in class. In this curriculum, genre approach is used to engage the students in recognizing and analyzing the types of text. KTSP places teachers as facilitators and mediators who helps students' learning process goes well. The main attention on students learning is not on discipline or the teacher, but the students’ participation. Afieq (2010) states that there are three functions of facilitators or mediators. They are as follows: 1. to provide learning experiences that enable students are responsible to make design and process. 2. to provide activities that stimulate students' curiosity and help them to express ideas, to provide the means that stimulating students to think productively, provide opportunities and experiences of conflict. 3. monitor, evaluate, and indicate whether the student thought the road or not. Teachers show and question whether students apply knowledge to deal with new problems. Teachers help students evaluate hypotheses and conclusions.
  • 24. 11 From the explanation above, we can conclude that teachers have a duty as facilitators and mediators based on KTSP. Facilitators and mediators also have functions, such as providing learning experiences, providing activities, monitoring, evaluating, and indicating whether the students thought the road or not. B. Teaching Speaking 1. Definition of Speaking Fulcher states that speaking is the verbal use of language to communicate with others (2003: 23). The purposes for which we communicate with others are so large. The outward manifestation of speech found is sounded wave. Its meaning lies in the structure and meaning of all language whether this is written or spoken. In conveying our feeling or thought, we use language. It is different to convey our feeling through written and spoken. In written, we can write what we think but in spoken we should say what we are thinking directly. Brown states that speaking is a productive skill that can be directly and empirically observed (2004: 140). We can observe the speaking skill everytime and everywhere we are speaking to others. Each person use different form of words to speak. It is based on the skill and their creativity to produce language. As Brown says thay most speaking is the product of creative construction of linguistic strings, the speaker makes choices of lexicon, structure, and discourse (2004: 140).
  • 25. 12 Speaking foreign language is a complex matter. Everyone who wants to speak a second language must learn the vocabularies and the grammar of that language. They also should master about their sounds and how to pronounce them well. If the learners are fluent in their speaking, it will be easier to speak correctly. Because they will automatically say what they want to say without think too long. Students often think that the ability to speak a language is the product of language learning, but speaking is also a crucial part of language learning process. Harmer states that it is important for teachers to correct mistakes made during speaking activities in a different way from the mistakes made during a study exercise (2001: 94). The teacher has important roles in the success of teaching learning process. The teacher should help the students so that the students can speak well. According to Harmer (2007:12), there are three main reasons for getting students to speak in the classroom. Those are as follows: 1. Speaking activities provide rehearsal opportunities-chances to practice real life in the safety of the classroom. 2. Speaking task in which students try to use any or all of the language they know provide feedback for both teacher and students. Everyone can see how well they are doing, both how successful they are, and also what language problems they are experiencing. 3. The more students have the opportunities to activate the various elements of language they have stored in their brains, the more
  • 26. 13 automatic their use of these elements become. As a result, students gradually become autonomous language users. This means that they will be able to see words and phrases fluently without very much conscious thought. In teaching speaking, we should realize that it is not as simple as other skills. We do not only convey our feeling or thought through speaking, but also consider about the words or phrases that we say. We also should know and understand about the elements of speaking. Jeremy Harmer (2003:269-271) states that the ability to speak English presupposes the necessary elements for spoken production are as follows: a. Language features The elements necessary for spoken production are the followings: 1) Connected Speech In connected speech sounds are modified (assimilation), omitted (elision), added (linking ), or weakened (through contractions and stress patterning). It is for reason that we should involve students in activities designed specifically to improve their connected speech. 2) Expressive Devices Native speakers of English change the pitch and stress of particular parts of utterances, vary volume and speed, and show by other physical and non-verbal (paralinguistic) means how
  • 27. 14 they are feeling (especially in face-to-face-interaction). The use of these devices contributes to the ability to convey meanings. 3) Lexis and Grammar Spontaneous speech is marked by the use of a number of common lexical phrases, especially in the performance of certain language functions. Teachers should therefore supply a variety of phrases for different functions such as agreeing or disagreeing, expressing surprise, shock, or approval. 4) Negotiation Language Effective speaking benefits from the negotiator language we use to seek clarification and to show the structure of what we are saying. We often need to ask for clarification when we are listening to someone else talk. It is very crucial for students. b. Mental/Social Processing Success of speaker’s productivity is dependent upon the rapid processing skills that talking necessitates. Those processes are the followings: 1) Language processing Language processing involves the retrieval of words and phrases from memory and their assembly into syntactically and propositionally appropriate sequences.
  • 28. 15 2) Interacting with others Most speaking involves interaction with one or more participants. This means that effective speaking also involves a good deal of listening, and understanding of how the other participants are feeling, and a knowledge of how linguistically to take turns or allow others to do so. 3) (On-the-spot) Information Processing Quite apart from our response to others’ feelings, we also need to be able to process the information they tell us the moment we get it. 2. Types of Classroom Speaking Performance In classroom speaking performance, we should consider which type that we will use in each class. The characteristic and the ability of the students in each class is different from one to another. There are six types of classroom speaking performance based on Brown (2001: 271-274). They are as follows: a. Imitative Imitation is carried out not for the purpose of meaningful interaction, but for focusing on some particular element of language form. (e.g., learners practicing an intonation pattern a certain vowel sound.)
  • 29. 16 b. Intensive Intensive speaking goes one step beyond imitative to include any speaking performance phonological or that is designed grammatical to aspect practice of some language. Intensive speaking can be self-initiated, or it can even form part of some pair work activity, where learners are “going over” certain forms of language. c. Responsive A good deal of students speech in the classroom is responsive: short replies to teacher- or student-initiated questions or comments. d. Transactional(dialogue) Transactional language, carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information, is and extended form of responsive language. e. Interpersonal(dialogue) It carried out more for the purpose of maintaining social relationships than for the transmission of facts and information. f. Extensive(monologue) Students at intermediate to advanced levels are called on to five extended monologues in the form of oral reports, summaries, or perhaps short speeches, Here the register is more formal and deliberative. These monologues can be planned or impromptu.
  • 30. 17 The six types of classroom speaking performance have their own advantage. It is based on how the teachers teach the students. Teachers should understand about their students’ character. Davies and Pearse state, Like Listening Ability, Speaking ability should partly be natural result of using English as the main means of communication in the Classroom. But Speaking will probably develop more slowly than Listening. You can help learners understand what you say in English by simplifying your speech and using gesture or mime. You can not so easily get them to express themselves in English, but, when they do, always show you are pleased even if what they say is far from perfect (2004: 82). There is other opinion about classroom speaking. Scott Thornbury in Harmer suggests that the teaching of Speaking depends on their being classroom culture of speaking, and that classrooms need to become ‘Talking Classroom’. In other words, students will be much more confident speakers (and their speaking will improve) if this kind of speaking activation is a regular features as lesson (2007:12). In classroom speaking, teachers should consider about the ability of the students before they choose the type of classroom speaking performance. The classroom culture of speaking also influence the speaking ability of the students. The point is, in classroom speaking, the students should be more active to speak up. Because if they are active to speak up, automatically the ability of their speaking will increase.
  • 31. 18 3. Problems in Speaking English In learning English as a second language, it is not easy to speak English fluently. The students usually only use some words that familiar with them. They also have limited words to say. It is caused by some reasons that are faced by each person. According to Paul Davies and Eric Pearse (2004: 82), speaking comes naturally to humans, but it is not as simple as it seems. For a start: a. Many people do not like speaking in front of large groups of people. This is especially true in a foreign language because we may worry about producing utterances with many errors or oddities in them. b. Recognizable pronunciation is necessary for speech to be intelligible. It is sometimes hard to understand people with a strong regional accent in our own language and it is hard to interpret a non-native speaker’s. c. Like listening, speaking takes place in ‘real time’ and speakers do not usually have time to construct their utterances carefully. In conversation, the commonest kind of speaking, we have to do many things altogether. Understand what the other person is saying, say what we want to when we get the chance to speak, be prepared for unexpected changes of topic, and think of something to say when there is a long pause.
  • 32. 19 Actually, to speak English the speakers do not need to be worry. Just say what the speakers want to say, do not think about the mistakes. They just need to be brave to speak up. They also should have selfconfidence to speak in front of the large people. The teachers also should know about the characteristic of spoken language that can make oral performance easy as well as, in some cases, difficult. The followings are some characteristics of spoken language according to Brown (2001: 270-271): a. Clustering Fluent speech is phrasal, not word by word. Learners can organize their output both cognitively and physically through such clustering. b. Redundancy The speaker has an opportunity to make meaning clearer through the redundancy of language. Learners can capitalize on this feature of spoken language. c. Reduced form Contractions, elisions, reduced vowels, etc. All form special problems in teaching spoken English. Students who do not learn colloquial contractions can sometimes develop a stilted, bookish quality of speaking that in turn stigmatizes them.
  • 33. 20 d. Performance variable One of the advantages of spoken language is that the process of thinking as learners speak allows them to manifest a certain number of performance hesitations, pauses, backtracking, and corrections. Learners can actually be taught how to pause and hesitate. e. Colloquial language Make sure the students are reasonably well acquainted with the words, idioms, and phrases of colloquial language and that they get practice in producing these forms. f. Rate of delivery Another salient characteristic of fluency is rate of delivery. One of teachers tasks in teaching spoken English is to help learners achieve an acceptable speed along with other attributes of fluency. g. Stress, rhythm, and intonation This is the most important characteristic of English pronunciation. The stress-timed rhythm of spoken English and its intonation patterns convey important messages. h. Interaction Learning to produce waves of language in a vacuum-without interlocutors-would rob speaking skill of its richest component; the creativity of conversational negotiation.
  • 34. 21 4. The Roles of the Teacher in Speaking Class The success of teaching learning process also based on the teachers. Teachers should manage the class so that the teaching and learning process can run well. Teachers need to play a number of different roles during the speaking activities in order to try to get students to speak fluently. There are three kinds of roles of the teacher in speaking class based on Harmer (2003: 275-276). They are as follows: a. Prompter Students sometimes get lost, can not think of what to say next, or in some other way lose the fluency the teachers expect of them. Teacher can leave them to struggle out of such situation on their own, and indeed sometimes this may be the best option. However, teacher may be able to help them and the activity to progress by offering discrete suggestions. If this can be done supportively without disrupting the discussion, or forcing students out of the role-it will stop the sense of frustration that some students feel when they come to a ‘dead end’ of language or ideas. b. Participant Teachers should be good animators when asking students to produce language. Sometimes this can be achieved by setting up an activity clearly and with enthusiasm. At other times, however, teachers may want to participate in discussions or role-play
  • 35. 22 themselves. That way they can prompt covertly, introduce new information to help the activity along, ensure continuing students engagement, and generally maintain a creative atmosphere. However, in such circumstances they have to be careful that they do not participate too much, thus dominating the speaking and drawing all the attention to them. c. Feedback Provider When the students in the middle of a speaking activity, over-correction may inhibit them and take the communicativeness out of the activity. On the other hand, helpful and gentle correction may get students out of difficult and misunderstanding and hesitations. Everything depends upon our tact and the appropriacy of the feedback we give in particular situations. The teachers should assess what the students have done and give correction in their opinion. They will respond to the students’ work as well as the language used. C. Game As an Alternative Technique in Teaching Speaking If we hear a word game, usually we will think about something that makes us fun and also interesting. It is also identical with children. Children who usually play games to have fun. Actually, game is not only for children. It can be used by all ages. It depends on the purpose of playing the game. There are some definitions of game based on the experts.
  • 36. 23 According to Wright, Betteridge, and Buckby, game means an activity which is entertaining and engaging, often challenging, and an activity in which the learners play and usually interact with others (2006: 1). Firstien describes that games as a way to have fun dealing with grammar as a change of pace (2002: 526). Games can be a safe opportunity to practice without fear of ridicule. Due to the competitive nature of many games, they can provide a great sense of accomplishment for many students and their teammates as they watch their progression. Martin in Brewest, Ellis, and Girard argues that games is any activity which gives young learners the opportunity to practice the foreign language in a relaxed an enjoyable way (2003: 172). In teaching and learning process, the teachers should choose appropriate method to teach so that it would not make the children are getting bored. They also can use game in teaching and learning process. As the writer has explained above that game is a way to have fun, the children will be fun to play game in teaching and learning process. There are some reasons why the teachers should use games in teaching and learning process as Wright, Betteridge, and Buckby (2006:2) state. They are as follow: a. Language learning is hard work One must make an effort to understand, to repeat accurately, to adapt and to use newly understood language in
  • 37. 24 conversation and in written composition. Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work. b. Experiencing Language Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information. Games provide one way of helping the learners to experience language rather than merely study it. c. Repeated Use of Language Items Many games cause as much use of particular language items as more conventional drill exercises, some games do not. What matters, however, is the quality of the practice. The contribution of drill exercises lies in the concentration on a language form and its frequent occurrence and use of a particular language form. By making language and conveying information and opinion, games provide the key features of drill with the add opportunity to sense the working of language as living communication. Games involve the emotions, and the meaning of the language is thus more vividly
  • 38. 25 experienced. It is, for this reason, probably better absorbed than learning based on mechanical drills. d. Central to Learning If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire. Those are the reasons why the teachers should use games in teaching and learning process. Apparently, using games is very important for the students. Teachers can give different atmosphere from the daily lesson. As a teacher, we also should choose appropriate games that have relation with the materials based on curriculum. There are many kinds of games which can be used in teaching and learning process. Many variations of game can make the students will not be bored with the daily lesson. Brewest, Ellis, and Girard (2003: 175-176) categorize games as the followings: a. Accuracy - Focused Games The aim of this game is to practice new language items and develop accuracy, often using chunks of language which are memorized through constant repetition in the form of hidden or disguised language drills.
  • 39. 26 b. Fluency – Focused Games This game focus on developing fluency and collaboration with others. These games are usually done in pairs or group. c. Competition Games It can be organized in teams, groups, pairs, or individual but they always have a winner who maybe the one who has collected the most of something, and who has gained the highest points, and so on. Competitive games tend to be, but are not always language control games. d. Cooperation Games In here, the students have to work together by describing, explaining, clarifying, checking, agreeing and disagreeing, an so on. The use of game in teaching and learning process gives many advantages for students. In teaching speaking, the teachers focus on students’ speaking especially their fluency rather than grammar practice. The important thing is the students speak up their mind, and never be worried about their grammar. Lee Su Kim states that there is a common perception that all learning should be serious and solemn in nature and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter, then it is not really learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of the best ways of doing this is through games (1995: 35).
  • 40. 27 To explore the students’ ability without make them bored, we use games to make the situation of teaching and learning process more fun. Wright, Betteridge, and Buckby state that some games give the learners considerable support in the language needed for the game (2006: 24). As stated by Lee Su Kim (1995:35), there are many advantages of using games in the classroom. They are as follows: a. Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class. b. They are motivating and challenging. c. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning. d. Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading. e. They encourage students to interact and communicate. f. They create a meaningful context for language use. D. Spoken Descriptive Text In the curriculum of Junior High School, genres/text types are one of the materials that must be taught to the students. The definition of genre itself as stated by Hyland is a term for grouping texts together, representing how writers typically use language to respond to recurring situation (2004: 4). The teaching of genre is very important because it becomes a part of the requirements to graduate. As Ann Johns (2002: 3) signifies in Hyland (2004:
  • 41. 28 5) that genre is one of the most important and influential concepts in language education. Basically, there are twelve kinds of genre. But, in this final project the writer discusses about descriptive text. There are two cycles to teach genre, they are in written and spoken cycles. According to Harmer, in the same way, we can describe different types of writing-in different contexts and for different purposes-as different written genres, and we can look at typical speaking genres too (2003: 27). In this study, the writer uses one of the spoken genres, that is spoken descriptive text. Basically, the teaching of genres using written or spoken cycle is same. The difference is only on the way of conveying the point. Siahaan and Shinoda state that description is a written English text in which the writers describe an object (2008: 89). According to Hyland, the social purpose of descriptive text is to give an account of imagined or factual events (2004: 29). Hyland also states that the stages of description are Identification to defines, classifies, or generalizes about a phenomenon and Aspect to describes attributes of each category of the phenomenon (2004: 33) There is also an explanation about descriptive text, according to Siahaan and Shinoda (2008: 89). They are as follows: 1. Text Function The text function or usually called social purpose of descriptive text is to describe a particular person, place, or thing.
  • 42. 29 2. Generic Structures/Text structures Descriptive text contains of two components: a. Identification: Identifies phenomenon to be described b. Description: Describes parts, qualities, characteristics 3. Language Features/Dominant Grammatical Aspects a. Focus on specific participants b. Use of simple present tense c. Use of attributive and identifying process From the explanation above the writer concludes that descriptive text is a text that has a purpose to describe a particular person, place, or thing. This text must be followed the generic structures such as identification and description. In Junior High School, the teaching of genres should use written and spoken cycle. But, we usually find that written cycle is more often used than spoken cycle. In this final project, the writer analyzes about the teaching of descriptive text in spoken cycle. E. The Use of Color Hunting Game in Teaching Spoken Descriptive Text 1. Definition of the Color Hunting Game Color Hunting Game is a game for hunting things that have certain color, and then the students should describe about where they find the things and how the things are. As stated by Claire Maria Ford that it is
  • 43. 30 suitable for all ages and ability levels. It is a good idea to pair a less fluent speaker with a more fluent one (n.d: 6-7). 2. The rules of the Color Hunting Game In playing color hunting game, there are some rules that should be noticed. They are as follows: a. Divide the students into 6 groups (each group consist of 5-6 persons) b. Give each group the worksheet of the color hunting game and ask them to write down the name of the objects of each color that they discover. If possible, allow them to move around the room or even the school building in their search. c. Give the students a limited time about 15-20 minutes. Then, ask them to present their result by describing where they found each items, how each items is look like. (each member should present in turn). d. The group who got the most thing becomes winner. 3. The Application of the Color Hunting Game in Teaching Spoken Descriptive Text Color hunting is a simple game about the hunting of some things that have certain colors. This game helps the students to create description about the things around them. To do this game, the students should be divided into some groups. Each group consists of 5-6 persons. The teacher gives a paper that there are some colors printed out in the paper to each group. Each group has a job to look for the things as many as possible that appropriate with the colors in the paper and write them