A social unit of people, systematically structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals on a continuing basis. All organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between functions and positions , and subdivides and delegates roles , responsibilities , and authority to carry out defined tasks . Organizations are open systems in that they affect and are affected by the environment beyond their borders.
Organizational structures developed from the ancient times of hunters and collectors in tribal organizations through highly royal and clerical power structures to industrial structures and today's post-industrial structures.
As pointed out by ( Mohr ) the early theorists of organizational structure, Taylor, Fayol, and Weber " saw the importance of structure for effectiveness and efficiency and assumed without the slightest question that whatever structure was needed, people could fashion accordingly. Organizational structure was considered a matter of choice... When in the 1930s , the rebellion began that came to be known as human relations theory , there was still not a denial of the idea of structure as an artifact, but rather an advocacy of the creation of a different sort of structure, one in which the needs, knowledge, and opinions of employees might be given greater recognition." However, a different view arose in the 1960s , suggesting that the organizational structure is "an externally caused phenomenon, an outcome rather than an artifact.
In the 21st century, organizational theorists such as Lim , Griffiths , and Sambrook are once again proposing that organizational structure development is very much dependent on the expression of the strategies and behavior of the management and the workers as constrained by the power distribution between them , and influenced by their environment and the outcome…… .,
It is to collect all the functional specialization in one department so there is a single financial management and management of engineering and management of stores and one and one and one maintenance management.
Disadvantage of this system lack of flexibility and poor relationship between the different disciplines and the length of the hierarchy in the sense that many levels of management.
The advantage of this system is that it is economic, because we do not need to store more and more of the workshop .... But everything is central. Also benefit from the experiences of each employee in the same specialty colleagues because they work in the same department or sector.
Faithful staff specialists are grouped a particular product or service in one sector. Example: a plant that makes its producers or manufacturers A and B are split company into two A and B and all the services sector, followed by all - almost - from the production, maintenance and financial and stores .... Note that with the use of this system, it may be sometimes retaining some central departments such as human resources management.
And the workers are divided by functions in the structure of my functions as well as being responsible for the selection of each product so that it is also a director of the workers in different functions. Of course, in this case the employee may be two boss. Example: a factory produces a product and (b) shall appoint a responsible high level for a product and another product with this official and followed by workers from various departments and all of them have another president in his administration.
The disadvantage of this system is difficult to organization of work for workers who follow the two presidents, but has collected many of
The advantages of both the Functional Structure and Divisional Structure
Some characteristics of the organizational structures Tall Structure and Flat Structure
Organizational structure long : a pyramid on which its long career (both vertical) in the sense that the number of layers of many managers. Length of the structure makes decision-making process is slow. Short organizational structure : a pyramid on which its short career (both vertical) in the sense that the number of layers of a few managers. This structure gives the responsibilities and delegating more to managers, which increases the speed of decision-making. At the same time, each manager is responsible for a greater number of subordinates.
Means that the central authorities have focused on the specific institution.
In the sense that the powers of the workers are few and decisions always need a high-level manager for approval. For example, the authority to approve a purchase order value is minimal competence of the President of the company. The central decision-making slow but make the best control . There is often this type of Functional structure . Decentralization means that authorities distributed to all levels of the organizational structure. In the sense that each layer of the managers have considerable powers. For example, each manager has a specific budget, but controlled, as it deems appropriate. Decentralization makes quick decisions , but make control less severe . There is often this kind in the divisional structure.
Formalization means that there are precise rules for every action and freedom given to the workers are few.
Informal institutions are important in the large size so can be controlled in the institution , but this makes the decisions is slow and reduces the capacity for creativity and good work because of the behavior of the individual in the organization.
Mechanical structure (automated) is the structure a little flexibility, but with more control. This structure is preferred in the case of the stability of external influences in the work that repeats without change. A formal and mechanical structure and the length of the central pyramid. Dynamic structure (organic) is the structure of a lot of flexibility and decentralization, but that of course reduces the control. This type preferred in the case of rapidly changing external influences, as well as in the case of companies that want to be a distinct service or product. This structure is characterized by decentralization and informal and short pyramid.
Development organizations A planned and systematic process using the principles of applied behavioral science in order to raise the effectiveness of the individual and the organization, and focus on the culture of the organization's first steps to develop organizations. The goal of developing organizations: Is the human side of organizations, and organizations through the development of the planned change, which is intended to make individuals, teams and organizations work better. The leaders and practitioners of development organizations work together multiple programs for the development of organizations, Organizations to develop programs aim to: - Improve the performance of individuals and the organization as a whole. - Members of the organization granting the necessary skills to improve performance continuously.
DUHOK DIRECTORATE OF TRAFFIC POLICE Example : Organization Developing