Name of Institution Hosni Mubarak• Muhammad Hosni Sayyid Mubarak is a former Egyptian politician and military commander. He served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.• The length of his presidency made him Egypts longest- serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force, serving as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rising to the rank of air chief marshal.• Mubarak was ousted after 18 days of demonstrations during the 2011 Egyptian revolution when, on 11 February, Vice President Omar Suleiman 3
Name of Institution Hosni Mubarak• announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces• On 13 April, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both his sons to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power. He was then ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protestors during the revolution. These trials officially began on the 3 August 2011. Egypt’s military prosecutors then also proclaimed that it is investigating Mubaraks role in the assassination of his predecessor Anwar Sadat. 4
Name of Institution Hosni Mubarak Revolution and resignation• Mass protests against Mubarak and his regime erupted in Cairo and other Egyptian cities on 25 January 2011. On 1 February, Mubarak announced he would not contest the presidential election due in September.• He also promised constitutional reform. This did not satisfy the majority of protesters as they expected Mubarak to depart immediately.• The demonstrations continued and on 2 February, violent clashes occurred between pro-Mubarak and anti- Mubarak protestors. 5
Name of Institution Hosni Mubarak• The trial of Hosni Mubarak and his two sons Alaa and Gamal, along with former interior minister Habib el-Adly and six former top police officials began on 3 August 2011 at a temporary criminal court at the Police Academy in north Cairo. The charges are corruption and the premediated killing of peaceful protestors during the mass movement to oust him, the latter of which carries the death penalty 6
Name of Institution Hosni MubarakWealth and allegations of personal corruption• In February 2011, the media reported on the wealth of the Mubarak family. ABC News indicated that experts believed the personal wealth of Mubarak and his family to be between US$40 billion and $70 billion founded on military contracts made during his time as an air force officer.• The money was said to be spread out in various bank accounts at home and abroad, including Switzerland and Britain, and also invested in foreign property. 7
Name of InstitutionOmar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir 8
Name of Institution Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir• Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir is the current President of Sudan and the head of the National Congress Party. He came to power in 1989 when he, as a brigadier in the Sudanese army, led a group of officers in a bloodless military coup that ousted the government of Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi.• Al-Bashir is a controversial figure both in Sudan and worldwide. In July 2008, the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Luis Moreno Ocampo, accused al-Bashir of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. The court issued an arrest warrant for al-Bashir on 4 March 2009 on counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity, but ruled that there was insufficient evidence to prosecute him for 9 genocide.
Name of Institution Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir• However, on 12 July 2010, after a lengthy appeal by the prosecution, the Court held that there was indeed sufficient evidence for charges of genocide to be brought and issued a second warrant containing three separate counts. The new warrant, as with the first, will be delivered to the Sudanese government, which is unlikely to execute it. Al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state ever indicted by the ICC as well as the first to be charged with genocide• The courts decision is opposed by the African Union, League of Arab States, Non-Aligned Movement, and the governments of Russia and the Peoples Republic of China. 10
Name of Institution Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir• The latest leak from WikiLeaks allegedly reveals that the Sudanese president had embezzled state funds amounting to U.S. $ 9 billion. This is justified by the International Criminal Court prosecutor who said it has evidence of corruption.• On 14 July 2008, the Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), Luis Moreno Ocampo, alleged that al-Bashir bore individual criminal responsibility for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes committed since 2003 in Darfur. 11
Name of Institution Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir• The prosecutor accused al-Bashir of having "masterminded and implemented" a plan to destroy the three main ethnic groups, the Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa, with a campaign of murder, rape and deportation. The arrest warrant is supported by NATO, the Genocide Intervention Network, and Amnesty International.• An arrest warrant for al-Bashir was issued on 4 March 2009 by a Pre-Trial chamber composed of judges Akua Kuenyehia of Ghana, Anita Usacka of Latvia, and Sylvia Steiner of Brazil indicting him on five counts of crimes against humanity (murder, extermination, forcible transfer, torture and rape) and two counts of war crimes ( pillaging and intentionally directing attacks against civilians). 12
Name of Institution Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir• The initial International Crime Court (ICC) charges against al-Bashir, which included seven counts of crimes against humanity and war crimes, were issued in March 2009 but did not include genocide counts. On appeal, the lower court was found by appellate judge Erkki Kourula to have erred in law and was ordered to reexamine the evidence for genocide.• The ICC released a further statement saying that al-Bashirs charges now include "genocide by killing, genocide by causing serious bodily or mental harm and genocide by deliberately inflicting on each target group conditions of life calculated to bring about the groups physical destruction" in three separate counts. The new warrant will act as a supplement to the first, whereby the charges initially brought against al-Bashir will all remain in place, but will now include the crime of genocide which was ruled out initially, pending appeal. 13
Name of Institution Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir• The European Union’s foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton urged Kenya to arrest Bashir and ensure its own cooperation with the ICC over the 2008 violence. 14
Name of Institution Muammar Gaddafi• Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi commonly known as Muammar Gaddafi or Colonel Gaddafi, was the autocratic ruler of Libya from 1969, when he seized power in a military coup, until 2011 when, as a result of the 2011 Libyan civil war, his government was overthrown by a NATO-backed rebel force. His 41-year rule prior to the uprising made him the fourth longest-ruling non-royal leader since 1900, as well as the longest-ruling Arab leader.• During Gaddafis period of rule many of Libyas human development indicators improved significantly. By 2010, Libya had the highest GDP per capita, Education Index, and Human Development Index in Africa as well as some of the best health indicators in the continent. 16
Name of Institution Muammar Gaddafi• The International Criminal Court issued arrest warrants on 27 June 2011 for Gaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam, and his brother-in-law Abdullah al-Senussi, concerning crimes against humanity. Interpol has also issued an arrest warrant for him for crimes against humanity.• Although often referred to as "Colonel Gaddafi", he was in fact only a lieutenant when he seized power in 1969.Weapons of mass destruction programs• Gaddafis attempts to procure weapons of mass destruction began in 1972, when Gaddafi tried to get the Peoples Republic of China to sell him a nuclear bomb 17
Name of Institution Muammar Gaddafi2011 Libyan civil war• On 17 February 2011, major political protests began in Libya against Gaddafis government. During the following week these protests gained significant momentum and size, despite stiff resistance from the Gaddafi government. By late February the country appeared to be rapidly descending into chaos, and the government lost control of most of Eastern Libya.• Gaddafi fought back, accusing the rebels of being "drugged" and linked to al-Qaeda. His military forces killed rebelling civilians, and relied heavily on the Khamis Brigade, led by one of his sons Khamis Gaddafi, and on tribal leaders loyal to him. 18
Name of Institution Muammar Gaddafi• He imported foreign mercenaries to defend his government, reportedly paying Ghanaian mercenaries as much as US$2,500 per day for their services. Reports from Libya also confirmed involvement with Belarus, and the presence of Ukrainian and Serbian mercenaries.Crimes against humanity arrest warrantThe UN referred the massacres of unarmed civilians to the International Criminal Court. Among the crimes being investigated by the prosecution was whether Gaddafi purchased and authorized the use of Viagra-like drugs among soldiers for the purpose of raping women and instilling fear. 19
Name of Institution Muammar Gaddafi• His governments heavy-handed approach to quelling the protests was characterized by the International Federation for Human Rights as a strategy of scorched earth. The acts of "indiscriminate killings of civilians" was charged as crimes against humanity, as defined in Article 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.• The International Criminal Court (ICC) issued arrest warrants on 27 June 2011 for Gaddafi, his son Saif al- Islam, and his brother-in-law Abdullah al-Senussi, head of state security for charges, concerning crimes against humanity. 20
Name of Institution Muammar Gaddafi• According to Matt Steinglass of The Financial Times the charges call for Gaddafi, and his two co-conspirators, to "stand trial for the murder and persecution of demonstrators by Libyan security forces since the uprising based in the country’s east that began in February."• On 25 August 2011, with most of Tripoli having fallen out of Gaddafis control, the Arab League proclaimed the anti-Gaddafi National Transitional Council to be "the legitimate representative of the Libyan state", on which basis Libya would resume its membership of the League. 21
Name of Institution Muammar GaddafiBattle of Tripoli• During the Battle of Tripoli, Gaddafi lost effective political and military control of Tripoli after his compound had been captured by Rebel forces. Rebel forces entered Green Square in the city center, tearing down posters of Gaddafi and flying flags of the rebellion. As of 27 August 2011 (2011 -08-27) his location was unknown, but it is has been alleged that he fled to Zimbabwe. He continued to give addresses through radio, calling upon his supporters to crush the rebels.• In September, an underground chamber was discovered beneath Tripolis largest university, containing (among other things) a bedroom, a Jacuzzi, and a fully equipped gynecological operating chamber. Only Gaddafi and his top associates had been allowed access to it in the past. 22
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.