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# IVC - Lesson 13

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### IVC - Lesson 13

1. 1. LESSON 13Type Size and SpacingTOPICS COVEREDPoint size of type phase. Spacing. Display phases.OBJECTIVESBy the end of this chapter you should know:. What is a point size.. How to give linespacing.Size Various rules govern the selection of the proper type size. The size of a type, you know, refersto its body not its face, so be careful about the term “„size”. A face with a bigger x-heightappears to be larger than other face with a smaller x-height. Compare Garamond and TimesRoman. Bigger size faces are more legible than smaller faces, because they show clarity of typedesign. But the consideration of clarity alone should not dictate the use of bigger size faces.Larger size type occupies more space. Fewer words come within the eye span, requiring moretime to read the copy. Very small faces too are difficult to read. They lack an invitation, muchless a warm one, to the copy. Coordinate your decision about size, therefore, with other legibilityfactors such as line width, space between the lines, and readers‟ educational level and age. In general, newspapers use 7 to 8 point size; other long copy publications, 9 to 12 point(newspapers in Devanagari, 8 to 10 point; other publications in Devanagari 12 to 14 point).Larger line length demands a bigger face. Designers often exploit readers: where the readingmatter is very interesting, small size type is used for economy of space. Tender notices andincome-tax forms are examples of this. Size will also depend on the surface, on which the impression is to be made. Coarse grainand coloured paper demand bigger sizes. Reverse-letters, fancy and handwritten faces should beset in bigger sizes. A condensed face in small size is difficult to read. Normal width types are atall times acceptable faces for text-matter.PointsThe size of a typeface is measured in points: One point = 1/72 of an inch. Hence 72- point type isone inch in hight—as measured from the top of the ascender (e.g., the rising stroke in “l”) to thebottom of the descender (e.g., the plunging stroke in “p”).
2. 2. Thus, for instance, the word lip in 36-point size will print out to exactly 1/2 inch from the top ofthe “l” to the bottom of the “p.”This is 18-point Times New Roman.This is 14-point Arial.This is 12-point Gil Sans.This is 10-point Courier New.This is 8-point News Gothic.Generally speaking, readers prefer to read documents in 12-point type. As a rule, anything largerthan 14 points seems loud and aggressive (like reading page after page of headlines). On theother hand, anything smaller than 10 points looks tiny and forbidding—like the small print on alegal contract or insurance form. (By the way, the fact that very few people ever really read fineprint is precisely the reason for its existence: its whole purpose is to effectively concealinformation while ostensibly publishing it; indeed it is print specifically designed not to be read).SpacingThere are four types of spacing in type composition, namely letter spacing, word spacing, linespacing and paragraph spacing. The type designer takes care of natural letter spacing whilecreating a letterform. This letter spacing is quite adequate for most of the running text. There areseveral options to achieve various moods of the type composition. Spacing of type compositioncan be obtained mechanically and optically. Optical spacing is, of course, more pleasing than themechanical one. The type body itself determines the letter spacing. This was especially true inthe days of hot metal composition, which was basically mechanical. Efforts were made to avoidthis rigidity by cutting the metal body to bring the wide shoulder letters closer and manufacturingsome of the letters jointly such as ae, fl, fi and fie. They look apart, if set individually. Thesejoint faces are known as ligatures. But now the digital typesetters can control the letter spacing asnormal, loose or tight by making the spacing X unit more or less. The kerning facility (placingtwo adjacent characters so. that one is positioned within the space of the other) offers a morepleasing composition. Based on their dominant strokes, Roman letters can be categorized intovertical, curved, a combination of vertical and curved and oblique. Letters within each grouphave similar characteristics and are more likely to be confused with one another. So, give morespace between two vertical strokes; less space between two curved and oblique letters. As forDevanagari script, designers should better be more careful in spacing the letters. Loose spacingsets apart the letters because of the distinct white space between mean lines.