Electronic Communication - Ms. Nupur Srivastav Presentation Transcript
Amity School of Communication BJMC, Semester I BJM 106 Nupur Srivastava
Growth and Reach of TV in India—
Experiments in television broadcasting were initiated during 1920’s in the United States and Europe.
In 1923 was invented the iconoscope,the electric television tube
The inventions of the kinescope or picture tube ,the electronic camera and TV home receivers arrived in next few years.
By 1930’s the National Broadcasting Corporation
(NBC) had set up a TV station in New York and BBC a TV station in London offering regular telecast programmes.Even Germany and France established television stations during the same time.
World War II held up development of the media till the early 1950’s.From then there was phenomenal growth in TV in USA,Canada,Japan and some European Countries.
With satellite communication coming in a big way,in 1962,two international satellite systems became operational-Intelsat(1965) and Intersputnik(1971)
Almost all countries on Earth have earth-stations linked to satellites for transmission and reception.
The entire World has shrunk with television linking one to another country and communications between them becoming easy and quick.
With the advent of fibre cable and computers in early 1970’s,Japan designed a computer-controlled network to carry video information.
Further developments like video tape recorder,the audiovisual cassettee,closed circuit TV and cable television,all this has contributed to growth of Television.
While all this development was taking place in television technology,many countries in Africa and Asia lagged behind.
They did not have their own domestic satellites or production and transmission centres,nor receiving sets.
Considering the cost involved,the Government of India did not encourage television transmission,despite demands from educational institutions,industrialists,politicians and the organised section of middle class.
In 1959, Philips (India) offered to set up a transmitter at a concessional cost.
The government accepted the offer considering it to be for an experimental period and to find out what television could do for rural development and formal school education.
A UNESCO grant of $20,000 for the purchase of community sets and a US offer of some equipment enabled the setting up of the New Delhi Television Centre in September 1959.
The transmitter had only a range of 40 kms.
Programmes were transmitted twice a week,each of 20 minutes.
UNESCO had provided receiving sets free to 180 teleclubs which formed the initial viewers of Delhi TV.
It took another six years for entertainment and information programmes to appear on the TV programmes.
Social Education programmes also began to appear from 1965.
A TV production centre came into existence with the help of the Federal Republic of Germany.
With the addition of news bulletins,information and entertainment programmes,the transmission was extended to three hours.
This included “Krishi Darshan” for 20 minutes beamed to 80 villages around New Delhi.This programme was put up by the Atomic Energy Department,the Indian Agricultural Research
Institute,The New Delhi Administration and the State Govt’s of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh,which also benefited by the transmission as the range of transmission had been extended to 60 kms.
In 1970 the number of television sets(all imported) stood at 22,000.By mid 1970’s when receiving sets were manufactured in India,the sets in use were more than 100,000.
By the end of the 1970’s there were 200,000 sets in Delhi and neighbouring areas.TV’s came to Mumbai
in 1972 and from then on several other cities also went for television in a big way.
By this time Doordarshan was set to look after television which was separated from All India Radio.
The setting up of terrestrial transmitters in several places became necessary.These appeared in Jaipur,Hyderabad,Raipur,Gulbarga,Muzaffarpur to take television coverage to newer areas.the population covered by this time was 100 million.
In mid 1960’s ,Dr Vikram Sarabhai,a visionary technocrat and founder of India’s space programme began arguing in policy-making circles that a nation wide satellite television system could play a major role in promoting economic and social development.
At Sarabhai’s initiative ,a national satellite communication group (NASSCOM) was established in 1968.
Based on its recommendations ,the Indian government approved a “hybrid” television
broadcasting system consisting of communication satellites as well as ground based microwave transmitters.
Sarabhai envisaged that the satellite component would allow India to leapfrog into state-of the –art communication technology,speed up the development process and take advantage of the lack of infrastructure(until 1972 there was only one television transmitter in India,located in Delhi)
Satellite broadcasting fits naturally with India’s immense size,and with the ability of satellites to overcome natural barriers to television signals like mountains.
The first U.S Communication satellite,WESTAR 1,was launched in 1974.
Today hundreds of communication satellites are boosted into space each year in order to transmit television broadcasts,long-distance telephone calls,other voice-picture-data.Infact satellites face a parking problem in space now.
Satellite Instructional Television Experiment(SITE)-
With the success of SITE the country was ready for satellite television,which enabled the setting up of a national satellite hook up.India was one of the first developing countries to experiment with satellite television.
Sarabhai’s NASSCOM planning group prepared the blueprint for INSAT,the Indian National satellite,but also realized that before embarking on
INSAT,which involved tremendous expenditures on communication infrastructure,a pilot experiment was essential .
The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) was a one year pilot project in 1975-76 utilizing NASA’s ATS-6 satellite to broadcast directly to satellite –receiving dishes in 2,400 Indian villages in order to reach tens of millions rural people, most of whom watched television for the first time.
NASA,Ford Aerospace were major foreign actors in this success.
The minor actors were General Electric,Hughes Aircraft,the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and representative of Western Nations at the ITU’s World Administrative Radio conferences
It’s objective was to improve rural primary school education,provide teacher training ,improve agriculture,health and hygiene and nutritional practises and contribute to family planning and national integration
Useful lessons were learned during SITE about satellite hardware,television software,costs and field-based operational management issues on a smaller scale prior to the launch of INSAT.
Evaluation of SITE showed that its operational management,spearheaded by officials of the Space Application Centre(SAC) was commendable.
The hardware of satellites ,earth stations,uplinks and downlinks,worked wonderfully.
On a given day ,more than 80 percent of the television sets worked to deliver television pictures to 2,400 villages.
With respect to software, SITE was somewhat a humble experience.
The key lesson learned was that engaging television programs produced in local languages and that were relevant to the needs and aspirations of rural people were needed.
The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting had drawn up a list of priorities for television in India.They were—
1) To act as a catalyst for social change
2) To promote a national integration
3) To promote a scientific temper among the people
4) To promote family planning as a means of population control and family welfare
5) To stimulate greater agricultural production by providing essential information and knowledge
6)To help preserve the environment and ecological balance
7)To promote social welfare measures for women,children and the underpriviledged.
8) To promote interest in games and sports.
9) To promote artistic and cultural heritage.
The rapid expansion of television hardware in India in the 1980’s increased the need for developing more programme software to fill the broadcast hours.
Highly popular television soap operas beginning with Hum Log in 1984-85 sparked a programming revolution at Doordarshan.
The advertising carried by Hum log promoted a new consumer product in India Maggie 2- minute noodles.
Hum Log was a special kind of soap opera
The pioneering programme utilized the entertainment cum education strategy by intentionally placing educational content in this entertainment message.
The idea of an entertainment-education soap opera came to India from Mexico where Miguel Sabido,a brilliant television producer director had created a methodology for inserting educational issues in an entertaining medium by designing positive,negative and transitional role models for the educational values that were being promoted.
Hum log was quickly followed by Buniyad,Ramayana,Mahabharata,The Sword of Tipu Sultan,Jai Hanuman,Om Namah Shivay.
The Arrival of Cable and Satellite Channels-
While Doordarshan was expanding rapidly in the 1980’s,the cable television industry was mushrooming in major Indian cities.
By 1984 entrepreneurs in cities such as Mumbai and Ahmedabad had begun wiring apartment buildings to
Transmit several films a day.
The number of cable operators in India exploded from about 100 in 1984 to 1,200 in 1988,15,000 in 1992 and to about 60,000 in 1999
The Gulf war of 1991 (which popularised CNN) and the launching of Star –TV in the same year by the Whampoa Hutchison Group of Hong Kong,signaled the arrival of private satellite channels in India.
STAR-TV broadcast through the Chinese satellite ASIASAT 1,offered five 24-hour channels in 38 countries of Asia.
In 1992 ,Zee TV,a Hindi based satellite entertainment channel also began beaming programmes to cable television systems in India
Many cable operators installed large satellite dishes to receive these private satellite channels and offered them to cable subscribers greatly multiplying the entertainment option.
By 1995 ,over 12 million Indian households were watching cable and satellite channels
By 2000 their number had risen to over 35 million
Over 40 private cable and satellite channels were available to Indian audiences including several that focussed exclusively on regional language broadcasting like Sun-TV,Eenadu –TV,Udaya-TV,,Raj TV and Asianet by 2000,Zee TV also launched several regional networks,broadcasting in Marathi,Bengali and other languages.
Doordarshan, a monopoly until the early 1990’s had to respond to this challenge from the private television networks
Beginning in 1993 Doordarshan launched a second metro entertainment channel,several regional language channels and international channel,a sports channel and a 24 hour news channel
Faced with audience’s response for entertainment programmes and increased competition from private networks,its public service mandate increasingly to
a back seat and revenue maximisation became a mantra.
Doordarshan rhetoric was consistent with the New Economic policy of 1991-privatisation,globalisation,liberalisation and commercialisation.
To increase commercial revenues,Doordarshan sold the marketing rights of its most popular programmes –like the Hindi feature films,Chitrahaar,Rangoli, and others-to private companies
Doordarshan’s commercial revenues increased steeply from the Hum Log days to 1996-97 but thereafter began to decline as popular cable and satellite channels like Zee-TV,SONY and STAR-TV began to acquire a larger share of the elite audience cutting into Doordarshan’s advertising revenues.
In brief,since the onslaught of private cable and satellite channels,Doordarshan has been operating much like a commercial network with about 20 channels targetted to different audience segments
Eyeing for advertising revenues with private television channels,measuring its success in terms of audience ratings and producing very few programmes of its own
What happened to Doordarshan in the 1990’s is reflective of the defeat of public broadcasting systems of all over the world.
The global wave of private television was swamping public television broadcasting.
The Birth of private television-
In 1990 the only television broadcaster in India by law was the public broadcasting system ,Doordarshan.
No other television system was permitted to broadcast from Indian soil.
But this situation was totally changed by a faraway event ,the Gulf War ,which began with Iraq’s invasion of neighbouring Kuwait in 1990.
Many Indian families had relatives working in the Gulf states and they were desperate for news from the region
In January 1991 warfare began between Iraq and America and other allied military forces.
In cities across India,people huddled around television sets in the lobbies of the Taj Group and other five star hotels.(like Oberoi) that subscribed to CNN and various international television news network.
Thus was born the idea of satellite television networks broadcasting into India with programming uplinked to satellite trasponders from Hong Kong ,Singapore,Moscow, or other sites outside India.
Until late 1998,each private network in India sent videos by courier to one of these sites and its programming was then uplinked for satellite transmission to India.
Today,private networks in India can uplink their programmes from Indian soil.
The first private network to capitalize on the opportunity provided by direct broadcast satellite(DBS) was STAR-TV,headquartered in Hong Kong.
“ STAR” stand for Satellite Television for the Asian Region.
The network,originally owned by the Hutch Vision Group of Hong Kong,was founded in 1991 and then acquired for $ 871 million by Rupert Murdoch’s gigantic News Corporationin 1995.
Star TV targets urban elites in Hong Kong,Taiwan,South Korea,Indonesia,India and 50 other nations from Japan to the Middle East
India soon became a Star TV’s priority audience and Star began broadcasting in Hindi as well as in English.
Star TV shocked many Indian middle-class parents by broadcasting sexually explicit music videos,first on MTV and then on its Channel V launched in 1994.
While Star TV was the catalyst for direct satellite broadcasting into India.its example was rapidly followed by Indian-owned private networks like Zee TV and by foreign –owned broadcasters like SONY.
By the late 1990’s,more than 40 private television channels were available to Indian audiences
It was estimated that by 2000 India would have the world’s largest cable and satellite markets with cable connectivity to 35 million homes comprising some 150 million cable viewers.
Rupert Murdoch’s huge News Corporation stands behind Star TV in India,giving it certain advantages in competing with Zee TV and other Indian-owned television networks.
So where financial resources are involved,Star TV has a big advantage .
Another benefits Star TV enjoys in the vicious competition within the private television industry in
India for imported programmes is its access to programmes like X-files,Baywatch and Ally McBeal which News Corporation produces for its Fox Network in America.
By late 1999,Star was broadcasting several channels in addition to the five channels with which it started the Star –TV network a)Star Plus which originally broadcast only in English; b) Channel V ,a music channel;c) Star sports d) Star Mandarin(aimed at Chinese viewers)
Star soon added Star movies .
In 1997,Star provided news broadcasts focussed on the Indian region
In 1998 ,Star World was launched,it became the channel for English-language entertainment programmes.
Star Plus greatly increased its Hindi Language programming and in 1999 this channel was gaining audience loyalty
In 2000 ,Star –TV hit programme Kaun Banega Crorepati (Who will become a Multimillionaire) attracted a record audience of 100 million cable viewers.
Thus,Star-TV has emerged as a very major force in Indian television
Zee TV started in late 1992 and has enjoyed phenomenal success surpassing Star TV and Doordarshan with certain audiences.
It consistently dominates the 10 highest –rated television shows in India,in a manner somewhat akin to that of the Fox television Network in the United States
Zee –TV excels at populist –type television programming.
Through its wealthy owner,Subhash Chandra ,Zee TV has considerable political clout with the Indian government.
The idea of Zee TV took shape during the Gulf War ,when Chandra was a watching CNN in the office of Ashok Kurien ,an advertising executive who was marketing Esselworld
Kurien recalls how Chandra asked him whether launching a private television channel like CNN was possible in India.Kurien replied that Chandra could make it happen and that he would help him Thus Zee TV was born.
Sony its full name is Sony Entertainment Television is owned by the Sony Corporation of Japan.
It began broadcasting in India in 1995,being one of the later entrants to the private television revolution.
Sony soon became the most second popular private channel behind only Zee TV and even bypassed Star TV.
Zee TV and Sony programmes are watched in over
75 percent homes with cable television in Mumbai and Delhi.
Growth of Radio-
The first radio stations were set up in Pittsburg,New York and Chicago -1920’s
To broadcast election news ,sporting events.
By mid-1923’s as many as 450 stations came across United States-all run by pool of amateurs
These stations were later connected to form National Broadcasting Company(NBC) in 1926.
The following year ,a number of independent stations clubbed together to form a second national netwoek called Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS)
The Public Service network,Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) was
In Britain and Europe, however, broadcasting was felt to be much too important to be left to private companies.
While NBC was established in United States,the British Government took the initiative to set up the BBC as an autonomous public service Corporation
Broadcasting was introduced in India by amateur radio clubs in Calcutta,Bombay,Madras and Lahore,though even before the clubs launched their ventures,several experimental broadcasts were conducted in Bombay and other cities.
The Times of India records that a broadcast was transmitted from the roof of
Its building on August 20,1921.
However,the first license granted for transmitting a broadcast was given only on February 23,1922.
The Radio Club of Calcutta was perhaps the first amateur radio club to start functioning (in November 1923),followed by the Madras Presidency Radio Club
Formed on May 16,1924 and began broadcasting on July 31.
Financial difficulties forced the clubs to come together in 1927 to form the Indian Broadcasting Company Ltd.(IBC),a private company,”fired by the financial success of European broadcasting”
Lionel Fielden ,India’s first Controller of Broadcasting,-tells that a group of Indian businessmen ,fired by the financial success of European broadcasting had a floated a Company in 1927,with too meagre capital,built two weak stations at Calcutta and Bombay.
In following three years they suffered a great deal of money and went into
Thus the Government took over the broadcasting facilities, starting the Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS) on April 1, 1930 (on experimental basis for two years, but continued in May 1932).
Fielden was its first controller.
It was initially set up under the Department of Industries and Labour
On June 8, 1936 the ISBS was renamed All India Radio
The first daily news bulletin was introduced in 1936
World War II necessiated the growth of a national network and an external service and the installation of high power transmitters to expand coverage.
Even Nazi propaganda needed to be countered.
Thus,was established the practice of all news bulletins being broadcast from one central newsroom.
During War yearsas many as 27 bulletins were broadcasted each day
AIR was transferred to the Department of Information and Broadcasting in 1946.
Underground “Congress Radio”-
The leaders of Quit India Movement had no access to press or either radio.
All India Radio was British imperialism ‘s propaganda machine
The only alternative was the establishment of underground radio using a dismantled transmitter.
A group of young Congress freedom fighters (Usha Mehta,Vithaldas Khakar,Chandrakant Javeri) launched their short lived Congress radio on September 3,1942 on 41.78 meters “from somewhere in India”(though actually from
Private FM Radio-
In 1993 FM(frequency modulated) radio broadcasts were launched in India on an AIR channel to serve half dozen metro cities.
FM radio has a shorter range than AM broadcasts,usually 30 to 40 kms but has a higher –quality sound (and is less affected
By weather conditions) than AM radio.
Several private companies like Times FM and Radio 1 began broadcasting FM radio programmes mostly geared to urban youth.
It included-music,talk shows,telephone call-ins-attracted audience of 3 to 4 million listeners.
In 1998,in an adhoc move ,the Indian Government cancelled all private programs on FM radio and programs went off the air.
In 1999,the Government approved the establishment of 150 private FM radio stations in 40 Indian cities.
And also in principle allowed non-governmental organisations,educational
Educational institutions and citizens’ group to establish Community Radio Stations.
Doordarshan is the public television broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati , a public service broadcaster nominated by the Government of India .
It is one of the largest broadcasting organizations in the world in terms of the infrastructure of studios and transmitters .
Doordarshan had a modest beginning with the experimental telecast starting in Delhi
The regular daily transmission started as a part of All India Radio .
The television service was extended to Bombay and Amritsar in 1972.
Until 1975, only seven Indian cities had a television service and Doordarshan remained the sole provider of television in India.
Television services were separated from radio in 1976.
Each office of All India Radio and Doordarshan were placed under the management of two separate Director Generals in New Delhi.
Finally Doordarshan as a National Broadcaster came into existence.
National telecasts were introduced in 1982. In the same year, colour TV was introduced in the Indian market with the live telecast of the Independence Day speech by then prime minister Indira Gandhi on 15 August 1982, followed by the 1982 Asian Games which were held in Delhi.
Early National programming ---
The 80s were noted for as Hum Log (1984), Buniyaad (1986-87) and comedy shows like Yeh Jo Hai Zindagi (1984).
Hum Log , Buniyaad , and Nukkad along with mythological dramas such as Ramayan (1987-88) and Mahabharat (1989-90),
Shaktimaan , India's First Superhero, glued millions to Doordarshan as did shows such as Bharat Ek Khoj ,
The Sword of Tipu Sultan and The Great Maratha .
Shows targeted at children include Faerie Tale Theatre , Dada Dadi ki Kahaniyan , Vikram Betaal , Sigma , Stone Boy , Malgudi Days , Tenali Rama , Potli Baba Ki (puppet show), He-Man , Superhuman Samurai Cyber Squad , Knight Rider , Teletubbies , Street Hawk and a horror serial Kile ka Rahasya (1989).
Other popular shows include Oshin a Japanese drama series, Trishna , Mr. Yogi , Neem Ka Ped , Circus , Fauji (launching Shahrukh Khan ),Rani Laxhmibai,Dastan-E-Hatim Tai,Alif Laila, Gul Gulshan Gulfam , Udaan , Rajani , Talaash , Phir Wohi Talash, Katha Saagar , Mirza Ghalib , Wagle ki Duniya , Phulvanti, Sangharsh , Lifeline , Kashish (launching Malvika Tiwari), Srimaan Srimati, Tu Tu Mein Mein , Junoon , Ajnabi (starring Danny Denzongpa )
Zabaan Sambhal Ke , Dekh Bhai Dekh , Sansaar , Swabhimaan , Chanakya , Shanti (launching Mandira Bedi ), Sea Hawks (starring R. Madhavan ), Surabhi , Tana Bana, Mujrim Hazir (launching Navni Parihar), Jaspal Bhatti's Flop Show, Meri Awaaz Suno , Captain Vyom , and Chandrakanta and Tootne Ke Baad (TV Serial by Paigham Afaqui )
Doordarshan also used to have serials before sponsored programmes came into existence. Serials like Dadi Maa Jagi, Bibi Natiyonwali and Laddoo Singh Taxi Wala were also popular
Sarab Sanji Gurbani was the first sponsored programme on Doordarshan, sponsored by Texla TV
Doordarshan also telecast English cartoons at 12.00 noon during summer vacations in a programme named "Fun Time" which showed cartoons like Spider-Man , Giant Robot (Johnny Soko and his flying robot), Gayab Aaya , Guchhae , He-Man and the Masters of the Universe , Jungle Book Shonen Mowgli Talespin & Duck Tales also the comic plays of Charlie Chaplin , Laurel & Hardy and Didi's Comedy Show .
Presently, Doordarshan operates 21 channels – two All India channels- DD National and DD News, 11 Regional languages Satellite Channels (RLSC), four State Networks (SN), an International channel, a Sports Channel DD Sports and two channels (DD-RS & DD-LS) for live broadcast of parliamentary proceedings.
DD News channel, launched on 3 November 2003, which replaced the DD Metro Entertainment channel, provides 24-Hour news service
The Regional Languages Satellite channels have two components – The Regional service for the particular state relayed by all terrestrial transmitters in the state and additional programmes in the Regional Language in prime time and non-prime time available only through cable operators.
DD-Sports Channel is exclusively devoted to the broadcasting of sporting events of national and international importance. This is the only Sports Channels which telecasts rural sports like Kho-Kho, Kabbadi etc. something which private broadcasters will not attempt to telecast as it will not attract any revenues.
DD has its own DTH service called DD Direct Plus .
Doorsharshan does not have an independent editorial Board. Prasar Bharati, its parent body has all board members appointed by the Government of India acting through the Information and Broadcasting Ministry.
Once private television channels were allowed in 1991, Doordarshan has seen a steep decline in viewership in homes with Cable and Satellite Television which in 2002 was just at 2.38% for DD National.
All India Radio – AIR ---officially known as Akashvani is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati .
Established in 1936 it is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan , the National television broadcaster, today.
All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks in the world. The headquarters are at Akashvani Bhavan, New Delhi . Akashvani Bhavan houses the drama section, the FM section and the National service
Akashvani means celestial announcement : a word of Sanskrit origin, often found in Hindu mythology. Whenever, Gods wanted to say something an Akashvani occurred.
Literally Akash means sky and Vani mean sound/message. i.e. sounds or message coming from the sky.
All India Radio is also known as Akashvani since 1956. Rabindranath Tagore coined the word Akashvani for Radio in the 1930s. The name however got official later in 1956.
In British India broadcasting started in June 1923 with programmes by the Radio Club of Bombay , followed by other radio clubs.
Then, by an agreement of 1926 the private Indian Broadcasting Company (IBC) was granted permission to operate two radio stations; the Bombay station was inaugurated on July 23, 1927, the Calcutta station followed on August 26, 1927.
But already on March 1, 1930 the Company went into liquidation.
But already on March 1, 1930 the Company went into liquidation.
Thus the Government took over the broadcasting facilities, starting the Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS) on April 1, 1930 (on experimental basis for two years, but continued in May 1932).
On June 8, 1936 the ISBS was renamed All India Radio (AIR; also known as Akashvani since 1956).
When India became independent in 1947,the AIR network had only six stations: Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lucknow, and Tiruchi; the total number of radio sets at that time was about 275,000.
Television broadcasting began in Delhi in 1959 as part of AIR, but was separated from radio as Doordarshan on April 1, 1976.FM broadcasting commenced on July 23,1977 in Madras and was expanded in the 1990s.
AIR has many different services each catering to different regions/languages across India. One of the most famous services of the AIR is the 'Vividh Bharati Seva' (roughly translating to "Multi-Indian service").
Vividh Bharati has the only comprehensive database of songs from the so termed "Golden Era" of Hindi film music (roughly from 1940s to 1980s). This service is the most commercial of all and is popular in Mumbai and other cities of India. This service offers a wide range of programmes including music, comedy shows, etc.
Some programs broadcast on the Vividh Bharti:
Hawa-mahal - Skit ( Radio Play ) based on some novels/plays.
Santogen ki mehfil - Jokes & humour.
Other services include----
Primary Channel (regional - 115 stations)
Local Radio Service (83 stations)
Home News Service (also via newsonair.com )
External Services in 27 languages
Central Drama Unit : It is a premier Production Unit of All India Radio which is responsible for quality productions.
It is responsible for the broadcast of National programme of Plays and Chain Plays. Luminaries and Playwrights like Chiranjeet, Satyendra Sharat, Nirmala Agarwal and Danish Iqbal has been associated with CDU as Producer.
Plays produced by CDU are translated and produced by regional stations.
At present this is the only Production Unit which is running the Radio Drama flag flying. Since its inception in 60s this Unit has produced more than 1500 Plays. At present CDU is a rich repository of old scripts and productions.
FM Channels ( FM Rainbow - 12 stations, FM Gold - 4, FM Classical Music )
Then there are regional services like North regional service,South regional service,West regional service
The External Services Division of All India Radio broadcasts in 27 languages to countries outside of India
In addition to broadcasts targeted at specific countries by language there is a General Overseas Service which broadcasts in English with 8¼ hours of programming each day and is aimed at a general international audience.
Yuv-vani : The voice of youth ---
The Yuv-vani service of AIR (launched July 21, 1969) provides an enriching and novel radio-experience by encouraging youth participation and experimenting with varied script ideas
Some of the big names on the Indian media scene began their journey with Yuv-vani. Comments Praful Thakkar, a well known documentary maker
Some of the other names that have been associated with Yuv-vani in the past include Celebrity game show host Roshan Abbas, VJ Gaurav Kapoor, Emcee Kshitij Sharma and DJ Pratham among others.
English and Hindi hourly news bulletins can be heard live on http://www.newsonair.com . The news in MP3 format can be directly played from the site.
The All India Radio, after launching the news-on-phone service on 25 February 1998 in New Delhi, is also running the service in Chennai, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Indore, Patna and Bangalore now. The service is accessible through STD, ISD and local telephone calls.
The AIR news bulletins are available in 9 regional languages (Tamil, Kannada, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi, North East, Punjabi, Telugu and Urdu) at http://www.newsonair.com/index_regional.htm .
Prasar Bharati ---
Prasar Bharati (literally Broadcasting Corporation of India ) is India 's largest public broadcaster .
It is an autonomous corporation of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India and comprises Doordarshan television network and All India Radio .
Prasar Bharati was established on November 23, 1997 following a demand that the government owned broadcasters in India should be given autonomy like those in many other countries.
The Parliament of India passed an Act to grant this autonomy in 1990 , but it was not enacted until September 15, 1997.
The Prasar Bharati Act—
It provides for grant of autonomy to electronic media, namely, AIR and Doordarshan, which were previously under the Government control.
The Act received the assent of President of India on September, 12, 1990 after being unanimously passed by Parliament. It was finally implemented in September 1997.
By the Prasar Bharati Act, all the property, assets, debts, liabilities, payments of money due, all suits and legal proceedings involving Akashvani (All India Radio) and Doordarshan were transferred to Prasar Bharati.
Prasar Bharati Board
The general superintendence, direction and management of the affairs of the Corporation shall vest in the Prasar Bharati Board which may exercise all such powers and do all such acts and things as may be exercised or done by the Corporation under the Prasar Bharati Act.
The Board shall consist of
(a) a Chairman;
(b) one Executive Member
(c) one Member (Finance)
(d) one Member (Personnel)
(e) six Part-time Members
(f) Director-General (Akashvani), ex-officio;
(g) Director-General (Doordarshan), ex-officio;
(h) one representative of the Union Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, to be nominated by that Ministry; and
(i) two representatives of the employees of the Corporation, of whom one shall be elected by the engineering staff from amongst themselves and one shall be elected by the other employee from amongst themselves.
The Chairman and the other Members, except the ex-officio Members, the Nominated Member and the elected Members shall be appointed by the President of India.
The Board shall meet not less than six meetings every year but three months shall not intervene between one meeting and the next meeting.
Functions and Objectives
It shall be the primary duty of the Corporation to organise and conduct public broadcasting services to inform, educate and entertain the public and to ensure a balanced development of broadcasting on radio and television.
The Corporation shall, in the discharge of its functions, be guided by the following objectives, namely:
(a) upholding the unity and integrity of the country and the values enshrined in the Constitution;
(b) safeguarding the citizen’s right to be informed freely, truthfully and objectively on all matters of public interest, national or international, and presenting a fair and balanced flow of information including contrasting views without advocating any opinion or ideology of its own;
(c) paying special attention to the fields of education and spread of literacy, agriculture, rural development, environment, health and family welfare and science and technology;
(d) providing adequate coverage to the diverse cultures and languages of the various regions of the country by broadcasting appropriate programmes;
(e) providing adequate coverage to sports and games so as to encourage healthy competition and the spirit of sportsmanship;
(f) providing appropriate programmes keeping in view the special needs of the youth;
(g) informing and stimulating the national consciousness in regard to the status and problems of women and paying special attention to the upliftment of women;
(h) promoting social justice and combating exploitation, inequality and such evils as untouchability and advancing the welfare of the weaker sections of the society;
(i) safeguarding the rights of the working classes and advancing their welfare;
(j) serving the rural and weaker sections of the people and those residing in border regions, backward or remote areas;
k) providing suitable programmes keeping in view the special needs of the minorities and tribal communities;
(l) taking special steps to protect the interests of children, the blind, the aged, the handicapped and other vulnerable sections of the people;
(m) promoting national integration by broadcasting in a manner that facilitates communication in the languages in India; and facilitating the distribution of regional broadcasting services in every State in the languages of that State;
(n) providing comprehensive broadcast coverage through the choice of appropriate technology and the best utilisation of the broadcast frequencies available and ensuring high quality reception;
(o) promoting research and development activities in order to ensure that radio and television broadcast technology are constantly updated; and
TV as infotainment-
Infotainment is information based media content or programming that includes entertainment content in effort to enhance popularity with audiences and consumers.thus infotainment is information plus entertainment
Infotainment the word was created by Joseph.L.Putegnat III in January 1979.He also created his first company by the first name.
The terms “infotainment” and “Infotainer” were first used in September 1980 at the Joint Conference of Aslib.the Institute of Information Scientists and the Library Association in Sheffield,UK.The Infotainers were a group of British information scientists who put on comedy shows at their professional conferences between 1980 and 1990.
An earlier variant term “Infortainment “ was coined in 1974 as the title of the 1974 convention of the intercollegiate Broadcasting System (IBS),the association of college radio stations in the United States.
Radio as a means of mass medium-
Radio is an interactive medium
its capacity to provoke dialogue and to encourage the participation of local population
With its lower production costs and extreme versatility radio helps in reporting in depth
The dissemination of information for entertainment or educational purposes.
The practice of collective listening developed by many rural communities gives even more people access to radio and can play an important role in the community. Its potential for interactivity is also enormous.
Radio has become a tool for bringing people closer.
These small stations, with their limited broadcasting range, have clearly identified audiences whose needs they know well and to which they are able to adjust.
Radio allows villagers to make their voices heard directly, regardless of their level of education or social standing.
Research projects and community groups are taking advantage of the participatory potential of radio.
Functions of rural radio as follows:
– a tool for democratization
– a platform for the expression of ideas and opinions
– an alternative media to the imperfections of public and commercial media
– a conflict management tool
– an agent of social change
– a channel for the diffusion of information on rural issues
a channel for the diffusion of information on rural issues
– a tool that can be used for training and the transfer and exchange of knowledge and technologies
– a channel for interactive communication, dialogue and debate on the major issues of rural development
– a medium to collect local information on social issues, which is essential for defining, planning and implementing local development efforts
a tool for cultural expression and entertainment, and a means of collecting, preserving and promoting the oral and musical heritage of rural communities
– a tool for social investigation
The main advantage offered by radio is that it gives people a means to address their fellow villagers directly, to voice their point of view.
Radio offers several possible formats for broadcasting information
The interview: This radio format allows listeners to become acquainted with a person, project, or idea. In. A pre-interview usually takes place between the interviewer and the research team or the person being interviewed. It may be used to decide on the main orientation of the interview, discuss the conclusions being sought and review the questions and answers and some of the specifics of the subject.Live or taped interview.
News bulletin: This format is used when news needs to be communicated. The news item may relate to a new development,current affairs,important national,international,regional development,sports,celebrity news
5 W’s and 1 H-who, what, where, when, why, and how should be answered or some of these question should be answered.
Radio documentary programs are remarkable programs. A radio documentary or feature is a radio documentary programme devoted to covering a particular topic in some depth.
In programs broadcast in the vernacular, the form of storytelling used should reflect that of the language in which the story is being told. Adding music and sound effects can considerably enhance the program’s impact.
If there is too much material to cover with one documentary, a series can be made. Indeed, rather than producing a single, lengthy documentary that might bore listeners, it is preferable to produce a series of shorter documentaries, lasting 10 to 15 minutes each, that will sustain the audience’s attention over a longer broadcasting period.
Discussion panel: Frequently used in participatory communication.A discussion panel helps to bring different ideas about the subject. In this context, a good discussion panel can be a highly effective communication tool.
Other mode of communication through radio is Radio theatre.In radio soap opera a concept can be taken and characters can be involved to produce this opera.
Commercial radio has become a major source of entertainment .Not only new songs,gossips but even radio jockeys have started bringing critical outlook on the policies of the government in a jovial way.Commercial radio has become medium of entertainment and information and impacts society in its own unique style.
Radio is a simple, user friendly, accessible, and a well-established medium.
From an educational provider's point of view it is easy and inexpensive to set up, produce, and broadcast programs. Most nations currently have the engineering skills and broadcasting talent to apply this technology to education.
Community radio is also an immensely powerful technology for the delivery of information with enormous global potential.
It is particularly powerful in providing access to information for marginalized populations, including women, minorities, and the poor, who often do not have access to more cutting edge technology.
Radio can expand opportunities for the intended beneficiaries of development to participate in the development agenda, which can appropriately and adequately respond to their needs and aspirations.
Satellite -An artificial body placed in an orbit around the earth or another planet in order to collect information or for communication
Geostationary satellite- is an earth-orbiting satellite,placed at an altitude of approximately 35,800 kilometres directly over the equator,that revolves in the same direction the earth rotates (west to east )
At this altitude,one orbit takes 24 hours ,the same length of time as the earth requires to rotate once on its axis.
The term geostationary comes from the fact that such a satellite appears nearly stationary in the sky as seen by a ground-based observer.