1. ENGLISH RESEARCH PROPOSAL IMPROVING SPEAKING SKILL THROUGH SIMULATION AS THE COMMUNICATIVE ACTIVITIES AT TENTH GRADE STUDENT OF TOURISM DEPARTMENT SMK NEGERI 1 KUBU IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2012/20131.1 Background of Study Language is the most significant possession of human being to docommunication in conveying and sharing idea, feeling, emotion, and informationto people both in spoken and written forms. Language has an important role ineveryday life interactions. Nowadays, in global era, English is used asinternational language for business, tourism, political and internationalrelationship. Related to the fact above, Broughton (2003: 1) states that English is aninternational language and most people in the world use this language. It is themost broadly studied as foreign language in the world. This fact can also be seenin Indonesia. English is learnt widely either for general or specific purpose informal as well as information and education from the elementary school up tojunior and senior high school as well as universities or colleges. Richard (2008) states that a large percentage of the world’s languagelearners study English in order to develop proficiency in speaking. This is causedby the functions of speaking that cover many aspects of human interaction, such 1
2. 2as involved expressing ideas and opinions, expressing a wish or a desire to dosomething, negotiating, solving a particular problem, establishing and buildingsocial relationship and friendships, maintaining business or other professionalreasons. Those are just a few reasons why people may wish to speak, and then itseems fair to assume that speaking skills play a large part in this overallcompetence. Furthermore, Harmer (2005) drawn that one of communicativeactivities in English language teaching (ELT) is simulation. By applyingsimulation in ELT classroom, the students are given an opportunity to practicecommunicating in different social context and in different social roles. Thestudents are given more chances for practicing their English skills, particularlytheir English speaking by carrying out the conversation in meaningful contextsand functionally situations that commonly occurred in their daily activities. Since the speaking is an essential to improve, the researcher thinksthat it is necessary for the teacher to find out the applicable technique in order tocreate a situation which leads the students to consider that learning is for fun.From a lot of methods of teaching speaking, the researcher is interested inapplying the simulation to improve the students` ability in speaking skill.Therefore, in accordance with the above facts, the researcher is highly motivatedto find out the effectiveness of simulation in improving the students` speakingmastery.1.2 Statement of Research Question
3. 3 Based on the background above, the researcher formulates researchquestions as follows: to what extent can the students` ability in speaking beimproved trough Simulation of the tenth grade students of Tourism department atSMK Negeri 1 Kubu in academic year 2012/2013?1.3. Objectives of the Research Objective of the study is certainly intended to answer and solve theresearch question which has been stated before. This thesis also has its purpose. Inline with the research question stated above, the objectives of this research are asfollows: to find out how far the use of simulation improve the students’ speakingskills at the tenth grade students of Tourism department at SMK Negeri 1 Kubu.1.4. Limitation of the study On account this fact, challenges related to the teaching of Speaking andUnderstanding English at Basic Operational Level at the tenth grade students ofTourism department at SMK Negeri 1 Kubu by using simulation.1.5. Significance of the Study The result of the research are generally expected to be: (1) thesource of information to improve the teaching techniques in encouraging studentsto speak English, (2) the useful information for teachers, particularly the Englishteachers at SMK to develop their speaking class activities, so their activitiesbecome more effectively, communicatively and functionally, (3) the source of
4. 4information for teachers or other researcher who want to have further study onspeaking activities.1.6. Assumption In this investigation, the researcher thinks that is essential to makesome assumption for the purpose of emphasizing the present study. There aresome other variables that may be related and have effects to this research,however the researcher only concerns with the variables as stated on researchquestion. In order to neutralize the compounding variables, it is essential, to statesome assumption as follows : (1) all subject under study are assumed to havelearnt English for the same period of time, (2) all subject under study are assumedto have similar learning motivation, (3) all subjects under study are assumed tohave similar language experience and language exposure, (4) the instruments usedfor collecting the data are constructed in such a way that they are supposed to bevalid and reliable.1.7 Hypothesis Concerning the review of related literature and the conceptual frameworkthe hypothesis of this research are formulated as follows: (1) there is a significantimprovement of the students’ achievement in speaking taught by using simulation,(2) the students are interested to speak English through simulation.1.8 Definition of the Key Terms
5. 5 There are some terms, which are define operationally so as to avoidmisunderstanding on the part of the readers, that is, the speaking skill, Simulation,and the students’ interest at tenth grade of SMK Negeri 1 Kubu. 1. Speaking skill is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving and processing information (Brown, 2001: 26). It is form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the participant themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment , and the purpose for speaking. It is often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving. However, speech is not always unpredictable. Therefore, in line with this study the term `speaking skill` refers to the skill of the students in producing, receiving and processing information orally after they are taught through Simulation. 2. Simulation is one of oral communicative activities that used as the teaching technique in improving the students’ speaking skills. By applying simulation in speaking class, the students carry out conversations in meaningful and functional context, and performing how to use English in the real situation. 3. The students’ interest is the aspect that enables students to be active in speaking English. By simulating the teaching materials, the students’ interest are hope to be improve, because they believe that the activities will be useful and matches with the situation when they get the job training or the world of work after graduated.
6. 61.9 Theoretical Framework A scientific investigation is expected to contribute practicalsignificance and should be conducted on the basis of some relevant theoreticalconstructs and empirical evidences. The present investigation is based on thefollowing theoretical framework:(1) Theory of speaking, (2) Technique ofteaching speaking, (3) Teaching speaking through Simulation Technique, (4)Assessment of speaking.1.10. Research Method1.10.1 Setting and subject of the study The study is conducted at SMK N 1 Kubu. There `s only one class oftenth grade students of SMK Negeri 1 Kubu in academic year of 2012/2013. Thetotal numbers of the student are 36 consisting of 26 females and 10 males. Theresearcher is selected this class because they have crucial problem in speaking.1.10.2 Research Design In this methodology the researcher acted as a teacher because thisstudy make use of classroom action research which is further defined as a cyclicprocess of action.
7. 7 Scholaert (2000:56) states that classroom action is divided into twocycles that consist of four elements. They are: planning (theory formulation),Action (intervention was carried out), Observation (Data collection andintervention), and Reflection (Data analysis). It was necessary to note IR used inclassroom action study, which refers to a pre-test in speaking skill. To make clear,the design at the action study could be described as follow: Cycle I IR P1 A1 O1 R1 Cycle II RP P2 A2 O2 R2The six elements are elaborate as follows:A. Initial Reflection A classroom action research always starts from administering IRand interview. The term IR commonly used in a classroom action research to referto the pre-test. The main purpose is to figure out the pre existing speakingachievement of the subject under study. The result of IR is used as starting pointsthe undertaking action research.B. Planning Before the present action research could be successfullyundertaken, the research has to carry out instructional planning for all the session.In order to achieve the objective of the present classroom action study, the
8. 8researcher plan the instructional activities as follows: determining the subjects ofstudy of SMK N 1 Kubu, preparing pre-test in speaking, selecting the speakingmaterial, setting up the teaching scenario session for each, setting up the post test,and constructing questionnaires to the subject under study.C. Action Implementing the previously planned teaching scenario is the mainactivity in this classroom action study. In line with the objective of the study,action or classroom activities refers to what the research really do in the classroomsetting during the process of teaching speaking by using simulation technique.The researcher will attempt to manage and conduct the previously plannedclassroom activities in the teaching scenario, so that the objectives of teachingspeaking for each session can be most effectively and efficiently attained. Thereare three main activities that the researcher will do in the classroom, they are: pre-activity, whilst activity, and post activity.D. Observation The observation will do during the process and after the process ofteaching learning activity. During the process, the researcher observes thesituation of the class and the ability of the students in speaking. The students seemto enjoy the technique using simulation. Post-test is administered in order to know the result of the applicationof simulation in speaking ability. The analysis on the result of the achievement on
9. 9speaking through simulation can be seen from the score got by the students inmean score.E. Reflection Reflection is a term that refers to a post test. The present classroomaction study is divided into 2 cycles and each cycle consists of 4 interconnectedsessions. Reflection is administered during the post activities of each session. Atthe end of action, their mastery will be tested to know ether their mastery itgetting better or improve. The result of the entire whole reflections of post test incycle I are used as feedback and basis to plan the actions in cycle II much better.During the action the researcher will observe directly the student`s interest andinvolvement in teaching and learning process.1.10.3 Research Instrument The research instruments are the tools which are used by theresearcher to collect the required data.There are some instruments that are used in this study in obtaining the data,namely:1. Lesson Plan The lesson plan is prepared in order to have a clear description ofwhat to be done in classroom. It is a guideline for the teacher in conducting everysteps of the teaching plan. This lesson plan also will help teachers organize their
10. 10objective and methodologies; determines the purpose, aim, and rational of theclass time activity. This lesson plan involves the activities that are conducted, thetime allocation, the teachers` approach, and the material used in teaching andlearning process. It will help the teacher think through the best way to present theinformation to the students.2. The Test The tests are used to measure the students` achievement on the lessonbeing though such as: pre test and post test. The pre test is conducted before thetreatment is carried out to know the students prior knowledge on speaking. Afterpre test, the post test are conducted at the end of the cycle to measure the students`achievement upon the lesson being present through simulation where the post testis designed in the same form with the pre test.3. Questionnaire The questionnaires are used to know the students` response on theapplication of the simulation in order to help them to improve theircommunication in English speaking. The questionnaire contains some items andthe questionnaire is distributed to all the end of the cycle.1.10.4 Data Collection In this study, there are two kinds of data, namely: quantitative andqualitative data. Quantitative data are obtained from the result of the test. The dataare collected through administering IR and post-tests. These data are presented in
11. 11the form of table and analyzed descriptively. While the qualitative data areobtained from non-number data taken from observation during the treatments, thequestionnaire is administered at the end of cycle 1 respectively. Therefore, there are considerably three kinds of raw scored which areobtained for the present class action study, those are: 1. Score indicating the subjects` pre-existing mastery in speaking. 2. Score showing the subjects` progress achievement in speaking English; and 3. Scores showing the subjects` changing learning behaviors.1.10.5 Data Analysis The data obtained for the present classroom action study are analyzeddescriptively so as to reveal the extent of the subjects` progress or increasingmastery in speaking. The mean scores in reflection or post-tests for both cycle Iand cycle II. In order to find out the percentage of mean score of pre-test, post test1, and post test 2, the score is analyzed by using the following formula: M = ∑X NWhere:
12. 12 M = Mean score/average score of the students` achievement on speaking skill. ∑X = The sum of the total score N = The total number of the students. The computing formula above is adopted from Heaton (2003:9). Thescores showing the subjects` positive changing behaviors are computed in theform of percentage which refers to respective items on the questionnaires. Themeans of IR scores and post-test scores are calculated and computed. The grandmean of cycle I and cycle II is finally computed and compared. The grand mean of both cycles, cycle I and cycle II, is calculated bytotaling the means of the scores in each cycle and then divide by four. The amountof the difference between the two means show increasing effectiveness of cycle Iand cycle II. This occurs because cycle II is the revised version cycle I.
13. 13 REFERENCESBroughton, Geoffrey. 2003. Teaching English as a Foreign Language. London: Franchise-Library University.Brown. H. Douglas. 2001. Teaching by Principle: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New York: LongmanHarmer, Jeremy. 2005. The Practice of English Language Teaching. New York: Longman.Richards, J.C. 2008.Teaching Listening and Speaking. United Kingdom: Cambridge University PressSchollaert, Rudy. 2000 Effective staff Development: An Evaluation Manual. Belgium: The Author and Grant Publisher