Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Chapter 5
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter 5

261
views

Published on

pembelajaran

pembelajaran


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
261
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Goal 4 – Application of Psychology. Students are introduced to the identification and treatment of abnormal behavior through the case of Peter.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. « Discussion Tip Ask students to discuss this question: What is the most important thing you have ever learned outside of a classroom?
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. « Discussion Tip Ask your students to give examples of how they have habituated in the past. Good potential examples are people who live near railroad tracks, people who work in daycare centers, and people who work in noisy factories— all of whom tend to habituate to these noises. « Teaching Tip When unexpected noises occur during class (e.g., students coming in late, people dropping books, etc.), stop lecture and have students describe how they oriented towards these stimuli.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Goal 4 – Application of Psychology. The knowledge base of the field of psychology is used to treat a variety of problems in the real world, in this case vertigo. Goal 9 – Personal Development. Students can use this information to help themselves or others by applying the principle of psychology. « Teaching Tip Warn students, once again, not to confuse habituation with the formation of a habit.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Figure 5.1 Pavlov’s Original Experiment The dog was held in the apparatus while food powder was placed before it. The presence of the food (unconditioned stimulus, or US) caused the dog to salivate (unconditioned response, or UR). After a while, cues in the laboratory situation (perhaps lights, sounds, or sights) became conditioned stimuli (CS) that also caused the dog to salivate (conditioned response, or CR). From Basic Psychology, 5/e by Henry Gleitman, Alan J. Fridlund & Daniel Reisberg. Copyright © 2000, 1996, 1992, 1987, 1983 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Used by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. « Discussion Tip Ask students to come up with their own examples of classical conditioning. Then have them write their examples on the board, labeling the different components. Have the class analyze the examples for accuracy.
  • Figure 5.2 Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Paradigm Before conditioning, the neutral stimulus has no power to cause the response. After repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus, which naturally elicits an unconditioned response, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus with the power to elicit the response—now called the conditioned response.
  • Figure 5.3 Possible Placements of the CS and the US in Classical Conditioning The positioning of the CS and US are shown for 5 different versions of classical conditioning: forward delayed, forward trace, forward trace with longer delay, simultaneous, and backward conditioning.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. « Discussion Tip Ask your students who have pets whether they have ever seen evidence of classical conditioning in their pets. « Teaching Tip Go through Table 5.1 during class to be sure your students understand that there are only so many US-UR pairs in existence. Then give students some examples of behaviors for which there is no US (e.g., riding a bicycle), and explain that these behaviors cannot be classically conditioned—they must be learned through other means. « Discussion Tip Have students discuss ads they’ve seen that seem to use classical conditioning. Have them attempt to explain how classical conditioning occurred and identify the US,UR, NS/CS, & CR.
  • Table 5.1 Some Examples of US-UR Pairs
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. « Technology Tip http://evolution.massey.ac.nz/assign2/JMonter/Pavlov.html A Website devoted to classical conditioning and Ivan Pavlov.
  • Goal 4 – Application of Psychology. Students learn more about how abnormal behaviors are better understood in this section. « Technology Tip http://cla.calpoly.edu/~cslem/101/8-C.html A Web site with examples of classical conditioning in real life.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. Goal 2 – Research Methods in Psychology. The “research” using Little Albert as the subject is introduced in this section. Goal 4 – Application of Psychology. Students are introduced to how psychology principles are used to understand human behavior in everyday life, in this case advertisements. « Technology Tip http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_B._Watson A free encyclopedia Web site, with an article on J. B. Watson. « Technology Tip http://faculty.concord.edu/rockc/articles/albert.html Whatever Happened to Little Albert? A site containing a paper by author Ben Harris that discusses the Little Albert experiments and the fate of little Albert. « Discussion Tip Have students recall what they learned about ethics in Chapter 1. Then ask them what Watson would have had to do to make the Little Albert experiments ethical.
  • Figure 5.4 The Little Albert Experiment Watson and his assistant, Rosalie Rayner, classically conditioned Albert to fear a white lab rat.
  • Figure 5.5 Mary Cover Jones’s Counterconditioning Procedure for Removing Conditioned Phobias
  • Goal 4 – Application of Psychology. The real life application of psychological principles to change human (and animal) behavior is discussed in this section. « Technology Tip http://www.ctalearning.com/ A database maintained by researchers at American University that has a searchable database of articles on taste aversion. « Teaching Tip Have a contest in class to see which student has the longest running taste aversion. Have the winner tell his or her story. Then refer back to this story as you discuss taste aversion. « Teaching Tip If students wish to share stories of family and friends who have undergone treatment for alcoholism, caution them to do so in such a way as to protect the person’s identity. « Discussion Tip Ask students if they have ever overcome a conditioned taste aversion. If so, ask them how they did it.
  • « Teaching Tip If you wish, explain the process of systematic desensitization at this point in your course—it will help students see the big picture of psychology. « Discussion Tip Have your students discuss (without giving names or identifying details) people they’ve known who have had unusual phobias, and how these phobias may have originated.
  • Figure 5.6 The Phases of Classical Conditioning These plots show the number of conditioning trials on the x axis and the strength of the conditioned response on the y axis. During acquisition, the response increases in strength as a function of the number of times the CS and US have been paired together. During extinction, the CS is presented without the US, which leads to a decrease in the strength of the CR. Note that during extinction, sometimes there is a temporary, sharp increase in the strength of the CR despite the fact that the CS has not been recently presented with the US. This is called spontaneous recovery. From Psychology in Action, 5/e, p. 185 by Huffman, et al. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Used by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • The Big Picture Review 5.1 AbbreviationTermDefinition US Unconditioned Stimulus A stimulus that naturally and reliably evokes a response in the person or animal. UR Unconditioned Response The response that is naturally and reliably elicited by the unconditioned stimulus. NS Neutral Stimulus A stimulus that does not initially elicit the unconditioned response in the person or animal. CS Conditioned Stimulus A stimulus that was once neutral, but through association with the unconditioned stimulus, now has the power to elicit the response in the animal or person. CR Conditioned Response After conditioning has occurred, the response that is elicited in the person or animal by the conditioned stimulus.
  • Table 5.2 Tips for Identifying and Analyzing Classical Conditioning Situations
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. « Discussion Tip Ask your students who own cats to predict how a cat would react when first placed in a puzzle box.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. Goal 2 – Research Methods in Psychology. Skinner’s research with cats in puzzle boxes in described in this section of the text.
  • Figure 5.7 Puzzle Box This is an example of a puzzle box like those used by Thorndike. To get out of the box, the cat would have to pull the string or step on the pedal. From Basic Psychology, 5/e by Henry Gleitman, Alan J. Fridlund & Daniel Reisberg. Copyright © 2000, 1996, 1992, 1987, 1983 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Used by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • Figure 5.8 Reinforcement of a Successful Response in a Puzzle Box Experiment The law of effect predicts that behaviors that lead to positive consequences will be strengthened whereas behaviors that fail to do so will weaken and be eliminated. Over the trials of Thorndike’s study, the cats became successively less likely to engage in nonproductive behaviors—biting at the bars and jumping up and down—and more likely to engage in pulling the string. From Basic Psychology, 5/e by Henry Gleitman, Alan J. Fridlund & Daniel Reisberg. Copyright © 2000, 1996, 1992, 1987, 1983 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Used by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc [sd1]  .   [sd1][[Production note: We are changing this figure to a line graph, so I don’t know if we need to get permission from Norton.]]
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. « Technology Tip http://www.biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de/genetics/behavior/learning/behaviorism.html A Web site containing a historical overview of operant conditioning and behaviorism.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. « Teaching Tip Caution students not to make the very common mistake of confusing negative reinforcement with punishment. To reinforce this, have them generate original examples of the four consequences that can follow a behavioral response.
  • Concept Review Table 5.2 The Four Types of Consequences of Behavior Reinforcement increases the likelihood of a behavior and punishment decreases it.
  • Goal 8 – Sociocultural and International Awareness. Students are encouraged to think about how sociocultural and international contexts influence individual differences.
  • Goal 8 – Sociocultural and International Awareness. Students are encouraged to think about how sociocultural and international contexts influence individual differences. « Teaching Tip If you have Asian students in class, ask them to share with the class what evidence of the Japanese view of reinforcement they have seen in their culture. If you have students from other collective cultures, ask them if the Japanese forms of reinforcement seem to apply in their cultures as well.
  • Goal 3 – Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology. Students are challenged to think about why certain human behaviors exist. « Discussion Tip Ask students to come up with examples of how they have been conditioned through instrumental conditioning in the past. Then have them explain how these examples fit with the Law of Effect.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. Goal 2 – Research Methods in Psychology. The animal research using the Skinner box is described in this section. « Technology Tip http://www.bfskinner.org/index.asp The homepage of the B. F. Skinner Foundation, an organization devoted to educating the world about the work of B. F. Skinner. « Teaching Tip Bring a Leap Pad, See ‘n Say, toddler activity table, or other children’s toy that is designed for solitary play to class. Demonstrate the toy, and explain that these toys are really extensions of the Skinner box idea because they automatically reinforce the child for learning.
  • Figure 5.9 Skinner Box In these operant chambers the animals can be reinforced with food for pressing the bar or pecking the disk. Skinner boxes like these allow researchers to efficiently gather data on operant conditioning.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Figure 5.10 Acquisition and Extinction in Operant Conditioning Just as we saw in classical conditioning, operant responses can also undergo acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. « Discussion Tip Ask students whether they can even think of a situation in which continuous reinforcement is used in the real world. They will most likely have trouble doing this. If they can identify examples, ask them to think about what would happen if the reinforcement suddenly stopped in these examples. Would extinction be fast or slow?
  • Figure 5.11 Partial Reinforcement of a Rat in a Skinner Box This graph plots the rates of response for the different schedules of reinforcement and the points at which the rat is reinforced. Notice how the rat’s bar pressing behavior changes before and after it receives a pellet on the different schedules of reinforcement. Which schedule would you use if you were going to use positive reinforcement to train your dog?
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. Goal 4 – Application of Psychology. The understanding of fascination with gambling and/or slot machines is discussed in this section of the text. « Teaching Tip If you have appropriate access, bring a rat in a Skinner box to class and condition the rat to bar press on a continuous schedule. Then place the rat on an extinction schedule and record how long it takes the rat to stop pressing the bar. If you wish, repeat this demonstration with another rat using a VR schedule to show the difference in extinction rates.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. « Technology Tip http://www.wagntrain.com/OC/ A site that explains the use of conditioning in animal training.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. Goal 4 – Application of Psychology. Psychological principles are applied to the understanding of behaviors such as prejudice and discrimination.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. Goal 4 – Application of Psychology. Using psychological principles to train animals and children is discussed in this section of the text. « Discussion Tip Have students discuss the practical applications of shaping in the real world. « Technology Tip http://www.seaworld.org/infobooks/Training/home.html A Web site that discusses the use of behavior training on animals.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section.
  • Goal 3 – Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology. Students are encouraged to think beyond their own beliefs and experiences to better understand the research findings regarding the use of punishment in changing behaviors. Goal 5 – Values in Psychology. Students are encouraged to understand the limitations of their own knowledge and skills in psychology. « Teaching Tip When discussing parental use of punishment, be careful to reassure students that you are not making personal judgments about their parents. Otherwise students may become defensive.
  • Figure 5.13 Classical Conditioning of Fear During a Spanking Even though a parent may only intend to use operant conditioning when spanking a child, it is also possible that the child may also experience classical conditioning. Because a parent is the one delivering the punishment, a parent can become a conditioned stimulus that elicits fear in the child.
  • Goal 3 – Critical Thinking Skills in Psychology. Students are encouraged to think beyond their own beliefs and experiences to better understand the research findings regarding the use of punishment in changing behaviors. Goal 4 – Application of Psychology. The use of psychological principles and research findings in changing behavior is introduced in this section. Goal 5 – Values in Psychology. Students are encouraged to understand the limitations of their own knowledge and skills in psychology.
  • « Teaching Tip Have students create their own personal reinforcement hierarchy as a written assignment. Then encourage them to use these reinforcers in a self-reinforcement program designed to change a behavior in themselves that they find problematic.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains of psychology (learning) is further discussed in this section. Goal 4 – Application of Psychology. The use of behavioral principles is described through the examples of token economies. « Discussion Tip Ask students whether they have ever participated in a token economy. If so, discuss. If not, ask them to come up with an original, practical application of a token economy.
  • Figure 5.14 A Sample Point System From a Token Economy
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base in Psychology. One of the four general domains of psychology (learning) is further discussed through the examples of latent and insight learning. « Technology Tip http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Tolman/Maps/maps.htm A Web site with Tolman’s 1948 article on cognitive maps.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains of psychology (learning) is further discussed through the introduction of social learning.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains of psychology (learning) is further discussed through the introduction of social learning. Goal 2 – Research Methods of Psychology. The classic research of Albert Bandura is explored in this section.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains of psychology (learning) is further discussed through the introduction of social learning. Goal 4 – Application of Psychology. Television aggression is discussed as it relates to the principles of observational learning. Goal 2 – Research Methods of Psychology. The classic research of Albert Bandura is explored in this section. « Technology Tip http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/bandurabio.html A Web site containing a biographical sketch of Albert Bandura. « Teaching Tip Bring videos of current children’s cartoons to class, and have students count the number of instances of violence and aggression. Then discuss in terms of modeling. In another version of this, record the commercials that are played during children’s shows. Have the class analyze these ads for models of aggression, gender roles, and stereotypes. Sometimes the commercials are much less politically correct than the shows themselves!
  • Figure 5.15 Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiments These photos, taken from the Bobo doll experiments, clearly show the children (panel B) modeling what they saw the model (panel A) doing to Bobo.
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. « Discussion Tip Ask students to discuss why kids are more likely to be found playing Batman on the playground than Barney. Use this to lead into a discussion of what characteristics make a model attractive to children (e.g., being powerful).
  • Goal 1 – Knowledge Base of Psychology. One of the four general domains (learning) of psychology is discussed in this section. Goal 9 – Personal Development. Students are encouraged to think about how what they have learned impacts their own behavior and the behaviors of others.
  • Transcript

    • 1. How Do We Learn?The Big Picture: Lifetimes of Experience
    • 2. Learning to Live• Nature: genes• Nurture: environment• Learning: acquisition of skills needed to survive
    • 3. The Story of Peter• Isolated during first three years in Russian orphanage• Very little human contact• Adopted in nurturing home• Language delays and oddities• Social difficulties• With help Peter was able to overcome these difficulties
    • 4. Defining Learning• We learn from all of life’s events – not just psychology class!• Definition – relatively permanent change in behavior or the potential for behavior that results from experience – May or may not be permanent change (relatively) – Not restricted to humans – Learning is related to experience
    • 5. Orienting and Habituation: Learning to Ignore• Orientating reflex – orient sense organs in direction of unexpected stimuli – Try it with your pet!• Habituation – when a stimulus is repeated over and over again the orienting reflex diminishes or stops• Most likely related to natural selection
    • 6. Habituation as an Adaptive Asset• What if we could not habituate? – Constantly attend to stimuli – Disrupt functioning• Advantages of habituation – Attend to potentially threatening stimuli – Tune out non-threatening stimuli
    • 7. Dishabituation• Definition – more intense response to stimulus to which previously habituated• Caused by change in quality of stimulus or passage of time
    • 8. Practical Application of Habituation• Training for people suffering from chronic motion sickness or vertigo – Habituate to visual and vestibular signals that create sickness
    • 9. Classical Conditioning: Learning Through the Association of Stimuli• Pavlov and his dogs – learning to associate certain cue or stimuli (footsteps, buzzer) with presentation of food• Conditioned to respond to footsteps or buzzer by salivating
    • 10. The Elements of Classical Conditioning• Unconditioned stimulus (US) and response (UCR) – Naturally occurring stimulus (US), response is naturally evoked (UR)• Neutral stimulus (NS) – NS does not typically evoke response
    • 11. The Elements of Classical Conditioning (continued)• Pairing neutral and unconditioned stimuli – NS and US presented together; NS becomes conditioned stimulus (CS) to produce conditioned response (CR)
    • 12. Summing it Up• Classical conditioning – learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus that reliably causes an unconditioned response, and because of this association, the neutral stimulus looses its neutrality and takes on the same power as the unconditioned stimulus to cause the response
    • 13. Factors Affecting Classical Conditioning• Relationship in time: contiguity – NS/CS and US must occur close together in time – NS/CS should precede the US• Consistency and reliability: contingency – NC/CS should reliably predict the onset of the US
    • 14. Real-World Classical Conditioning: WhatResponses Can Be Classically Conditioned in Humans?• Emotional responses• Physiological responses
    • 15. Classical Conditioning of Emotional Responses• Little Albert– white rat, noise• Stimulus generalization – stimuli similar to CS, same power to elicit CR (rats to dogs, rabbits• Counterconditioning – conditioned to have positive (systematic desensitization)• Stimulus discrimination – CR occurs in response to only specific stimuli• Advertisers use classical conditioning
    • 16. Classical Conditioning of Physiological Responses: The Special Case of Taste Aversion• Taste aversion – sight, smell, idea of food make person sick; classically conditioned through experience• Single pairing sufficient, interval between pairings can be long• Real life applications – Coyotes and sheep – Try it yourself – pizza aversion?! – Aversion therapy and alcoholism
    • 17. Extinction of Classically Conditioned Responses• Extinction – presenting CS without presenting the US• Habituation may play a role• Pavlov’s extinction trials – Acquisition (learning curve) for CR and extinction curve• Spontaneous recovery – CR occurs during extinction
    • 18. Instrumental and Operant Conditioning: Learning from the Consequences of Our Actions• Instrumental conditioning – learning from consequences of behavior (e.g. positive comments from others)• Powerful means of learning
    • 19. E.L. Thorndike’s Law of Effect• E.L. Thorndike (1874 – 1949)• Worked with cat in puzzle boxes
    • 20. Unlocking the Puzzle of Learning• Cats learned to associate behavior (tripping mechanism) with consequence of behavior (getting out of box)• Law of effect – behaviors that lead to positive, satisfying consequences will be strengthened. Behaviors that lead to negative, discomforting consequences will be weakened and less likely to be emitted
    • 21. Random Actions and Reinforcement• Particular response, perhaps starting out as random response, is strengthened or reinforced because was instrumental in evoking reward• Rewarded behavior is likely to happen again• Behaviors not rewarded are likely to stop
    • 22. Positive and Negative Reinforcement• Positive reinforcement – Behavior leads to something pleasant• Negative reinforcement – Behavior is rewarded by the removal of something unpleasant• Punishment is not the same as negative reinforcement – “Negative” means removing something – Remember that reinforcement increases behavior
    • 23. Positive and Negative Punishment (continued)• Positive punishment – Addition of something unpleasant that decreases behavior• Negative punishment – Removal of something pleasant that decreases behavior
    • 24. A Japanese View of Reinforcement• Japanese culture – collectivistic society• U.S. – individualistic society• Theory of Japanese research Yutaka Haruki• Opinions and actions play role in reinforcement
    • 25. A Japanese View of Reinforcement (continued)• Four types of human reinforcement – External reinforcement (oshitsuke) – Self-reinforcement (makase) – Internal reinforcement (uketome) – Alien reinforcement (mitome)
    • 26. More Thoughts• What we find rewarding and punishing may differ• However, still predicts how behavior changes through conditioning
    • 27. Why Is Instrumental Conditioning Useful?• Natural selection – Behaviors that are adaptive are kept, those that are not are weeded out• Back to Peter
    • 28. How Classical and Instrumental Conditioning Differ• Classical conditioning, passive role• Instrumental conditioning, more active role• Classical conditioning, one clear response is required; instrumental, many responses possible• Classical conditioning emotions and physiological responses are conditioned; instrumental behaviors more complex
    • 29. B.F. Skinner and Operant Responses• Introduced term operant to instrumental conditioning• Respondent behavior – classically conditioned behavior• Operant behavior – behavior that operates on an organism’s environment to produce consequence• Developed method of studying animal behavior – Skinner box
    • 30. Acquisition and Extinction• Acquisition – conditioning of response – Behavior increases because it is reinforced• Extinction – loss of a conditioned response – Occurs because behavior is no longer reinforced – Extinction burst- temporary increase in behavior in the absence of reinforcer
    • 31. Schedules of Reinforcement• Timing and consistency of the reinforcement affects rate at which behavior is acquired or extinguished• Continuous schedule• Ratio schedules• Interval schedules
    • 32. Continuous Schedules of Reinforcement• Behavior rewarded each time exhibited• Drawbacks – Not always feasible – More vulnerable to extinction• Partial reinforcement schedules – Schedules of reinforcement where behavior reinforced only some of the time
    • 33. Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement• Fixed ratio schedule – Set number of responses emitted before reward given – Slower extinction, high rates of responding
    • 34. Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement (continued)• Variable ratio schedule – Exact number of responses needed to receive reward; vary around an average – Even slower rates of extinction, high rates of responding – Example – slot machines
    • 35. Interval Schedule of Reinforcement• Fixed interval schedule – Behavior rewarded once per some interval of time has passed – Most of responding occurs right around time reward is due with pauses after reward
    • 36. Interval Schedule of Reinforcement (continued)• Variable interval schedule – Similar to variable ratio, but interval varies – Produces steady rates of responding – Resistant to extinction
    • 37. Summary• Continuous reinforcement high rates of responding, quickest extinction• Ratio schedule higher rates of responding• Variable schedule most resistant to extinction
    • 38. Generalization and Discrimination• Discrimination – Learns to distinguish among stimulus situations displays a particular response only in situations where reinforcement is expected; discriminate• Generalization – Emits same behavior in response to different, but similar stimuli• Negative aspects: prejudice, discrimination
    • 39. Shaping New Behaviors• First step – behavior must be emitted• Shaping allows a new behavior to be conditioned by successive approximations• Real life examples – Animal training – Modifying children’s behavior
    • 40. Decisions That Must Be Made When Using Operant Conditioning• Punishment or reinforcement• Choosing a reinforcer that is reinforcing• Primary and secondary reinforcers
    • 41. Punishment or Reinforcement• Most effective: show what behavior is desired and reinforce when behavior is demonstrated
    • 42. The High Risks of Punishment• Bottom line – doesn’t teach correct/desired behavior• Harsh punishment teaches aggression• Harsh punishment ineffective at producing behavior changes• Harsh punishment leads to negative emotional reactions (learned helplessness)• Physical punishment should be avoided!
    • 43. Making Punishment More Effective• Tell child about appropriate behavior, then reinforce it• Minimize situations in which bad behavior exists• Use punisher that’s punishing• Punishment must occur right after behavior• Punishment must occur every time behavior occurs• Remain calm when punishing
    • 44. Choosing a Reinforcer That Is Reinforcing• Must choose reinforcer that is actually reinforcing to that person• Varies from person to person
    • 45. Primary and Secondary Reinforcers• Primary – reinforcer that is directly reinforcing; food• Secondary – rewarding because they lead to primary reinforcers; money• Token economies use secondary reinforcers (token)• Advantages – Effective in modifying behaviors in groups – Allows for immediate reinforcement
    • 46. The Role of Cognition in Learning• Strict behaviorist do not study cognitive aspects of behavior• Kohler and the chimps demonstrated insight learning• Tolman and rats demonstrated latent learning – can’t be directly observed as it’s happening – Developed a cognitive map or mental representation to learn
    • 47. Social Learning or Modeling• Learn by observing other and imitating or modeling behaviors• AKA observational learning or modeling
    • 48. Albert Bandura and the Bobo Doll Experiments• Social learning theory• Bobo dolls – Watched three conditions: children rewarded, punished or no consequences for beating doll – Children who saw rewards or no consequences more likely to be aggressive
    • 49. Albert Bandura and the Bobo Doll Experiments (continued) – Implications • Don’t have to engage in behavior for learning to occur • Learning can be latent • Television aggression?
    • 50. Social Learning Theory and Cognition• Four steps to modeling – Attention – must attend to behavior of model – Retention – must retain cognitive representation or memory of model’s behavior – Reproduction of behavior – use memories to reproduce behavior – Motivation – must be motivated to execute behavior
    • 51. Are You Getting the Big Picture?• Four different types of learning: habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning• Use learning to control behavior of others• Learning impacts everyday life• Learning affects quality of social interactions