A&a&r&n

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A&a&r&n

  1. 1. Diyala University College of Engineering Department of Communications By AULA MAAD RIYAM ABD_AL GABAAR NABAA BADEEA AHMAD ABBAS THIRD STAGE FOR Professor Hussein Shakoor 2014_2_24
  2. 2. Assembly Language
  3. 3. contens Assembly Language the relationship between assembly language and machine language Application of Assembly Language opcode and operand Mnemonics The ASCII-code
  4. 4. Assembly Languages One step up from machine language Originally a more user-friendly way to program Now mostly a compiler target Model of Computer computation: stored ther is some types of assmbly languages CISC: Complex Instruction-Set RISC: Reduced InstructionSet Computer DSP: Digital Signal Processor VLIW: Very Long Instruction Word
  5. 5. The relationship between assembly language and machine language Assembly language is a convenience mechanism over • the machine language. With assembly language you use mnemonic sequences instead of numeric operation codes and can use symbolic labels instead of manually calculating offsets. It also protects you from really dumb errors - like typing a malformed processor instruction. Otherwise the assemply language is the equivalent of • the machine language. Sometimes you will have an old assembler that will not support mnemonics for some instructions of the newer processors - then you can still insert operation codes directly into the program.
  6. 6. Application of Assembly Language 1. Assembly Language is used when speed and reliability are the overriding factor like small footprint real-time operating systems. 2. By using assembly language, programmers can maximize on speed to a level. It is easy to write than machine code programs. 3. It allows the programmer access to registers or instructions that are not usually provided by a Highlevel language.
  7. 7. Application of Assembly Language 4. The main Application of Assembly Language is for direct hardware manipulation i.e. device drivers. 5. Assembly language also directly correlates which machine instructions; the only way to get closer to the machine is to write in binary or hex code
  8. 8. opcode and operand opcode (operational code) is machine code, it tells the processor to perform particular action your instruction converts to opcode before the execution. operand: it is a memory location or a variable or any general purpose register. it stores data. and u can perform operations on it .
  9. 9. Mnemonics mnemonics are nothing but the symbols used to indicate a particular meaning in assembly language. They are used to make programming easier for programmers
  10. 10. The ASCII-code The “American Standard Code for Information Interchange“ ASCII was suggested in 1968 This standardisation made now information exchange possible between different computer systems.
  11. 11. The ASCII-code It has the word length 7 and codes decimal digits, the characters of the latin alphabet as well as special character. From the 128 possible binary words are 32 pseudo-words and/or control characters.

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