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3G refers to the third generation of mobile telephony (that is, cellular) technology. The third generation, as the name suggests, follows two earlier generations
The first generation (1G) began in the early 80's with commercial deployment of Advanced Mobile Phone Service ( AMPS ) cellular networks. Early AMPS networks used Frequency Division Multiplexing Access ( FDMA ) to carry analog voice over channels in the 800 MHz frequency band.
The second generation (2G) emerged in the 90's in which some operators used Code Division Multiple Access ( CDMA ) to multiplex up to 64 calls per channel in the 800 MHz band.
Across the world, many operators adopted the Global System for Mobile communication ( GSM ) standard, which used Time Division Multiple Access ( TDMA ) to multiplex up to 8 calls per channel in the 900 and 1800 MHz bands.
GPRS is sometimes called 2.5G, since it predates 3G but is more advanced than 2G.
The International Telecommunications Union ( ITU ) defined the third generation (3G) of mobile telephony standards – to facilitate growth, increase bandwidth, and support more diverse applications.
For example, GSM could deliver not only voice, but also circuit-switched data at speeds up to 14.4 Kbps. But to support mobile multimedia applications, 3G had to deliver packet-switched data with better spectral efficiency, at far greater speeds.
Global System for Mobile (GSM) is cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation.
Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators , enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital ,
GSM also pioneered a low-cost (to the network carrier) alternative to voice calls, the short message service (SMS, also called "text messaging")
Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original GSM phones. For example, Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities, by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).
GSM System Architecture BSC BSC MSC MS MS MS BTS BTS BTS GMSC PSTN ISDN PDN EIR AUC HLR VLR
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a new bearer service for GSM that greatly improves and simplifies wireless access to packet data networks,e.g to the internet.
It uses the existing GSM network to transmit and receive TCP/IP based data to and from GPRS mobile devices.
GPRS is a non-voice service added to existing TDMA time division multiple access networks, one of the 2.5G technology upgrades. TDMA is the underlying transport mechanism used by GSM networks.
Comparison of GSM & GPRS Amount of data transferred Duration of connection Billing Packet - Switched Technology Circuit – Switched Technology Type of Connection uses 4 +1 time slots Uses one out of seven time slots TDMA 14.4 to 115.2 Kbps 9.6 Kbps Data Rates GPRS GSM
Efficient use of radio bandwidth (Statistical Multiplexing)
Circuit switching & Packet Switching can be used in parallel
GPRS BACKBONE NETWORK inter-PLMN GPRS backbone External Packet Data Network (PDN) intra-PLMN GPRS backbone intra-PLMN GPRS backbone PLMN1 PLMN2 SGSN SGSN SGSN GGSN GGSN Border gateway Border gateway Gp Gn Gi Gn Gn BTS BTS BSC BSC Host Router LAN MS Gi Gn Gn Gp
Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is used to increase network capacity and data rates in mobile networks. EDGE provides data rates up to 384 Kbps.
EDGE uses the same TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) frame structure, logic channel and 200kHz carrier bandwidth as today's GSM networks, which allows it to be overlaid directly onto an existing GSM network. For many existing GSM/GPRS networks, EDGE is a simple software-upgrade.
EDGE is particularly useful as a GPRS solution for the larger data services, such as streaming video and video conferencing.