Small Hydro PowerDevelopment In India Arvind Gupta Enrollment- 12512006 M.Tech.(AHES) ‘12-’14 IIT Roorkee
Contents:1. Introduction2. SHP – A Brief Description3. A Brief History Of SHP4. SHP – Today5. SWOT Analysis 1. Strength 2. Weaknesses 3. Opportunities 4. Threats6. Government policies and private sector initiatives for SHP development in India7. References
Introduction • As India aspires for a growth rate of 8-9%, its energy needs are increasing correspondingly. • It is expected that the power demand is expected to rise at the rate of 10% every year. India’s Energy Consumption
Consequences: 1.Increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas. 2.Rising prices of oil and gas along with shortages in future are causing concerns about the security of energy supply. 3. Increased use of fossil fuels also causes environmental problems both on local and global scales.What We Need?? There is urgent need for the country to develop a sustainable path of energy development.
Sustainable Energy!! How??? Promotion of Energy Conservation Increased use of Renewable Energy SourcesOptions We Have… Wind Small Hydro Solar Biomass
Why Small Hydro Power!!?? Small Hydro represents “Highest Density” resource amongthe Renewable sources.Economically viable.Reliable, Continuous & Inflation free.Energy pay-back time(EPBT) is less.Green house gas emission is less.Clean Renewable Water Power.No process Waste.
Small Hydro Power – A Brief DescriptionSmall hydro is the development of hydroelectric power on a scale servinga small community or industrial plant.
Indian Classification of SHPHydro power project up to 25000kW is known as small hydropower project.Further SHP is classified as follows: MICRO Up to 100kW MINI 100kW to 2000kW SMALL 2001kW to 25000kW
Let Us KnowThe total potential of Small Hydro Power in India is estimated tobe 15384.15 MW as on 30.06.2011.As on 30.06.2011, 20% of the available potential has beenexploited totaling 2953.58 MW.In addition to these a total of 369 projects are under installationacross India which will add another 1192.55 MW
A Brief History of SHPFirst SHP was commissioned in 1897 at Darjeeling, W.B., withcapacity of 130kW.Secondly, in 1902, the Sivasamudram project of 3000kW wasinstalled in Mysore, Karnataka.Till 1947, we had an installed capacity of 1362 MW, it included 508MW from hydro power, mainly from small and medium size projects.Till 1997, India added 85,019 MW to its power generation. Itincluded 21644 MW of Hydro Power, this time mainly from largehydro.In late 80’s for focused attention to SHP, small Hydro was broughtunder the ambit of Ministry of New And Renewable Energy(MNRE).
Then Came the 90’sThe decade of 90’s saw a firm footing for the development of smallhydro power in India.Demonstration projects with new technical and engineeringconcepts.R&D projects and a dedicated center namely Alternate HydroEnergy Center(AHEC) at University of Roorkee(now IIT, Roorkee)were supportedDatabase of potential SHP sites developed, master plan prepared.A preinvestment study by Energy Sector Management AssistanceProgram(EAMAP).Manufacturing base for SHP equipment was strengthened
SHP - TodaySmall Hydro Power ( SHP) Programme is one of the thrust areasof power generation from renewable in the MNRE.The Ministry is encouraging development of small hydro projectsboth in the public as well as private sector.Aim Of MNRECapacity addition of 1400 MW by the end of 11th plan.Capacity up to 6000 MW by the end of 12th plan.Lower the cost of equipment, increase its reliability.Set up projects in areas which give the maximum advantage.
Potential In India Estimated potential 15, 500 MW.50% lies in the States of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand,Jammu & Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh.MNRE has created a database of 5,415 potential sites with anaggregate capacity of 14,305.47 MW.By the end of 11th plan capacity would be 3375 MW.In January’12, the total capacity of SHP has been reported as3300 MW.
State wise Potential and Projects(As on 30.06.2011) Contd…
SWOT Analysis1.Strengths No fuel cost, Inflation free. Operational flexibility. No issues like deforestation and resettlement. Potential to meet power requirements of remote and isolatedareas. Can improve the economic activities in villages and remoteareas. Now good manufacturing base and almost all equipmentrequirements are indigenously meet. Equipments efficiency more than 85%.
2.Weaknesseswater being State subject, projects are governed by the Statepolicies and the potential sites are allotted by the State to privatedevelopers.Time consuming process for allotment of sites and statutoryclearances including land acquisition, forest clearance, irrigationclearance etc.The projects have relatively longer gestation period due todifficult terrain and limited working season.
3.OpportunitiesThe estimated potential for power generation from SHP is over15,000 MW. So far only 20% of the identified potential in thecountry has been exploited.The States of Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu &Kashmir and Uttarakhand have highest potential for developmentof small hydro. All the four States have policy to invite privatesector to set up SHP projects.The State of Karnataka has allotted 300 projects of about 2000MW, Chhattisgarh has allotted 70 projects aggregating to 685 MW,Maharashtra has allotted 41 projects of 135 MW and the State ofOdisha has allotted 29 SHP projects of 369 MW to the privatesector. These States can contribute a lot in providingopportunities to harness this potential.
4.ThreatsStates may be reluctant to sign long term PPAs with thedevelopers.SHP projects are normally set up in hilly areas. The landrequired to set up project may have some trees or forest cover.Hence, the project would require compulsory forest clearance.Water of the river / canal is also diverted for a limited distance togenerate electric power and hence this may also have someimpact on the environment.Sometimes SHP developers do face objections from the localcommunity.Time taken in obtaining various clearances at the State level,transfer of land, forest clearance, availability of reliablehydrological data, timely creation of suitable power evacuationfacilities are the main issues
Government policies and private sectorinitiatives for SHP development in IndiaSoft loans are provided to small hydro projects throughgovernment financial institutions such as Indian RenewableEnergy Development Agency (IREDA), Power Finance Corporation(PFC) and Rural Electrification Corporation (REC).Government of India provides financial subsidyto power generating companies in public/private sector and NGOsfor establishing new, renovation, modernization and up ratingof small hydro plants.
References: 1) Ministry of New & Renewable Energy 2) Small Hydro Development in India, Praveen Saxena, International Conference on Small Hydro Power, Sri Lanka Oct’2007 3) Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency(IREDA) 4) Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, IIT Roorkee 5) Energy Alternatives India(EAI) 6) United Nations Industrial Development Organisation(UNIDO) 7) ICRA Limited (formerly Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency of India Limited)