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  • Remember an array is a reference type, so its really an object. In Java an array has one public Property: its length. Its not possible to add new properties or methods to arrays. There are a separate Set of objects that model more complex data structures (Lists, Maps, Linked Lists, etc) Arrays are zero indexed. The length will return the total size of the array (so be careful with loops).
  • We’ll look at exceptions in more detail in a later lesson, but basically the JVM will automatically generate an error if you go over the total size of an array. This avoids possible memory corruption.
  • The System class is a utility class, available from any Java object that provides some basic utility methods that allow interaction with the JVM, the environment and the operating system. The System class is in the java.lang package, which is automatically imported by every class (you don’t need to import it specifically). The System class can more efficiently copy arrays because it can do it “behind the scenes” within the JVM by manipulating the memory directly. The array copy method takes two arrays, the start index of the first array (from where it’ll start copying), and the start index of the second array (where it’ll start copying too), and then how many items to copy.
  • The java.util package contains more useful utility methods – including more complex data structures. The Arrays class has a number of methods for working with different types of arrays. Take time to review what it has available. Sorting arrays is very simple using this class. Sorting arrays of objects is slightly more complex. Strings work (but not entirely as expected). We’ll look at this in more detail in the future.
  • Note that because strings are immutable, when we change case (for example) we create a new String, we can’t affect the old one. The last example shows use of brackets to group an expression. Check out the Javadoc for java.lang.String for a complete list of method.
  • Pass by value passes the actual value. Pass by reference passes a reference to the object. This means that if you change an object in a method, you’re changing the original and not a copy.
  • We’ll discuss overloading in more detail in a later lesson when we explore more of the fundamentals of OO programming.
  • The Finalize method is similar to the C++ destructor, but isn’t guaranteed to be called.
  • Like static, the final modifer can be applied to both methods and variables. We’ll just consider how it affects variables here, as it means something slightly different when applied to a method. Not often used by itself. Usually used in conjunction with static…
  • Lesson3

    1. 1. Introduction to Java 2 Programming Lecture 3More Syntax; Working with Objects
    2. 2. Overview• More new syntax – Arrays – String/StringBuffer objects – Parameter passing• Working with objects – Constructors – Constants
    3. 3. Java Arrays – The Basics• Declaring an arrayint[] myArray;int[] myArray = new int[5];String[] stringArray = new String[10];String[] strings = new String[] {“one”, “two”};• Checking an arrays lengthint arrayLength = myArray.length;• Looping over an arrayfor(int i=0; i<myArray.length; i++){ String s = myArray[i];}
    4. 4. Java Arrays – Bounds Checking• Bounds checking – Java does this automatically. Impossible to go beyond the end of an array (unlike C/C++) – Automatically generates an ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
    5. 5. Java Arrays – Copying• Don’t copy arrays “by hand” (e.g. by looping over the array)• The System class has an arrayCopy method to do this efficientlyint array1[] = new int[10];int array2[] = new int[10];//assume we add items to array1//copy array1 into array2System.arrayCopy(array1, 0, array2, 0, 10);//copy last 5 elements in array1 into first 5 of array2System.arrayCopy(array1, 5, array2, 0, 5);
    6. 6. Java Arrays – Sorting• Again no need to do this “by hand”.• The java.util.Arrays class has methods to sort different kinds of arraysint myArray[] = new int[] {5, 4, 3, 2, 1};java.util.Arrays.sort(myArray);//myArray now holds 1, 2, 3, 4, 5• Sorting arrays of objects is involves some extra work, as we’ll see in a later lesson
    7. 7. Strings• Strings are objects• The compiler automatically replaces any string literal with an equivalent String object – E.g. “my String” becomes new String(“my string”);• Strings are immutable – Can’t be changed once created… – ..but can be concatenated (using +) to create new strings String newString = “abc” + “def”;
    8. 8. Strings• Strings have methods to manipulate their contents:int length = someString.length();String firstTwoLetters = someString.substring(0,2);String upper = someString.toUpperCase();boolean startsWithLetterA = someString.startsWith(“A”);boolean containsOther = (someString.indexOf(otherString) != -1)
    9. 9. StringBuffer• StringBuffer object allows a string value to be manipulated – I.e. they are not immutable• StringBuffer has useful methods like: – Append, insert, delete, replace, etc• Compiler automatically replaces String concatenation with a StringBuffer object – E.g. “my String” + “ other String” becomes… new StringBuffer(“my String”).append(“other String”).toString();
    10. 10. StringBuffer• Take care with String concatenation – Explicitly using a StringBuffer is often more efficient – Can reuse buffer rather than discarding it StringBuffer.setLength(0)
    11. 11. Passing Parameters• Java has two ways of passing parameters – Pass by Reference – Pass by Value• Pass by Value applies to primitive types – int, float, etc• Pass by Reference applies to reference types – objects and arrays
    12. 12. Passing Parameterspublic class PassByValueTest{ public void increment(int x) { x = x + 1; } public void test() { int x = 0; increment(x); //whats the value of x here? }}
    13. 13. Passing Parameterspublic class PassByReferenceTest{ public void reverse(StringBuffer buffer) { buffer.reverse(); } public void test() { StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(“Hello”); reverse(buffer); //what does buffer contain now? }}
    14. 14. Overview• More new syntax – Arrays – Constants – String/StringBuffer objects – Parameter passing• Working with objects – Constructors – Constants• Exercises
    15. 15. Initialising Objects• Variables of a reference type have a special value before they are initialised – A “nothing” value called null• Attempting to manipulate an object before its initialised will cause an error – A NullPointerException• To properly initialise a reference type, we need to assign it a value by creating an object – Objects are created with the new operator String someString = new String(“my String”);
    16. 16. Constructors• new causes a constructor to be invoked – Constructor is a special method, used to initialise an object – Class often specifies several constructors (for flexibility) – new operator chooses right constructor based on parameters (overloading)• Constructors can only be invoked by the new operator
    17. 17. Constructors – Example 1public class MyClass{ private int x; public MyClass(int a) { x = a; }}We can then create an instance of MyClass as follows:MyClass object = new MyClass(5); //constructor is called
    18. 18. What are constructors for?• Why do we use them? – Give us chance to ensure our objects are properly initialised – Can supply default values to member variables – Can accept parameters to allow an object to be customised – Can validate this data to ensure that the object is created correctly.• A class always has at least one constructor – …even if you don’t define it, the compiler will – This is the default constructor
    19. 19. Constructors – Example 2public class EmailAddress{ public EmailAddress(String address) { if (address.indexOf(“@”) == -1) { //not a valid address, signal an error? } //must be valid… } //methods}
    20. 20. Destroying Objects• No way to explicitly destroy an object• Objects destroyed by the Garbage Collector – Once they go out of scope (I.e. no longer referenced by any variable)• No way to reclaim memory, entirely under control of JVM – There is a finalize method, but its not guaranteed to be called (so pretty useless!) – Can request that the Garbage Collector can run, buts its free to ignore you
    21. 21. Modifiers• Public/private are visibility modifiers – Used to indicate visibility of methods and attributes• Java has a range of other modifiers – Control “ownership” of a method or attribute – Control when and how variable can be initialised – Control inheritance of methods (and whether they can be overridden by a sub-class)
    22. 22. Static• static – indicates a class variable or class method. It’s not owned by an individual object – This means we don’t have to create an object to use it – Arrays.sort and System.arrayCopy are static methods
    23. 23. Static -- Examplepublic class MyClass{ public static void utilityMethod() { … } public void otherMethod() { … }}//using the above:MyClass.utilityMethod();MyClass objectOfMyClass = new MyClass();objectOfMyClass.otherMethod();objectOfMyClass.utilityMethod();//this is illegal:MyClass.otherMethod();
    24. 24. Final• final – to make a variable that can have a single value – Can be assigned to once and once only – Useful to ensure a variable isn’t changed once its assigned.final int count;count = 10;//the following will cause an errorcount = 20;
    25. 25. Defining Constants• Unlike other languages, Java has no const keyword• Must use a combination of modifiers to make a constant – static – to indicate its owned by the class – final – to make sure it can’t be changed (and initialise it when its declared)• Naming convention for constants is to use all capitals• Example…
    26. 26. Constants – An Examplepublic class MyClass{ public static final int COUNT = 0; public static final boolean SWITCHED_ON = false;}//example usage:if (MyClass.COUNT > 0) { … }if (MyClass.SWITCHED_ON) {…}
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