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  2. 2. MINING  Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from anorebody, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.
  3. 3. MINING WASTE AND MATERIAL  In mining upper surface called waste material are removed.waste material are composed of acid generating substance and it is big task to replace it a proper place where it should be treated to detoxified.most of money spend in removing the waste material so highly qualified needed to operate this job.or recover by mining includes metal,coal,oil shale,gems stone,lime stone,rock salt,petrolium,natural gas even water.
  4. 4. GOLD STONE
  5. 5. PRE HISTORICAL MINING  Since the beginning of civilization,people have used stones,ceramics for making tools and weapons. in ancient egypt malachite and maadi where excavated for ornamentation,pottery,etc.gold mines of nubia was very famous.ancient greece and rome silver mines of laurium was very famous.the used hydraulic method.america continent was also not behind in the field of mining and copper mines along lake suprior was veryt famous and it is still working.
  7. 7. Types of Mining Surface Mining Placer Mining Underground Mining Drift Mining Strip Mining Mountaintop removal Hydraulic Slope Mining Shaft Mining Open pit Dredging Hard rock
  8. 8. Surface Mining Surface mines are mining operations that delve into rock to extract deposits of mineral resources that are close to the surface . In most forms of surface mining, heavy equipment, such as earthmovers, first remove the overburden (the soil and rock above the deposit). Next, huge machines such as drag line excavators extract the mineral. Once the material has been removed, the land is recovered for safe use on the surface through a process called reclamation.
  9. 9. Surface mining
  10. 10. 1.Placer mining involves any type of mining where raw minerals are deposited in sand or gravel or on the surface and are picked up without having to drive, use dynamite or any other significant means. Ex:gold.
  11. 11. 2.Strip mining is the practice of mining a seam of mineral ore by first removing all of the soil and rock that lies on top of it (the overburden). It is similar to open-pit mining in many regards.
  12. 12. 3.Mountaintop removal . Mountaintop removal (MTR) is a relatively new form of coal mining that involves the mass restructuring of earth in order to reach sediment as deep as 1,000 feet below the surface. Mountaintop removal requires that the targeted land be first clear-cut and then leveled by explosives
  13. 13. 4.Hydraulic Hydraulic mining involves high pressure water. The water is sprayed at an area of rock and/or gravel and the water breaks the rock up, dislodging ore and placer deposits. The water/oremixture is then milled. This is a very destructive way to mine and has been outlawed in most areas.
  14. 14. 5.Open pit mines involve digging large open holes in the ground as opposed to a small shaft in hard rock mining. This method of mining is most often used with minerals like copper and molybdenum
  15. 15. 6.Dredging Dredging is a method often used to bring up underwater mineral deposits. Although dredging is usually employed to clear or enlarge waterways for boats, it can also recover significant amounts of underwater minerals relatively efficiently and cheaply.
  16. 16. Underground mining Underground mining refers to a group of techniques used for the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth.
  17. 17. 1.Drift mining is a method of accessing valuable geological material, such as coal, by cutting into the side of the earth, rather than tunneling straight downwards.
  18. 18. 2.Slope mining Slope mining is a method of accessing valuable geological material, such as coal. A sloping access shaft travels downwards towards the coal seam.
  19. 19. 3.Shaft mining is a type of underground mining done by use of a mine shaft. A mine shaft is a vertical passageway used for access to an underground mine.
  20. 20. 4.Hard Rock mining refers to various techniques used to mine ore bodies by creating underground "rooms" supported by surrounding pillars of standing rock.
  21. 21. Some effects of mining on the environment •Deforestation and loss of biodiversity are major effects of mining.(It destroys forest and wetlands. It may mean that you have to cut down lots of trees just to get to the spot that has all the gold or iron ore). •Many mine require tailings dams to prevent waste being washed into the rivers. Unethical miners can dispense with the dams, to save costs, resulting in massive pollution downstream. In other cases, the tailings dam can overflow, and even breach, during periods of heavy rain.
  22. 22. •Underground coal mining can require the removal of almost an entire layer of material deep under the surface. When the timber supports collapse, this can lead to subsidence. The subsidence can mean economic loss to people above or damage to natural areas. It can even cause cracks in river beds, leading to loss of river flow.
  23. 23. •Some mining involves the inadvertent dispersal of heavy metals, such as lead, into the atmosphere. This can have serious health effects, including mental retardation in children. •Asbestos mining causes the dispersal of asbestos into the environment. This will cause deaths among local residents and workers, often several decades later. Fortunately, the mining and use of asbestos are banned in most parts of the world.
  24. 24. SOCIAL DAMAGE OF MINING  A large scale mining creates new infrastructure and provides additional employment,permanent settlements can arise around these operations in areas that otherwise would have remained more sparsely inhabited.mining comes along with promise of wealth and jobs for people.but it has many negative impacts that is  Appropriation of land belonging to local communities,  Impacts on health,  Alternation of social relationships,
  25. 25. Continued…  Destruction of forms of community subsistence and life,  Social disintegration,  Radical and abrupt change in regional cultures,  Displacement of other present and future local economic activities.
  26. 26.  It may be true that many of the affected communities have given their consent.however it is hard to speak of previous,genuine infomed cosent as they do not have opportunity to fully understand what is waiting for them when they asked to place their signature at the foot of the contract.
  27. 27. Case study of sukinda valley  Here due to mning of chromite ore 2600000 people affected.due to open pit mining the brahmni river got poluted by hexavalent chromium.according to OVHA obout 24.47% of the inhabitant found to be suffering pollution induced disease in that area.
  28. 28. Water of Brahmani river