* Events that led to Cold War. * Impacts of WWI. * Impacts of Cold War. * Treaty of Versailles and its impact on Germany. * Causes of Korean War. * Consequence of Cold War * Cold War bringing Korean War
Objectives for today: How did WWI end? What were political relations like in Europe following WWI?
Triple Entente and Triple Alliance
Wilhelm II flees to the Netherlands and Germany becomes a republicWilhelm: German KaiserWeimer Republic replaced him (it ended when Hitler rose to power). ----RUSSIA not mentioned.
Felt excitedConditions were bad in Russia, oppressive government, losing the warImpact of the Revolution—March Revolution—Czar is overthrown in March 1917 (people rioting for food and soldiers join)Nov. 1917 Lenin and the Bolsheviks take over the government March 1918 Russia and Germany have a treaty to end the warCivil war breaks out in Russia from 1918-1920 (Reds v. whites—didn’t like Lenin and sympathetic to the Czar) World War I and It’s aftermath:http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=A1EDA1F3-8DB3-414D-ACC3-5D3B3BE753E4&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
Soviets—are a group of socialist revolutionaries1922 USSRFor what? For economic benefits – trades, support, allies.
Lenin has a stroke, doesn’t die, but others start to vie for power like Stalin.1924 Lenin dies and Stalin (Man of Steel) rises to power
Successor of LeninCommunism through totalitarianism (government controls everything)Used terror and violence to make sure he was totally in chargeStalin is the leader going into the Korean War and he wants to spread communism Used Propaganda for his image and ruleSpread communism to China & KoreaStalin Video: http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=9D606085-134D-40AF-B216-7C0F71B3B9F9&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
David Lloyd George (GB), Clemenceau (France), Woodrow Wilson (US)
Look through worksheet and summarize main ideas.
League of Nations: international association of nations whose goal it was to keep peace (Wilson’s idea, rejected by US congress)
What happens to Austria-Hungary? What happens to the Ottoman Empire? Are there any other changes that you can see?Austria Hungary lost the most territory. New nations are created: Austria, Czecholovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland, Lithuania, Lativa, Estonia, Finland) Since Russia left early it lost land to Poland and Romania
Germany felt humiliated and bitter, economically hurt Germany
Many Americans were not in favor of the U.S. entering the war and wanted to remain neutral.In 1915, the British passenger liner the Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine, killing 128 Americans and futher heightening tensions.http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jb/jazz/jb_jazz_wwi_1.html
Wilson had a vision of peace, while other nations were concerned with their own national security. They wanted to strip Germany of all of it’s war making power. Thus, Germany was punished and restricted.
Pg. 918Isolationists: the belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided. Entry into WWI was costly
Japan was a winner during the war.
After WWI, Germany becomes a Republic (Weimer Republic). Weihelm II flees, republic is established. Germany struggling economically. Didn’t raise taxes during war time, just printed off money. Same with war reparations—kept printing off money. Rapid inflation . Then Great Depression hits.Weimar Republic gets blamed for the depression/problems in Germany. Germans want to overturn the Treaty of VersaillesTurned to the strong leadership of hitler
Facists—extreme nationalism Hitler Videohttp://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=90B3BD51-BF83-4FB9-B574-E0067D585A4D&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
Lebensraum: living space Treaty of Versailles outraged and wanted to get land back
“Europe’s Victory is your prosperity.” Germany saw Russian territory as living space (lebensraum) for Germans; Name of German assault was Operation Barbarossa
Common goal—defeat Hitler, both want powerChange—different views on what to do with the world (East Europe, competing ideologiesWhy could communism and democracy not coexist?
Fear in the US that USSR/Communism is taking over the world
What does this mean? “Communism and capitalism could not exist in the same world” (pg. 967 text)Iron Curtain symbolized the ideological and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. (wikipedia)
Increased fears that communism would spread throughout the world.
WWI - WWII - Cold War - Korean War
*Understand how the United States and the USSR emerged as the two dominant world powers following the end of World War II. 2
* What was World War I about?* Who was involved in World War I?* Why there was so much of conflict existing in the World? * 3
*After a bitter and long four year struggle, World War I ends on November 11, 1918*The Allied powers (Britain, France, US, and Japan) emerge victorious, while Germany and its allies (Austria- Hungary and the Ottoman Empire) were defeated*What country is not mentioned here? * 4
* How did Russia feel going into the war?* Why did people revolt in Russia?* What is the impact of Revolution? * 5
* In Russia, the Czar was overthrown by the Communists in October 1917* The world’s first communist nation—the USSR is created Union of Soviet Socialist Republics* One of the initial goals of this new nation was to spread communism worldwide. (for what?) * 6
* Limits are set on the size of the German Army* German must bare the sole responsibility for the war (War Guilt Clause)* Germany loses territory (Alsace-Lorraine given back to France)* Germany forced to pay war reparations* Creation of a League of Nations* Watch the Video: Punishing Germany. Do you think clauses mentioned in Treaty of Versailles were logical and appropriate enough for the self-respect & dignity of a country? * 14
* What are reparations?* What could be the impact of reparations on Germany? - Economy ? Sentiments ? Image?* Based on the Video: Punishing Germany, comment:how much was the reparation cost imposed on Germany?Was Germany in a position to pay that amount to the Winning countries? * 17
*The US had entered the war late—only in 1917 (Why it entered late into the war?)*According to US President Woodrow Wilson, the US had no territorial ambitions; rather, it was the goal of the US to “make the world safe for democracy.”*However, during the Paris Peace Conference, the US saw that the major European powers had no real desire to change * 18
*Unlike Wilson’s idea of “Peace without Victory” other European powers wanted to strip Germany of all its power.*Why???*US response: *Policy of Isolation (similar to the Soviets) * 19
* What did the world look like after the end of WWI? * 24
* During the 1930s, a worldwide economic depression hits* In many nations, economies collapse and millions of people lose their jobs* This situation contributes to the collapse of democracy in Germany and the rise of Adolph Hitler * 25
* What led to rise of Hitler in the country? * 26
* German Monarch: Kaiser Wilhelm didn’t care about people, country & economy, and kept the country engaged in war. People lost faith in their Monarch. * When Germany lost in WWI, Kaiser Wilhelm was brought down. * New Government System was implemented in the country. What was it called?* Fall of Monarchy………. 27
* TheNew Democratic Government right after WWI was known as Weimer Republic. * This government was not able to manage the country. Country ran into Economic depression: Inflation. People didn’t have money, job and any means of livelihood. * They lost faith in Democratic government too. * This led to the rise of a new leader ?? And a new political system in the country.* * Fall of Democracy………….& Rise of Dictatorship 28
Impressive Video 1 Video 2 speeches.How he initially roseto power? * 30
* Revives German economy* Promotes Anti-Semitism (anti-Jewish feelings); blames the Jews for all of Germany’s problems* Promotes the expansion of Germany’s territory* Revise the Treaty of Versailles (did exactly what was mentioned in the treaty) * 31
* Germany’s desire for more and more territory leads to the outbreak of WWII in 1939* As in WWI, France and Britain are Germany’s opponents* Germany’s allies are Japan and Italy* Russia also allies itself with Germany* The United States remains neutral * 48
*In 1945, Germany and Japan are defeated*At the end of World War II, the United States and the USSR emerge as the world’s two strongest nations*They become known as Superpowers*Both try to spread their ideas and values to other nations*Both try to gain world domination * 52
* What was their relationship like during WWII? * Common goals?* How may their relationship change after WWII? * 53