1. Classification of welding and joining processes
2. Principles of:
- fusion welding
A welding process that melts the bas...
employed in manufacturing compressors, diesel engine circulation tubes, mining tools,
plumbing fixtures, jewelry, musical ...
Chemical reactions and temperature distribution in a neutral oxyacetylene flame.
a) neutral flame
b) oxidizing flame
c) ca...
GMAW, but constant current systems, as well as alternating current, can be used. There are
four primary methods of metal t...
6. Weld quality, weld imperfections (defects)
Discontinuities / defects in Fusion Welds:
- Fusion welding defects due wron...
8. Main non-destructive weld testing methods
Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in ...
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Welding & joining

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Welding & joining

  1. 1. 1. Classification of welding and joining processes 2. Principles of: - fusion welding A welding process that melts the base metals at the joint. Upon cooling, the welded joint is often stronger than the base metals. Localized heating in welding: formation of liquid pool and heat affected zone. - pressure welding Pressure welding usually involves heating the surfaces to a plastic state and then forcing the metal together. The heating can be by electric current of by friction resulting from moving one surface relative to the other. Resistance spot welding. - brazing and soldering Brazing is a process for joining similar or dissimilar metals using a filler metal that typically includes a base of copper combined with silver, nickel, zinc or phosphorus. Brazing covers a temperature range of 900ºF - 2200ºF (470ºC - 1190ºC). Brazing differs from welding in that brazing does not melt the base metals, therefore brazing temperatures are lower than the melting points of the base metals. For the same reason, brazing is a superior choice in joining dissimilar metals. Brazed joints are strong. A properly-made joint (like a welded joint) will in many cases be as strong or stronger than the based metals being joined. Typically brazing is
  2. 2. employed in manufacturing compressors, diesel engine circulation tubes, mining tools, plumbing fixtures, jewelry, musical instruments, refrigerators, condensers, and automotive applications. Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a relatively low melting point. Soldering is distinguished from brazing by use of a lower melting-temperature filler metal; it is distinguished from welding by the base metals not being melted during the joining process. In a soldering process, heat is applied to the parts to be joined, causing the solder to melt and be drawn into the joint by capillary action and to bond to the materials to be joined by wetting action. 3. Welding heat sources and their characterization Energy to employ in welding: • Chemical (solid, liquid or gas fuel); • Mechanical (ultrasonic, friction); • Electrical (arc, electron beam); • Light (laser); • Other. Concentration of different welding heat sources and its impact on temperature distribution, fusion depth, liquid pool size and HAZ size. Heat Affected Zone – HAZ. 4. Survey of main welding techniques I. Gas welding Metal joining process in which the ends of pieces to be joined are heated at their interface by producing coalescence with one or more gas flames (such as oxygen and acetylene), with or without the use of a filler metal.
  3. 3. Chemical reactions and temperature distribution in a neutral oxyacetylene flame. a) neutral flame b) oxidizing flame c) carburizing (reducing) flame II. Arc welding Arc welding uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or non-consumable electrodes. The welding region is sometimes protected by some type of inert or semi-inert gas, known as a shielding gas, and/or an evaporating filler material. The process of arc welding is widely used because of its low capital and running costs. Consumable electrode (melts and serves as a filing material): a) Shielded metal arc welding b) Gas metal arc welding c) Submerged arc welding d) Flux cored arc welding Non – consumable electrode (does not melt, parent metal is used, or a separate filler rod) a) Gas Tungsten arc welding b) Plasma arc welding Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable electrode coated in flux to lay the weld. An electric current, in the form of either alternating current or direct current from a welding power supply, is used to form an electric arc between the electrode and the metals to be joined. As the weld is laid, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving off vapors that serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination. Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is a semi-automatic or automatic arc welding process in which a continuous and consumable wire electrode and a shielding gas are fed through a welding gun. A constant voltage, direct current power source is most commonly used with
  4. 4. GMAW, but constant current systems, as well as alternating current, can be used. There are four primary methods of metal transfer in GMAW, called globular, short-circuiting, spray, and pulsed-spray, each of which has distinct properties and corresponding advantages and limitations. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a common arc welding process. It requires a continuously fed consumable solid or tubular (flux cored) electrode. The molten weld and the arc zone are protected from atmospheric contamination by being “submerged” under a blanket of granular fusible flux consisting of lime, silica, manganese oxide, calcium fluoride, and other compounds. When molten, the flux becomes conductive, and provides a current path between the electrode and the work. Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) is a semi-automatic or automatic arc welding process. FCAW requires a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode containing a flux and a constant-voltage or, less commonly, a constant-current welding power supply. An externally supplied shielding gas is sometimes used, but often the flux itself is relied upon to generate the necessary protection from the atmosphere. The process is widely used in construction because of its high welding speed and portability. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), also known as tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld area is protected from atmospheric contamination by a shielding gas (usually an inert gas such as argon), and a filler metal is normally used, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, do not require it. A constant-current welding power supply produces energy which is conducted across the arc through a column of highly ionized gas and metal vapors known as a plasma. Plasma arc welding (PAW) is an arc welding process similar to gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). The electric arc is formed between an electrode (which is usually but not always made of sintered tungsten) and the workpiece. The key difference from GTAW is that in PAW, by positioning the electrode within the body of the torch, the plasma arc can be separated from the shielding gas envelope. The plasma is then forced through a fine-bore copper nozzle which constricts the arc and the plasma exits the orifice at high velocities (approaching the speed of sound) and a temperature approaching 20,000 °C. This process uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode and an arc constricted through a fine-bore copper nozzle. PAW can be used to join all metals that are weldable with GTAW (i.e., most commercial metals and alloys). 5. Stresses and strains in welding Straining due to welding: Changes of stresses during welding both in the weld and the base material are the result of welding heat source acting on the welded structure. Stress control:
  5. 5. 6. Weld quality, weld imperfections (defects) Discontinuities / defects in Fusion Welds: - Fusion welding defects due wrong heat input, insufficient rate of weld metal deposition, and cooling. - Lack of bonding or gas porosity due to surface contaminants, including oxides, oils, etc. - Undesirable reactions with surface contaminants - Solidification cracks in the weld. - Solidification shrinkage coupled with solid shrinkage imposes internal tensile stresses on the structure, may lead to distortion. - Gases released or formed during welding (eg CO) can lead to porosity which weakens the joint and acts as a stress raiser 7. Industrial applications of welding - Arc welding of stainless steels and special steels: a) Heat exchangers of cracking installations in oil rafinery; b) One of 45 water supplies of steam heaters in 3300 MW power plant (1864 pipes of 16 mm diameter, wall thickness 0,8 mm) - Orbit welded hull of Astute class submarine (UK Navy) made of special very high strength steel. - Liquid fuel main tank of space shuttle: Ø8,5 m x 50 m;  8,1 mm; above 800 m welds, 100% quality inspection. Weld strength above 320 MPa at cryogenic temperature. - Rotor of wobble-plate engine (Cu) - Wing tip aileron of the Ariane rocket. - Resistance Spot Welding : Automatic assembly line of bodies-in-white (Daimler – Chrysler plant, Detroit) - Vacuum brazing of cutting tips in machining/cutting tools made of cemented carbides - Ultrasonic pressure welding of miniature outlets in high-level integrated circuits
  6. 6. 8. Main non-destructive weld testing methods Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage. In manufacturing, welds are commonly used to join two or more metal surfaces. Because these connections may encounter loads and fatigue during product lifetime, there is a chance that they may fail if not created to proper specification. During the process of casting a metal object, for example, the metal may shrink as it cools, which may introduce voids or cracks inside the structure. Some typical weld defects that need to be found and repaired in order to ensure the safe operation of a product are: lack of fusion of the weld to the metal, porous bubbles inside the weld, and variations in weld density, all of which could cause a structure to break or a pipeline to rupture. Welds may be tested using NDT techniques such as industrial radiography using X-rays or neutrons, liquid penetrant testing and other methods such as acoustic emission. In a perfect weld, these tests (the system input) would produce known results (such as a known radiographic response, or a clean penetrant surface). Tests that produce differing results may indicate flaws that would otherwise cost money, time, and even lives in the case of structures such as buildings or vehicles. It is important to record results from several different angles to be able to detect flaws in the weld.

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