ICT in Geography

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A talk to geographers about the use of ICT in their field

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ICT in Geography

  1. 1. Leveraging Geography with ICT <ul><ul><li>A R Dasgupta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(arup@ieee.org) ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bhaskaracharya Institute for Space Applications and Geoinformatics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gandhinagar </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Geography is critical to information infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul>I Keep six honest serving-men: (They taught me all I knew) Their names are What and Where and When And How and Why and Who. - Rudyard Kipling, &quot;The elephant's child”
  3. 3. Why ICT in Geography? <ul><li>Geographical information is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large in volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical – maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time varying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geographical data requires special instruments for acquisition, storage and processing </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical data processing is iterative and repetitive </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical visualisation requires 3D capability </li></ul>
  4. 4. ICT and Spatial Data <ul><li>Aerial photography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereo-plotting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remote Sensing from air and space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital image processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital photogrammetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GPS for accurate position location </li></ul><ul><li>Total station </li></ul>
  5. 5. Automation of Geoprocessing <ul><li>1970s: CAD adapted to automate map production </li></ul><ul><li>DBMS for data storage </li></ul><ul><li>Merger of CAD and DBMS – AM/FM </li></ul><ul><li>1980s: GIS emerges </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with remote sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with GPS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location based services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration with Internet -WebGIS </li></ul>
  6. 6. Geography in the New Millenium <ul><li>Geography has become </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geography has also become anarchic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatible systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of standards and interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardization and Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO TC211 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OGC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NSDI </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Science of Geography “ Geographic Information Science (GIScience) is the basic research field that seeks to redefine geographic concepts and their use in the context of geographic information systems. GIScience also examines the impacts of GIS on individuals and society, and the influences of society on GIS. GIScience re-examines some of the most fundamental themes in traditional spatially oriented fields such as geography, cartography, and geodesy, while incorporating more recent developments in cognitive and information science. It also overlaps with and draws from more specialized research fields such as computer science, statistics, mathematics, and psychology, and contributes to progress in those fields. It supports research in political science and anthropology, and draws on those fields in studies of geographic information and society.” - UCGIS, 1999
  8. 8. Research Areas in Geography <ul><li>Ontology of the geographical domain </li></ul><ul><li>Representation of geographical phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative spatial reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Computational geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Indexing, retrieval and search in geographical databases </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Map algebra </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive models of geographic phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>Human interaction with geographical information and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of geographical data </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of geographical data </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial analysis </li></ul>
  9. 9. Educational Agenda <ul><li>Geography should be treated as a science subject not social science </li></ul><ul><li>Revamp school curricula to reflect new areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GIS as an elective subject </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Include advanced topics in undergraduate and postgraduate courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ontologies, cognitive models, map algebra, cellular automata </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Research Agenda <ul><li>Visual analytics </li></ul><ul><li>Information semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Computational models of place </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive and ubiquitous geotechnology and geoinformation </li></ul><ul><li>Modelling space and time </li></ul><ul><li>Service oriented architectures </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive approach to modelling environments </li></ul>
  11. 11. Famous Indian Geographers <ul><li>The Great Trigonometric survey is attributed to him </li></ul>He introduced standard weights and measures, a land survey and settlement system, revenue districts and officers. Many of the fundamental data collection schemes as practiced over the centuries in the Indian subcontinent and neighbouring countries can be attributed to him. ?
  12. 12. The Challenge Your picture here Your research work here

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