Kochi city study(intro, history, demography, infrastructure, economy, tourism)

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an introduction to kochi city, its demographic characteristics, infrastructure, economy, history and tourism.

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Kochi city study(intro, history, demography, infrastructure, economy, tourism)

  1. 1. KOCHI CITY STUDY SHUBHI SONAL ARUN CHANDRA BABU APURVA TOMAR
  2. 2. •COMMERCIAL CAPITAL OF KERALA •9 58’ N LATITUDE & A LONGITUDE OF 76 16’E •LOCATED FACING THE ARABIAN SEA IN THE ERNAKULUM DISTRICT OF KERALA. •THE ENTIRE REGION COVERING FORT KOCHI, MATTANCHERRY, WELLINGTON ISLAND, MAINLAND ERNAKULAM AND ITS SUBURBIA (INCLUDING VYTTILA, VENNALA, EDAPALLY) IS GENERALLY REFERRED TO AS KOCHI (OR COCHIN) BECAUSE ALL THESE AREAS WERE PART OF THE ERSTWHILE KINGDOM OF KOCHI IN PREINDEPENDENCE INDIA. KOCHI KOCHU A SMALL BRANCH OF THE PERIYAR RIVER, WHICH FLOWS IN TO THE SEA MOUTH OF THE VEMBANAD ESTUARY, GAVE THIS PLACE THE NAME ‘COCHIN’. •DIVERSE COMMUNITY PROFILE COMPRISING OF HINDUS, MUSLIMS, JEWS, KONKANIS ETC INTRODUCTION KOCHI •LARGEST URBAN AGGLOMERATION IN THE STATE & 2ND LARGEST ON THE WESTERN COAST.
  3. 3. KOCHI CORPORATION, HEADED BY A MAYOR IS DIVIDED INTO 74 WARDS. FORT KOCHI, MATTANCHERRY AND ERNAKULAM WERE THE THREE MUNICIPALITIES IN COCHIN AREA, WHICH WAS LATER MERGED TO FORM THE COCHIN CORPORATION. THE CORPORATION HAS ITS HEADQUARTERS IN ERNAKULAM KOCHI KOCHI CITY REGION INCLUDES KOCHICORPORATION, THRIPUNITHURA MUNICIPALITY, KALAMASSERY MUNICIPALITY AND 14PANCHAYATS; ALTOGETHER ENCOMPASSING OF 369.72 SQ. KM AREA. HIGH COURT OF KERALA, THE HIGHEST JUDICIAL BODY IN THE STATE IS IN KOCHI KOCHI IS THE HEADQUARTERS OF THE SOUTHERN NAVAL COMMAND, THE PRIMARY TRAINING CENTRE OF THE INDIAN NAVY. SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI ADMINISTRATIVE SET UP
  4. 4. KOCHI IS A COASTAL SETTLEMENT INTERSPERSED WITH BACKWATER SYSTEM AND FRINGED ON THE EASTERN SIDE BY LATERITE CAPPED LOW HILLS FROM WHICH A NUMBER OF STREAMS ORIGINATE AND DRAIN INTO THE BACKWATER SYSTEM. •THE AREA ABOUNDS IN PLAINS, RIVERS, ESTUARIES, SEA COAST, ISLANDS AND OTHER TYPES OF NATURAL FEATURES. •AVERAGE ALTITUDE RANGES FROM 7.5M TO 1M ABOVE MSL FROM EAST TO WEST. •THE CHARACTERISTIC PHYSICAL FEATURE OF KOCHI IS THE EXPANSE OF BACKWATERS AND LOW LYING WET LANDS. •A NO. OF MAIN AND SECONDARY CANALS CRISS CROSS THE AREA. SOME ARE USED FOR TRANSPORTATION WHILE OTHERS ARE SUBJECT TO ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION DUE TO WASTE DUMPING GEOGRAPHY KOCHI • THE LOCATION OF KOCHI AT PAR WITH THE SEA LEVEL. KOCHI HAS A COASTLINE THAT STRETCHES UP TO A LENGTH OF ABOUT 48 KILOMETERS.
  5. 5. VEGETATION 18.44 % (6817.55 HECTARES) OF THE KOCHI CITY REGION REMAINS AS SHALLOW WET LANDS THAT IS EITHER PADDY OR FISH FARM AND MARSHY. THE PATENTED ‘POKKALI RICE’ IS BEING CULTIVATED IN THE PADDY FIELDS, WHICH NEEDSGOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT TO BE ECONOMICAL KOCHI BUT IN THE COASTAL PANCHAYATS THE FIELDS ARE CULTIVATED FOR SINGLE CROP AND USED FOR PRAWN FARMING DURING REST OF THE YEAR. THESE ACT AS OPEN LUNG SPACE IN THE CITY THE ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE AREAS OF KOCHI CITY REGION INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS:A. BACKWATERS B. MANGROVE AREAS C. LOW LANDS AND PADDY FIELDS D. CANAL SYSTEM SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES
  6. 6. •THE BACKWATERS ARE RICH IN THEIR MARINE FOODS AND HENCE FORM THE MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD FOR A LARGE PORTION OF THE POPULATION. IN SUMMER THE WETLANDS PARTIALLY DRY UP AND BECOME SUITABLE FOR PADDY CULTIVATION. MAP SHOWING MANGROVES IN KOCHI •THEY ARE USED FOR PISCICULTURE BY BUNDING AND IN FILLING BY WATER FROM THE BACK WATER. KOCHI •INDISCRIMINATE FILLING OF SUCH AREA IN RECENT TIMES IS OFTEN CREATING POSSIBILITIES OF FLOODING AND WATER LOGGING IN THE ADJOINING AREAS. MANGALAVANAM QUALIFIES THE CRITERIA FOR DECLARATION AS AN INTERNATIONAL IBA (IMPORTANT BIRD AREA) OF THE BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL DUE TO THE PRESENCE OF MORE THAN 1,500 LITTLE CORMORANT AND THE PRESENCE OF MORE THAN 1,000 BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON SOURCE:shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES
  7. 7. •INDISCRIMINATE DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES INTO THE CANALS AND THE DIRECT DISCHARGE OF UNTREATED WASTE WATER POSE THE BIGGEST THREAT TO COMMUNITY HEALTH AND SMOOTH FUNCTIONING OF THE CANAL SYSTEM. •AT PRESENT, THE KOCHI BACKWATER IS SUBJECTED TO SERIOUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERVENTIONS DUE TO DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN THE MAINLAND LIKE URBANIZATION (MAINLY BY DUMPING OF URBAN WASTES AND EFFLUENTS INTO THE SYSTEM THROUGH THE CANALS), INDUSTRIALIZATION (BOTH IN THE CORPORATION AND ADJOINING AREAS), ACTIVITIES IN THE PORT, SHIPYARD ETC. NATURAL RESOURCES KOCHI MOST OF THE LOWLANDS ARE GETTING FILLED UP AND CONVERTED FOR RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL PURPOSES. A MAJOR PART IS NOW REMAINING AS UNCULTIVATED AND AQUACULTURE IS BEING PRACTICED IN SOME AREAS LIKE KANNAMKODE AND CHAKKANATTUKARI.
  8. 8. 1341 A.D. KOCHI BECAME BIGGEST NATURAL PORT & CENTRE OF TRADE ON THE WESTERN COAST 1840 DEVELOPMENT OF ERNAKULAM AS ADMINISTRATIVE CENTER. EXPANSION OF TOWN EASTWARDS 1920 COCHIN PORT CREATED BY DREDGING. WELLINGDON ISLAND FORMED HISTORICAL TIMELINE 1503-1663 PORTUGUESE PERIOD : FORT KOCHI ESTD. 1940 ROAD AND RAIL LINKS CONNECTING ISLANDS AND WEST KOCHI TO EASTERN MAINLAND COMPLETED 1663-1773 DUTCH PERIOD 1773-1814 MYSOREAN INVASION 1967 COCHIN MUNICIPAL CORPORATIO N FORMED 1976 GCDA FORMED 2000 ECONOMIC BOOM IN ERNAKULAM LEADING TO MASSIVE URBANISATION IN AND AROUND KOCHI 1814-1947 BRITISH PERIOD KOCHI 1102 A.D. NEW PRINCELY STATE COMPRISING COCHIN FORMED
  9. 9. POST INDEPENDENCE SURGE IN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND URBANISATION 1920 DREDGING WORK STARTS FOR COCHIN PORT. WELLINGDON ISLAND FORMED. 1940 ROAD CONNECTION TO THE MAIN LAND ON THE WEST AND ROAD-RAIL CONNECTION TO THE EAST FROM THE ISLAND COMPLETED SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI EVOLUTION OF KOCHI : GROWTH STIMULANTS KOCHI 1870 INITIATION OF THE IDEA OF MAKING A GREAT HARBOUR, OUT OF THE UNIQUE LAGOONS IN KOCHI
  10. 10. KOCHI SECRETARIAT BUILDING JEWISH SYNAGOGUE DUTCH PALACE KOCHI PORT TRUST STATE ASSEMBLY BUILDING ST. FRANCIS CHURCH
  11. 11. DESIGN APPEARANCE OF TOWN AND VISUAL PLAN KOCHI CITY •KOCHI ORIGINATED AS A MODEST MARKET HARBOUR TOWN, AND GRADUALLY URBAN EXPANSION OUT GREW THE BOUNDARIES OF THE CITY. •THE DEVELOPMENTS WERE MAINLY ALONG THE TRAFFIC CORRIDORS LEAVING SMALL POCKETS OF UNDEVELOPED AREAS IN BETWEEN •MANY ROADS WERE LAID IN AN INCREMENTAL MANNER TO CATER TO THE INCREASED TRAFFIC DEMAND. •THE REGIONAL ROAD LINKAGES ARE SUPPLEMENTED BY AN EXTENSIVE NETWORK OF NAVIGATION ROUTES THROUGH THE LAGOON SYSTEM. •THE RAILWAY LINE DIVIDES THE CITY INTO TWO PARTS.
  12. 12. KOCHI SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI URBAN GROWTH IN KOCHI AND MAJOR URBAN CENTERS AROUND KOCHI
  13. 13. WELLINGDON ISLAND •Manmade •Residential/ •unclassified area MARINE DRIVE •recreational/ business activities; Broadway market MARADU •Commercial/ business activities SOURCE: www.corporationofcochin.net INTRODUCTION KOCHI FORT KOCHI •Heritage zone MATTANCHERY •Market area THRIKKAKARA •administrative + I.T. hub
  14. 14. GLIMPSES OF THE CITY KOCHI RECREATION: MARINE DRIVE COMMERCIAL: BROADWAY MARKET HERITAGE: FORT KOCHI
  15. 15. KOCHI CORPORATION AREA: KOCHI •PERSONS 6,01,574 •MALES 2,96,668 •FEMALES 3,04,906 •POPULATION GROWTH OF +5.6 % IN THE PAST DECADE 2001-2011 •95.5% LITERACY RATE IN KOCHI CITY. •35% OF POPULATION IS BELOW POVERTY LINE •POPULATION GROWTH RATE IS SHOWING A DECLINING TREND IN THE CORPORATION AREA ( 5.1%) DURING THE PAST THREE DECADES. THE SUBURBAN AREA AROUND THE CITY SHOWS CONSIDERABLY HIGH POPULATION GROWTH (9.11%). SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS AND PROJECTIONS SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI
  16. 16. KOCHI SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS AND PROJECTIONS
  17. 17. 4% CULTIVATORS AGRICULTURAL LABOUR 1% LIVE STOCK MINING AND QUARRYING 3% 0% MANUFACTURING CONSTRUCTION 18% 26% SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI 8% 15% 25% ECONOMIC BASE AND WORKFORCE CHARACTERISTICS KOCHI 0% ECONOMIC BASE: •EXPORT AND IMPORT •FISHING •MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES LIKE FACT, TRAVANCORE COCHIN CHEMICALS, HMT, APOLLO TYRES, SHIPBUILDING ETC. •INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENABLED SERVICES: WIPRO, TATA CONSULTANCY SERVICES AND COGNIZANT HAVE AN ACTIVE PRESENCE IN THE CITY. •TOURISM SECTOR •BANKING AND FINANCE SECTOR •PORT ACTIVITIES •COCHIN STOCK EXCHANGE
  18. 18. •KOCHI IS ONE OF THE FEW CITES OF INDIA WITH CONNECTION TO OTHER PARTS BY ALL MAJOR MODES OF TRANSPORT LIKE ROAD, RAIL, AIR AND WATER. NH 17, NH 47 AND NH 49; 3 NATIONAL WATERWAYS, AN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AND COCHIN PORT LOCATED ON STRATEGIC INTERNATIONAL ROUTE ARE THE MAJOR INTERCITY LINKAGES. •MAJORITY OF ROAD TRAFFIC ARE CONCENTRATED ALONG TWO EAST-WEST CORRIDORS OF THE CITY • THE BUSES CONTRIBUTE ABOUT 14% OF THE VEHICULAR TRAFFIC AND CARRY 73% OF THE PASSENGER TRAFFIC; CARS WITH 38 % OF VEHICULAR TRAFFIC AND 15 % OF PASSENGER TRIPS • TWO WHEELERS CONTRIBUTE 35% OF VEHICULAR TRAFFIC AND 8% OF PASSENGER TRAFFIC; • AUTO RICKSHAWS CONSTITUTE ABOUT 13% OF VEHICULAR TRAFFIC AND 4% OF PASSENGER TRIPS. SOURCE: www.corporationofcochin.net TRANSPORTATION AND CIRCULATION KOCHI •THE MAJOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT MODES IN KOCHI ARE CITY BUSES, AUTO RICKSHAWS AND FERRY BOATS OPERATED MAINLY BY PRIVATE OPERATORS.
  19. 19. KOCHI SOURCE: www.corporationofcochin.net TRANSPORTATION AND CIRCULATION
  20. 20. VEHICLES GROWTH 1990-2005 TWO WHEELERS 7.4 CARS 3.7 BUSES 5.8 GOODS VEHICLES 3.6 TOTAL ROAD LENGTH= 614 KMS DENSITY= 1.03 km/1000 population and 6.47 km/sq km TRANSPORTATION AND CIRCULATION SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI KOCHI KEY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN TRANSPORTATION SECTION •INADEQUATE LANE WIDTH TO CARRY THE PRESENT / FUTURE TRAFFIC VOLUMES; •VEHICLE CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE ROAD IS NOT GROWING PROPORTIONATE WITH THE GROWTH OF VEHICLES. • LACK OF ORGANIZED TAXI / AUTO STAND. •POOR PEDESTRIAN INFRASTRUCTURE (ABSENCE OF SUBWAY, FOOTPATH, PEDESTRIAN CROSSING ETC); •ABSENCE OF PROPERLY CONFIGURED INTERSECTIONS AND JUNCTION FLYOVERS •POOR ROAD MAINTENANCE (AS THERE IS RAIN FOR NEARLY 6 MONTHS, ROADS ARE DAMAGED VERY QUICKLY WHICH INCUR HEAVY COST ON MAINTENANCE OF THE ROADS)
  21. 21. THE PROJECT WAS DESIGNED TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION THE CULTURAL AND COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE OF THE CITY. LAND PRICES ARE EXPECTED TO GO UP ALONG THE METRO ROUTES. THE KOCHI METRO RAIL CORPORATION HAS PROPOSED AN ELEVATED ROUTE SPANNING 25.253 KM FROM THRIPUNITHURA TO ALUVA PROPOSED COCHIN METRO ROUTE KOCHI THE PROJECT AIMS TO INCREASE THE MOBILITY OF CITIZENS, WHICH IN TURN ENHANCE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND INCREASE THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF CITIZENS BY OFFERING THEM AN ALTERNATIVE MODE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT TO REACH JOBS, WORK, EDUCATION, LIVELIHOOD , ENTERTAINMENT AND OTHER SOCIAL ACTIVITIES.
  22. 22. • KOCHI IS LIKELY TO WITNESS A PROLIFERATION OF APARTMENTS AND FLATS IN THE NEAR FUTURE IF THE PRESENT TREND CONTINUES. ON THE ONE SIDE, THERE IS MUCH DEMAND FOR APARTMENTS FROM THE RETURNING NRI POPULATION. ON THE OTHER HAND, THE LEADING EXECUTIVES IN THE STATE AND FROM OTHER PARTS OF THE COUNTRY WANT TO SET UP SHOP IN THE MOST HAPPENING PLACE IN KERALA. KOCHI •THRIKKAKKARA REGION HAS HIGHER DENSITY OF HIGH RISE APARTMENTS AND VILLAS. SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI HOUSING CONDITION AND FUTURE NEED
  23. 23. SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI •IN MATTANCHERY REGION MOST OF THE HOUSES ARE OLD OR IN DILAPIDATED STAGE. •IN FORT KOCHI AND IN SOME PART OF THE WELLINGTON ISLAND THERE ARE A FEW FISHERMEN'S COLONIES. HOUSING CONDITION AND FUTURE NEED KOCHI •SLUMS IN KOCHI ARE SCATTERED ALL OVER THE CITY AND THAT MAKES IT DIFFICULT TO DISTINGUISH SLUM AREA FROM REGULAR HABITATION. THE EXCEPTION IS MATTANCHERY WHERE ONE CAN SEE REAL SLUMS. •ABOUT 90% OF THE HOUSING SHORTAGE PERTAINS TO THE WEAKER SECTION
  24. 24. •VATHURUTHY, A BIG SLUM IS LOCATED IN THE WILLINGDON ISLAND. THE AREA IS THICKLY POPULATED WITH 22,000 PEOPLE OF 2100 FAMILIES (1500 TAMIL FAMILIES AND 600 MALAYALAM FAMILIES) PACKED LIKE BEEHIVES. •NATIVES HAVE THEIR OWN HOUSES OF VARIOUS TYPES WITH A FEW CENTS OF LAND. ALL THE MIGRANT PEOPLE ARE LIVING IN RENTED HUTS. KEY ISSUES IN THE SLUMS •INSECURITY OF TENURE AND HOUSING AND POOR SANITARY FACILITY; • ACUTE SCARCITY OF POTABLE WATER; • POOR STANDARDS OF HEALTH & NUTRITION; • SOCIAL SECURITY- THREAT FACED BY WOMEN HEADED FAMILIES, MOST VULNERABLE, PHYSICALLY MENTALLY CHALLENGED, BEDRIDDEN, CHRONIC ILL PATIENTS AND STREET CHILDREN; • POOR STANDARDS OF EDUCATION AND LITERACY, WHICH HAS A PARTICULAR IMPACT ON WOMEN AND; • POOR TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES FROM REMOTE SLUM SETTLEMENTS TO THE MAINSTREAM; • EXTREMELY LIMITED EMPLOYMENT AND INCOME EARNING OPPORTUNITIES; AND LIMITED PROVISION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES AND INFRASTRUCTURE. SLUMS IN KOCHI KOCHI SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI
  25. 25. FUTURE NEED •IDENTIFICATION AND PLANNED USE OF VACANT LAND IS NECESSARY IN THE RESIDENTIAL SECTOR. •CONSTRUCTION OF MULTIFAMILY DWELLING UNIT TO MOST VULNERABLE HOMELESS, LANDLESS PEOPLE AND OCCUPANTS OF DILAPIDATED BUILDINGS; •RELOCATION OF SLUMS LOCATED IN HAZARDOUS AND VULNERABLE AREAS KOCHI KEY ISSUES IN HOUSING SECTER • RAPID INCREASE OF MIGRANT POPULATION • DUE TO SCARCITY AND SOARING PRICE OF LAND URBAN POOR ARE PERSUADED TO STAY IN PURAMBOKE LANDS OR RENTAL HOMES. • LACK OF TENURE SECURITY • LACK OF LAND MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR THE CITY • LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS RELATED TO GRANT OF PATTAYAM • LACK OF AWARENESS IN LOW COST TECHNOLOGY AND TENURE ISSUES •DILAPIDATED BUILDINGS IN MATTANCHERRY. • COST OF CONSTRUCTION AND BUILDING MATERIALS ARE INCREASING • ADMINISTRATIVE DELAY, SHORTAGE OF SKILLED STAFF AND LACK OF COORDINATION. • LACK OF LAND USE DATA BANK SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI HOUSING CONDITION AND FUTURE NEED
  26. 26. •EDUCATION : THERE ARE SEVERAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE CITY THAT MEET ITS EDUCATIONAL NEEDS. AS PER DATA AVAILABLE FOR THE YEAR 2011, THERE ARE 119 SCHOOLS WITHIN THE CORPORATION OF KOCHI. MAJORITY OF THESE INSTITUTIONS ARE RUN BY THE PRIVATE AGENCIES •HEALTH: THERE ARE SUPER SPECIALTY HOSPITALS, PRIMARY HEALTH CENTERS AND PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN THE CITY PREMISES. THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN THE SLUMS AND OTHER SETTLEMENT AREAS OF THE URBAN POOR ARE VERY POOR AND THEY LACK PROPER HEALTH CARE FACILITIES. •CIVIC AMENITIES: THERE ARE PUBLIC LIBRARIES, PLAY GROUNDS, INTERNATIONAL STADIUMS, PARKS, WORKING WOMEN'S HOSTELS UNDER GCDA. COMMUNITY FACILITIES AND PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE KOCHI •SOCIAL SECURITY: OWING TO THE PORT AND WIDER EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES KOCHI CITY, ATTRACTS A RANGE OF POOR MIGRANTS WHO END UP AND SOMETIMES REMAIN ON THE STREET, SLEEPING IN BUS STAND, RAILWAY STATIONS, AND BEACH AND IN THE MARKET. THESE TRANSIENT GROUPS HAVE LITTLE CAPACITY TO HELP THEMSELVES TO BREAK THIS CYCLE AND OFTEN REMAIN IN THE STREET INDEFINITELY. COCHIN CORPORATION HAS CONSTRUCTED NIGHT SHELTERS FOR WOMEN, STREET GIRLS, STREET BOYS, STREET ADULTS AND OTHER 5 REHABILITATION CENTERS.
  27. 27. URBAN POOR AND LIVELIHOOD: SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT, IRREGULAR EMPLOYMENT AND LOW PAYMENT ARE MAJOR HAZARDS AMONG THE URBAN POOR. THE INFORMAL ACTIVITIES MAINLY CONCENTRATE AROUND MAJOR ROAD NETWORK IN THE CITY SUCH AS ROAD MARGINS, FOOT PATHS, SPACE IN SMALL MARKET AREAS ETC. THE MAJOR AREAS OF INFORMAL ACTIVITIES IN KOCHI CITY ARE SHANMUKHM ROAD, BROADWAY, M. G ROAD ETC SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT : IN CORPORATION AND SURROUNDINGS CLEAN KERALA UNITS ARE STARTED TO COLLECT SOLID WASTE FROM HOUSEHOLDS AND HOTELS IN THE CITY. AT PRESENT THERE ARE 21 UNITS FUNCTIONING. IN CORPORATION AND SURROUNDINGS THERE ARE VERY FEW UNITS OF BIOGAS PLANTS AND VERMI-COMPOST UNITS. THERE IS A SOLID WASTE TREATMENT PLANT IN BRAMAPURAM COCHIN CORPORATION. COMMUNITY FACILITIES AND PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE KOCHI ROADS AND TRANSPORTATION: BETTER ACCESS OF THE POOR TO THE PUBLIC TRANSPORT IS OF GREAT SIGNIFICANCE RELATED TO THEIR PROVERTY. THE RESIDENTIAL AREAS OF SLUM DWELLERS ARE INACCESSIBLE TO PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES. DILAPIDATED AND POOR ROADS, SUB ROADS AND BYE LANES MAKE THEIR LIFE PATHETIC.
  28. 28. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN KOCHI KOCHI KEY ISSUES IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMNT •CITY WIDE WASTE COLLECTION SERVICE DOES NOT REACH MOST OF THE SLUMS AND URBAN POOR RESIDENTIAL AREAS. •ABSENCE OF EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE PRIMARY WASTE COLLECTION IN KOCHI AND SURROUNDINGS. •LACK OF AWARENESS AMONG THE URBAN POOR REGARDING PROPER SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL. •OPEN DRAINAGE, CANALS AND VACANT LAND BECOME WASTE DUMPING PLACES. •INADEQUACY OF WASTE BINS IN SLUMS. •NO PROVISION FOR DAILY REMOVAL OF WASTE FROM EXISTING BINS CREATES ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. •URBAN POOR HAVE LIMITED LAND PREMISES TO SEGREGATE OR DISPOSE WASTE. RELUCTANCE OF SLUM DWELLERS AND URBAN POOR RESIDENCE TO PAY A NOMINAL COLLECTION CHARGES OR SERVICE CHARGE.
  29. 29. SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI SOURCE: www.corporationofcochin.net CURRENT LAND USE PATTERN KOCHI •INDUSTRIAL AREA IS DISTRIBUTED OVER VARIOUS POCKETS OF THE CITY. •VERY FEW PATCHES OF OPEN SPACE LEFT AMIDST THE RESIDENTIAL AREAS •A MAJOR PORTION OF THE LAND OCCUPIED BY WATER FEATURES SUCH AS CANALS, WATERWAYS ETC. •COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES ARE CONCENTRATED NEAR THE MARINE DRIVE AREA. •LARGE TRACTS OF LAND ALLOCATED FOR PADDY CULTIVATION ADDS TO THE LUNGSPACE OF THE CITY
  30. 30. •INDUSTRIAL ZONE IS BEING PUSHED TOWARDS THE PEROPHERAL AREAS OF THE CITY ON THE EAST. •INDUSTRIAL BELT BEAR MARINE DRIVE HAS BEEN REMOVED. THE AREA WILL BE DEVELOPED AS A CITY CENTER. •OTHER CITY CENTERS WILL BE COMING UP IN VYTILLA (MOBILITY HUB) AND EDAPALLY( MEETING POINT OF NH17 AND NH47). •KALAMASSERY AND THRIKKAKARA WILL BECOME HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL AREAS. IT HUB IS LOCATED IN THIS PART OF THE CITY. HIGHRISE APARTMENTS ARE RAPIDLY COMING UP TO CATER TO THE WORKING POPULATION. NEED FOR COMMON PUBLIC FACILITIES. •GOVT. POLICY TO FILL UP PADDY FIELD AND USE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF IT SEZs. SOURCE: www.corporationofcochin.net LANDUSE PATTERN, SUBDIVISION CONTROL & ZONING KOCHI •HERITAGE AREA HAS BEEN INTRODUCED AS A SEPARATE CATEGORY IN FORT KOCHI
  31. 31. PLANNING SUB DIVISION 1 (THRIKKAKARA): •EASTERN BOUNDARY OF THE PLANNING AREA ON THE EAST IS EARMARKED FOR INDUSTRIAL USE (IT/ ITES) •PREFERRED LOCATION FOR LARGE SCALE PROJECTS PLANNING SUB DIVISION 2 (KALAMASSERY): PREFERRED LOCATION FOR LARGE SCALE PROJECTS •LARGE SCALE PROJECTS •NO NEW OBNOXIOUS AND HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIES OTHER THAN THE EXPANSION OF EXISTING UNITS SHALL BE CONSIDERED. PLANNING DIVISION 9 – ELOOR •PREFERRED LOCATION FOR LARGE SCALE PROJECTS. •OBNOXIOUS AND HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIES COULD BE CONSIDERED SOURCE: www.corporationofcochin.net SUBDIVISION CONTROL AND ZONING REGULATIONS KOCHI PLANNING DIVISION 7 – VADAVUKODU
  32. 32. CONSIDERING THE MAGNITUDE OF THE POOR, VARIOUS WELFARE AND POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES WERE CARRIED OUT IN ORDER TO ARE SHOWN IN THE TABLE. KOCHI SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS
  33. 33. KOCHI SOURCE: CDP, KOCHI BUDGET, INCOME EXPENDITURE
  34. 34. SPECIFIC ISSUES •URBAN SPRAWL AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT •INFRASTRUCTURE: ROADS ,WATER SUPPLY, SEWERAGE, SURFACE WATER DRAINAGE AND SOLID •WATER BODIES •ECONOMIC POTENTIAL •ESCALATING LAND VALUE •INFORMAL SECTORS •GROWTH OF SLUMS PLANNING ISSUES KOCHI WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
  35. 35. THE LOCATION, ALL WEATHER PORT, RELATED FACILITIES AND THE UPCOMING ICTT MAKE KOCHI ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT PORT FACILITIES IN INDIA. MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS FAVORABLE HUMAN RESOURCES PRESENCE OF IWT, RAILWAYS, NATIONL HIGHWAYS, MRTS AND CONNECTING BRIDGES FAVORABLE FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH AND MOVEMENT OF WORKERS SKILLED MANPOWER IN THE YOUNG AND MIDDLE AGE GROUP AVAILABLE AS LITERACY RATE IS HIGHEST IN INDIA. NEED FOR INVESTMENT TO STOP MIGRATION OF SKILLED MANPOWER. GREAT POTENTIAL IN I.T, TOURISM, INFRASTRUCTURE AND EDUCATION SECTORS LOWER LAND PRICES, GOOD COMMUNICATIONS INFRASTRUCTURE , LOW LABOUR COSTS AND GOVERNMENT’S INITIATIVES TO PROMOTE IT/ITES. HERITAGE AND TOURISM SECTOR RICH ARCHITECTURAL, NATURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE. NEED FOR AWARENESS CREATION, FORMULATION OF DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES & IMPLEMENTATION ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES & FUTURE PROSPECTS KOCHI SHIPPING INDUSTRY
  36. 36. THE GREATER COCHIN DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY’S VISION 2030 AIMS TO DECONGEST THE CENTRAL DISTRICT THROUGH DECENTRALISED DEVELOPMENT AND ELEVATE KOCHI TO THE STATUS OF A GLOBAL CITY THE GCDA WILL GIVE PRIORITY TO PROJECTS LIKE RING ROAD, INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION CENTRE, CHELLANAM SATELLITE TOWNSHIP AND AN ENTERTAINMENT ZONE AT MARINE DRIVE, UNDER VISION 2030. SOME OF THE PROJECTS, INCLUDING THE 250-ACRE CHELLANAM TOWNSHIP, WOULD BE FUNDED THROUGH THE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTICIPATORY (PPP) MODEL. MAJOR CHALLENGE BEFORE THE ADMINISTRATION WOULD BE THE LAW BANNING FILLING AND DEVELOPMENT OF PADDY FIELDS FOR CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES. SOURCE: www.corporationofcochin.net FUTURE PROSPECTS: GLOBAL CITY DEVELOPMENT OF WATER TRANSPORT WILL GET PRIORITY, ESPECIALLY IN VIEW OF ITS TOURISM POTENTIAL KOCHI THE EIGHT DIVISION CENTRES PROPOSED TO DECONGEST THE CITY ARE KALOOR, KADAVANTHARA, TRIPUNITTURA, RAMESHWAR AM, PALLURUTHY, THRIKKAKARA, CHERANELLORE AND ELAMKUNNAPPUZHA.

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