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A STUDY ON THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE CONSUMER BUYING
BEHAVIOUR REGARDING THE BRANDED APPARELS AMONGST THE
                ...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


More information is needed to understand the male consumer. Although expanding in the
past five years,...
If we talk about the scope of this study in future then the scope of such study is very
wider. Scope of the study is that ...
INTRODUCTION



APPARELS FASION.


Apparel fashion has always changed no matter what category of apparel it is, and men’s
...
This research investigates
Cultural factors such as apparel involvement, media, and reference group influences, self-
este...
INTRODUCTION TO SUBJECT

Consumer Buying Behaviour:

Consumer Behaviour is defined as the behaviour that consumer displays...
marketing mix. Segmentation studies are designed to discover the needs & wants of the
specific groups of the consumers so ...
As in this competition era you must be aware about the customer needs & wants & what
a consumer expects from the company. ...
In dealing with any real life problem it is often found that data at hand are inadequate,
and hence, it becomes necessary ...
After collection of data another work necessary for any data collector is to correctly
analysis that data. So statistical ...
Degree of freedoms=(R-1)(C-1)
                  Level of significance=5




INTRODUCTION TO APPAREL INDUSTRY

The Multi-Fi...
The history of textiles in India dates back to the use of mordant dyes and printing blocks
around 3000 BC. The diversity o...
Every player have their different product portfolio in a particular apparel segment
Or there are many players in each appa...
 FAB INDIA
           MILLIONAIRE
           HERITAGE
           DIWAN SAHEB
           AMARSONS
           SIYARAMS...
operationalized in the context of conjoint measurement. In total, 5,364 respondents
participated in interviews testing dri...
more rigorously enforced or self-policed. One of the most important findings is that 70
percent of sites visited by childr...
brands than foreign brands, and consider Australian luxury brands superior to all three
foreign brands with regards to eas...
mainland China, affect retail businesses in Hong Kong. indicate that in the year 2000,
shopping expenditure accounted for ...
this age group “has roughly doubled every ten years over the last three decades”


Jensen, 2006 Although there is a stable...
Sexton and Perlman (2005) In a study involving single and dual income families
reported that dual income wives perceived t...
continue to evolve, through new variants and line extensions, in order to satisfy the
demand that they be updated. Marketi...
buy these products household goods companies have to be sure that their distribution
chains also provide good service. Thi...
Aware                  %age
                        Yes                    100
                        No                 ...
Ho: Branded apparels are least preferred by the youth.
            .
Ha: Branded apparels are Highly preferred by the yout...
Corporate                 14
                           Casual                    51
                           Sports    ...
As the Chi-square test statistics 48.52 exceeds the critical value of 7.81 hence null
hypothesis is rejected and hence alt...
 Ethnic Wears




Interpretation:
Millionaire dominates this category with a whooping 18% share because of its recent
out...
 Sports Wears




Interpretation:
Adiads runs through all other top brands to finish first with 22% share due to its univ...
 Casual Wears




Interpretation:
Out of the top ten brands surveyed in casual category, 16% prefer Killer because Killer...
range of colors and comfort. Fourth position is shared by Lee Cooper, Pepe Jeans and
Duke.




PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
    ...
The chart depicts that majority of the people seldom try new clothes every season and
nearly one-fourth of the people try ...
The chart depicts that almost half of the sample size usually tends to buy well-known
labels and the demand for labels dec...
 I ask my friends what they are wearing to an event before I decide what to wear.




According to the survey majority of...
 I wear different clothes to impress people.




According to the survey more than one-third of the respondents not very ...
5. Reference group which influence the purchasing.

                        Reference groups     %age
                    ...
HYPOTHESIS TESTING
Step1: State Hypothesis:
Ho: Friends are not most favored reference group which influence youth to go f...
Television                       47
                   Radio                            3
                   Newspaper    ...
3          10             16.67        -6.67        44.49            2.66
   4          21             16.67        4.33  ...
Interpretation:
   Out of the sample of 100 male, From above table & graph we found that 47 % of the
   males are qualifyi...
Interpretation: Survey which we have conducted, out of 100 respondents 91% of the
respondents are single that they are un-...
Rs. 20001-25000                     11
               Above Rs. 25000                     0




      Interpretation:

   ...
 Branded apparels are mostly preferred by the male youth when there are so many
   national & international brands are ex...
 Today’s youth sometimes ask their friends about their apparels before choosing
   ones apparel for an event and hence do...
CONCLUSION

From the survey that was conducted, we conclude that majority of the people are inclined
more towards casuals....
LIMITATIONS:

There are following constraints of the study which can be explained as:-


    The time of research was sho...
RECOMMENDATIONS

After studying the buying behaviour of the youth of Jalandhar regarding the
branded apparels, what we rec...
BIBLIOGRAPHY:

REFERENCES:

   Agnes Nairn (2008), Armstrong, G.M., Goldberg, M.E. "Children's uses of
     cognitive def...
 Eun Joo Park (2005), Building Strong Brands, Free Press, Boston, MA.,
 Frank     Jacob    Block,      W.   (2006),   "P...
 Kent, W.E., Shock, P.J., Snow, R.E. (1983), "Shopping: tourism's unsung
     hero(ine)", Journal of Travel Research, Vol...
QUESTIONNAIRE:


                                    QUESTIONNAIRE
 Dear Sir,
I Pankaj Kaundal, student of MBA 4th Semeste...
Yes                 No



Q.2 Degree of preferences of the branded apparels amongst you.



      Mostly Preferred

      ...
Q.4    If you have to choose from the below listed apparels segment & brands which
               brands of particular app...
i)        I have more self-confidence when I wear Branded clothes of my choice clothes

     j)        Again you go with t...
Q.8    What is the highest level of education you have completed?



          a) Intermediate (+2)         b) Bachelor’s ...
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Apparels Project In Retail

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  1. 1. A STUDY ON THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR REGARDING THE BRANDED APPARELS AMONGST THE YOUTH (MALES).
  2. 2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY More information is needed to understand the male consumer. Although expanding in the past five years, research about the buying behaviors of consumers has tended to avoid males. Retailers and marketers should understand the immense diversity among consumers if they are to market apparel accurately and successfully. The purpose of this research was to investigate males to examine if differences in their buying behavior for apparel exist. In addition, consumer attributes (i.e., apparel involvement, self-esteem, reference group, social class, and media) and personal characteristics were investigated separately and in relation to the purchase behavior of male. Objective behind this capstone project which we are going to conduct on the buying behavior of the male towards branded apparels are:  To study & analyse the brand preference of youth in buying branded apparels.  To study the most preferred brand in the apparels segment amongst the youth  To study impact of psychological factors on buying of youth regarding apparels.  To study the factors which influence the buying behaviour for branded apparels Need of this project is that As in this competition era you must be aware about the customer needs & wants & what a consumer expects from the company. You must have this information or a customer data base if u wants to stay in the market to competitive edge in the market. After conducting this study we must be able to under stand what customers wants from a brand, why he switches to other brand, what are the factor which force him to purchase branded apparels. By which company can formulate the strategies as per the customer needs & deliver them the products which consumer want from the company which will be profitable for the company.
  3. 3. If we talk about the scope of this study in future then the scope of such study is very wider. Scope of the study is that after gathering the information about the youth who like to purchase the branded apparels & after studying the factors which influence them to go with that specific brand, it includes demographic factors, cultural influences, & social class .This study will be helpful for the companies who are in this business segment of apparels. They will be able to know the taste & need of the consumer & what will be the products & services which will help them to change the non user into user of their brand & retain their existing customer by providing them the products which they want from the company. This study will help them to formulate & implementing the marketing strategies.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION APPARELS FASION. Apparel fashion has always changed no matter what category of apparel it is, and men’s business wear is no exception. Social forces are believed to influence fashion including men’s. Ones spouse, family and culture are some of the forces that change fashion. An example of ones spouse influencing an individual, when he buys apparel, is that she may accompany him and offer suggestions when he purchases items of apparel. A male consumer’s family and culture can influence his purchase decision because of the social interaction he has with them, including whether his dress is acceptable to the group Identification of the role of apparel as a sign of business success is not a new concept. A review of related literature revealed that self-image/product image congruity was related to an individual’s behavior to a particular item and that apparel products had symbolic meaning. Studies have considered the relationship between the self and apparel and have taken into account the various aspects of the self such as actual self-image and ideal self- image. If the image of an outfit were a positive match with the self-image, including both the actual self and the ideal self, the apparel item would be worn most of the time. Statement of the Problem Market segmentation has become an important tool used by retailers and marketers for identifying target customers. Segmentation as the process of partitioning markets into segments of potential customers who have similar characteristics and who are likely to exhibit similar purchasing behavior. Segmentation has become a major tool of companies for planning marketing strategies. Segmentation research has several objectives that include analyzing markets, finding a niche, and developing and capitalizing on a superior competitive position.
  5. 5. This research investigates Cultural factors such as apparel involvement, media, and reference group influences, self- esteem and social class. It also investigates demographics such as income and age. Do cultural influences, how much money they earn, and their age make a difference in their apparel choices? Do they let their wives chose their clothes or do they make these choices?
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION TO SUBJECT Consumer Buying Behaviour: Consumer Behaviour is defined as the behaviour that consumer displays in the searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating, & disposing of the products & services that they expect will satisfy their needs. Consumer Behaviour focuses on how consumer make the decisions to spend their available resources (Time, Money, Efforts) on consumption related items. That includes what they buy ,why they buy it , when they buy it, where the buy it , how often they buy it ,how often they use it ,how often they evaluate it after the purchase & the impact of such evaluations on future purchases.1 Market segmentation in Consumer Behaviour: Market Segmentation is defined as the process of dividing a market into distinct subsets of the consumers with common needs or characteristics and the selecting one or more segments to target with a distinct
  7. 7. marketing mix. Segmentation studies are designed to discover the needs & wants of the specific groups of the consumers so that the specialized goods & services can be developed & satisfy each group’s need To understand the consumer buying behaviour we have two consumer decision making models on the basis of which we can study the buying behaviour of the male towards branded apparels These models are NICOSIA MODEL & EKB MODEL of consumer decision making: OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Objective behind this capstone project which we are going to conduct on the buying behavior of the male towards branded apparels are:  To study & analyse the brand preference of youth in buying branded apparels.  To study the most preferred brand in the apparels segment amongst the youth  To study impact of psychological factors on buying of youth regarding apparels.  To study the factors which influence the buying behaviour for branded apparels Need of the study:
  8. 8. As in this competition era you must be aware about the customer needs & wants & what a consumer expects from the company. You must have this information or a customer data base if u wants to stay in the market to competitive edge in the market. After conducting this study we must be able to under stand what customers wants from a brand, why he switches to other brand, what are the factor which force him to purchase branded apparels. By which company can formulate the strategies as per the customer needs & deliver them the products which consumer want from the company which will be profitable for the company. Scope of the study Scope of the study is that after gathering the information about the youth who like to purchase the branded apparels & after studying the factors which influence them to go with that specific brand ,it includes demographic factors, cultural influences, & social class .This study will be helpful for the companies who are in this business segment of appearals.they will be able to know the taste & need of the consumer & what will be the products & services which will help them to change the non user into user of their brand & retain their existing customer by providing them the products which they want from the company. This study will help them to formulate & implementing the marketing strategies. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Research Design: A research design is an arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of Data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with Economy in procedure. It constitutes the blueprint for collection, measurement and analysis of data. My research design will be exploratory research design. Data Sources:
  9. 9. In dealing with any real life problem it is often found that data at hand are inadequate, and hence, it becomes necessary to collect data that are appropriate. The researcher can collect data either through primary source or secondary source. a) Primary data: These are those data which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character. I will be using the structured questioners. b) Secondary data: These are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. I will collect it from the sources like internet, published data etc. Population of the study Youth (Male) of Jalandhar will be included in population. Sampling Size: It is the total number of respondents targeted for collecting the data for the research. Sample size of 100 persons will be taken for this research. Sampling Technique: Random sampling technique will be used in this research project. Sampling Frame: Frame is the list of respondents. DATA PROCESSING Daily data will be entered into MS-Excel sheets. After the exhaustion of the specified geographical area this data will be analyzed using simple graphical and tabulation techniques. The data sheets mentioned here will be attached in the annexure of the report. Analytical Tools
  10. 10. After collection of data another work necessary for any data collector is to correctly analysis that data. So statistical tolls helps us to correctly analysis the data .As I will using here the software named SPSS for analysis of the data XLSTAT. I will use following statistical tools: Hypothesis Testing Chi-square test will be used when the set of observed frequencies obtained after experimentation have to be supported by hypothesis or theory. The test is known as X2- test of goodness of fit and is used to test if the deviation between observation (experiment) and theory may be attributed to chance (fluctuations of sampling).χ 2 also enables us to explain whether or not two attributes are associated or related to each other. To test the goodness of fit The null and alternative hypothesis to be tested is as follows: Null Hypothesis Ho: There positive correlation between the demographic factors & Physiological factors. Alternative Hypothesis H1: There is a negative correlation between the demographic factors & Physiological factors. STATISTICAL TOOLS TO BE USED 1. Chi –Square Test Procedure: (1) Set up the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the observed and expected value. (2) We compute the value of CHI- square by using the formula CHI-square = ∑ χ2=Σ (( Oi- Ei)2/Ei) O- Observed value E- Expected value
  11. 11. Degree of freedoms=(R-1)(C-1) Level of significance=5 INTRODUCTION TO APPAREL INDUSTRY The Multi-Fibre Agreement (MFA), that had governed the extent of textile trade between nations since 1962, expired on 1 January, 2005. It is expected that, post-MFA, most tariff distortions would gradually disappear and firms with robust capabilities will gain in the global trade of textile and apparel. The prize is the $360 bn market which is expected to grow to about $600 bn by the year 2010 – barely five years after the expiry of MFA. An important question facing Indian firms is whether their capabilities and their diverse supply chain are aligned to benefit from the opening up of global textile market?
  12. 12. The history of textiles in India dates back to the use of mordant dyes and printing blocks around 3000 BC. The diversity of fibres found in India, intricate weaving on its state-of- art manual looms and its organic dyes attracted buyers from all over the world for centuries. The British colonization of India and its industrial policies destroyed the innovative eco-system and left it technologically impoverished. Independent India saw the building up of textile capabilities, diversification of its product base, and its emergence, once again, as an important global player. Today, the textile and apparel sector employs 35.0 mn people (and is the 2nd largest employer), generates 1/5th of the total export earnings and contributes 4 per cent to the GDP thereby making it the largest industrial sector of the country. This textile economy is worth US $37 bn and its share of the global market is about 5.90 per cent. The sector aspires to grow its revenue to US $85bn, its export value to US $50bn and employment to 12 million by the year 2010 (Texmin 2005). In the Indian Market so many National as well as International brand in different apparel segment which include:  Corporate Wears  Ethnic Wears  Sports Wears  Casual Wears PLAYERS IN APPARELS MARKET As we have discussed that there are so many players are rulling in the Indian apparels industry out of which some players are national Players & some players are of International standards
  13. 13. Every player have their different product portfolio in a particular apparel segment Or there are many players in each apparel segment which we have discussed above i.e. corporate/formal wears, ethnic wears, Sports wears & casual wear segment PLAYERS  Corporate Wear’s segment  LOUIS PHILLIP  JOHN PLAYERS  PROVOGUE  PETER ENGLAND  PARK AVENUE  DONEAR  MAYUR  COTTON COUNTY  Casual Wear’s Segment  SPYKAR  PEPE  LEE COOPER  MONTE CARLO  LEVIS  CHARLE OUTLAW  KUTONS  DUKE Ethnic Wear’s Segment  TIMBERLAND  LIBAS
  14. 14.  FAB INDIA  MILLIONAIRE  HERITAGE  DIWAN SAHEB  AMARSONS  SIYARAMS  VIMAL  CAMBRIDGE Sports Wear’s Segment  REEBOK  NIKE  ADIDAS  FILA  YONEX  HEAD  PUMA  POLO REVIEW OF LITERATURE Gabay Gillie(2009):- The purpose of this paper is to empirically test the consumer- centered approach to brand management theorized by Rust, Zeithaml and Lemon in 2004 to assist companies in reducing the depreciation of brand equity. Brand equity was
  15. 15. operationalized in the context of conjoint measurement. In total, 5,364 respondents participated in interviews testing drivers of brand equity for six brands each in apparels. It was found that brands did not hold much beyond their name. Companies holding strong brands will need to define product design & Faison in terms of their perceived functionality across consumer cutting edge methodology to test mindset segmentation by combinations of product features as a new basis for brand management was used. In contrast to traditional segments. Companies are to build and position brands around customer segments. The study focused on brands in the textile industry requiring the replication to additional industries. Data from the large-scale study revealed that across categories brand value may not hold much beyond the name in the minds of consumers. It was found that mindset segmentation may be a basis for brand management. Messages that focused on product functionality were found to be stronger drivers of preference of one brand over another. Product quality & design instead of brand names emerged as the primary source of value across segments. Nukhet Harmancioglu (2009): An executive summary for managers and executive readers can be found at the end of this article. Scholars have taken an interest in impulse purchasing for over 50 years. Not surprisingly, many crucial insights emerge from these studies. For instance, proposed that consumers attempt to control their innate impulsive tendencies because they perceive impulse buying as normatively wrong and do not want to be perceived as immature or lacking behavioral control. Despite the risks and the negative normative associations with such behavior, found that impulse buying is present in most product classes. Their study also reveals that between 27 and 62 percent of department store merchandise is bought on impulse. Agnes Nairn (2008): A total of 40 sites popular with children were inspected and their commercial content discussed with a range of young people and parents across the country. By and large the internet is a safe, exciting and stimulating environment for children. However, it is also clear that current regulations to protect children from the risks of harm and deception from online commercial agents need to be tightened and
  16. 16. more rigorously enforced or self-policed. One of the most important findings is that 70 percent of sites visited by children are not created with a child-only audience in mind. The advertising space and merchandising activity is therefore often unsuitable. The majority of TV programmes watched by children are, of course, also viewed by adults but the existence of the watershed is one attempt made to protect children. Of the adverts encountered across sites, 25 percent were for dating, gambling, credit, surgery and age- restricted products and services. Children were upset by intimate dating material and parents worried about the long-term impact of ubiquitous incitement to borrow and gamble. Advertising on sites specifically targeting children was often unfair and deceptive. Almost three-quarters of adverts were not labeled and over one-fifth hidden in the site content. While children gradually learn how to tell entertainment from commerce the true nature of advergames was not even understood by 16 year-olds. “Free” offers were prolific and many employed pressure tactics to urge children to buy immediately using mobile phone or solo cards Götze Elisabeth(2008):- The purpose of the paper is to analyze children's impact on innovation decision making empirically. This paper is a diary study with 14 parents depicting their experiences with regard to the topic of interest over a period of two weeks. This paper helps marketers tailor appropriate marketing and innovation strategies. Special attention is given to the familial dynamics in the innovation decision-making process. This is to prevent inter-family conflicts fuelled by the children's requests. This is one of the first attempts to test Rogers' innovation-decision process. Moreover, despite its many bonuses, the diary method has rarely been applied in the context of familial purchase decision making. Children's influence is stronger in earlier stages of the innovation buying process, based on different communication strategies with differing effects on their parents' purchasing behaviour. Ian Phau (2008): The research findings indicate that status-seeking teenagers have overall, a more positive attitude toward foreign luxury brand apparel as compared to Australian luxury brands, with the exception of Chinese brands. On the other hand, non- status seeking teenagers reported that they have more positive attitude towards Australian
  17. 17. brands than foreign brands, and consider Australian luxury brands superior to all three foreign brands with regards to ease of care and comfort The research findings indicate that status-seeking teenagers have overall, a more positive attitude toward foreign luxury brand apparel as compared to Australian luxury brands, with the exception of Chinese brands. On the other hand, non-status seeking teenagers reported that they have more positive attitude towards Australian brands than foreign brands, and consider Australian luxury brands superior to all three foreign brands with regards to ease of care and comfort Matzler Kurt(2008):- The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the customer's risk aversion and its relationship with brand loyalty and to test empirically whether this relationship is mediated by brand trust and brand affect. A randomly selected sample of Austrian mobile phone users was drawn. Their risk aversion, two forms of loyalty (attitudinal and repurchase loyalty), brand trust and brand affect have been measured with existing and tested scales. The hypothesized model has been tested using PLS (Partial least squares) findings are limited to mobile phone users. The generalization of the results could be extended by broadening the list of products, for example with other durable products and services in which brand affect and brand trust may be even more important in developing brand loyalty. This paper explains why certain customers have more trust and experience more affect than others and how this is related to loyalty. Hence, marketers can increase brand loyalty by targeting more risk aversive customers. Customer's risk aversion is significantly related to the two forms of loyalty (attitudinal loyalty and brand loyalty). When brand affect and brand trust are introduced into the model, the previously highly significant relationship between domain- specific risk aversion and attitudinal loyalty becomes insignificant and the risk aversion- repurchase relationship becomes much weaker, while risk aversion strongly influences brand trust and brand affect Shuk-Ching Liu (2008) Tourism is a vital factor for the Hong Kong economy and tourists contribute a substantial amount of purchases to the fashion retail industry. In the following, we review some related literature on how tourists, especially those from the
  18. 18. mainland China, affect retail businesses in Hong Kong. indicate that in the year 2000, shopping expenditure accounted for more than HK$30 billion (50.2 percent) of the total tourism receipts. The shopping expenditure of tourists, therefore, has a great impact on the local economy of Hong Kong. says that the retail sector contributes a significant proportion to the tourism industry and is playing an important role in maintaining a destination's attractiveness. The author points out that tourists spend a considerable amount of time and money on shopping because shopping is an underlying motivation and incentive for people to travel. According to the Tourism Receipts Report for 2001 by the Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB), shopping represents the largest part of total spending by the mainland Chinese tourists, taking 63.7 percent of their total spending In addition, the per capita spending on shopping of the mainland Chinese tourists in Hong Kong is HK$3,295, which is ranked at the top position compared to the tourists from other countries. Frank Jacob (2006): During the past decades, marketing research has significantly increased its focus on the study of buyer-seller relationships driven by practitioners' request for advice and a perceived theoretical challenge . The growing importance of relationships in business calls for an attempt to explain how relationships develop and evolve. A commonly accepted explanation of this phenomenon is that relationships are established as a means to overcome the uncertainty as perceived by a potential customer in a market transaction. In this sense relationships are understood as an institution. New institutional economics provides the theoretical foundation for this approach to relationship research. This risk-based explanation has gained widespread acceptance and has been empirically tested several time Isabel J. Grant (2006) Isabel J. Grant in his study“Buying behaviour of “tweenage” girls and key societal communicating factors influencing their purchasing of fashion clothing” said that The term “teenagers’” is relatively new in marketing terminology, but has captured the attention and interest of marketers and many commercial stakeholders in different fields of business, who are or are becoming aware of the huge potential of this group. “Tweens” are those young people whose ages range from “pre-adolescent to 14 years” and have been described as “the richest generation” in history and the spending of
  19. 19. this age group “has roughly doubled every ten years over the last three decades” Jensen, 2006 Although there is a stable demand for foods , the demand structure may change over time, and there could be a tendency towards other competing products or substitute ones. This is directly linked to such variables as the social and cultural level, purchasing power, and development process of the consumer. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods As the cultural level and capital incomes increase, the consumption of carbohydrate foods decreases and the consumption of protein foods increase Eun Joo Park (2005) in his study “A structural model of fashion-oriented impulse buying behavior” Said that Impulse buying behavior is a sudden, compelling, hedonically complex buying behavior in which the rapidity of an impulse decision process precludes thoughtful and deliberate consideration of alternative information and choices .Several researchers have reported that consumers do not view impulse purchasing as wrong; rather, consumers retrospectively convey a favorable evaluation of their behavior .Other researchers have treated impulse buying as an individual difference variable with the expectation that it is likely to influence decision making across situations Judith Cardona Forney (2005):Judith Cardona Formation in his study said that Emotion that encompasses affect and mood is an important factor in consumer decision making. Typically, emotion is classified into two orthogonal dimensions (e.g. positive, negative). Positive emotion can be elicited by an individual's pre-existing mood, affective disposition, and reaction to current environmental encounters (e.g. desired items, sales promotions).Emotion strongly influences actions including impulse buying . Consumers in more positive emotional states tend to have reduced decision complexity and shorter decision times). Moreover, when compared to negative emotion, consumers with positive emotion exhibited greater impulse buying because of feelings of being unconstrained, a desire to reward themselves, and higher energy levels .
  20. 20. Sexton and Perlman (2005) In a study involving single and dual income families reported that dual income wives perceived themselves as less feminine than the single income wives, even though their perceptions of masculinity were not significantly different. The authors suggested that these results were indications that, at very least, career-minded women in the sample perceived themselves as having attributes traditionally regarded as masculine.The authors reported that even though the wives are different in terms of their traditional orientation, they did not show significant differences in terms of power structure in the family. This finding suggests that even though the couples are different in terms of their marital structure, the ideology of marital power is similar Kwan C.Y. (2004): This paper explores young Chinese consumers’ decision-making behaviour towards casual wear purchase in Mainland China. Specifically, it offers empirical results on the relationship between consumers’ decision-making styles and clothing choice criteria towards buying casual wear. The Consumer Style Inventory (CSI), developed by Sproles and Kendall (1986) for examining different consumer decision-making styles, was adapted in this study. A questionnaire survey was employed as the tool to collect primary data and the research instrument was administered to 161 University students in Shanghai, Beijing and Guangzhou in the Mainland. The results show that six decision-making styles (recreational and hedonistic consciousness, perfectionism consciousness, confused by over choice, habitual and brand loyalty, price and value consciousness, and brand and fashion consciousness) were found in the Mainland Nuray Kizilaslan(1998) One of the factor is past Experience.Other Factor on which consumers place the most importance having any problems sorted out quickly. Since most products will perform satisfactorily most of the time, few will need to make use of customer services in this way. Yet clearly brand owners need to be ready to deal promptly with any issues which do arise.Value and satisfaction are ranked second and third. A second tier of factors reflects a more complex notion of loyalty. While consumers say using a brand when they could use others is important, slightly more weight is given to being rewarded in some way for this loyalty. Brands also need to
  21. 21. continue to evolve, through new variants and line extensions, in order to satisfy the demand that they be updated. Marketing factors are in the third tier of importance, with a marginally positive balance of opinion. Loyalty schemes may not be ranked as highly as being rewarded (which could involve a promotional mechanic, or gaining points from a retailer’s loyalty card), but they do offer another route to achieve the same goal.in ten, reflecting the high frequency of purchasesfor consumers at all income levels. In the third tier of factors which reinforce loyalty, other brand-related issues emerge. These are the need to offer a wide range, providing better value than competitors, and reliabilty. Consumers want products that fit into their repertoire and will continue to deliver value and performance every time. Although quality and product range are the commonest factors named. The demand for more special offers underlines the price sensitivity in this market. Even so, consumers are not necessarily dissatisfied. McConocho and Tully, 1993 Changes in the economic environment have led to changes in the roles of husbands and wives. The authors concluded that even though changes in the environment brought changes in the decision-making roles, these changes could not be generalized to all products.Sex role orientation involves those values and norms that are related to the duties and responsibilities of each sex. The behavior of each spouse within the family is affected by attitude norms and preferences that each spouse brings into the family. These norms are, in turn, shaped by factors such as individual attitudes, the attitudes of each spouse's parents. Z. Gokalp Goktolga (1993) Product performance, in offering better products than competitors, is the strongest reason given. This is closely followed by value for money and habit, plus convenience. Since these items are in use every day, they must be affordable, accessible and deliver against their promise.The second tier of factors can be seen to relate to corporate and master brands which both cover a wide range of products but are also a way of explaining what those products are for. This is likely to be especially important when line extensions or product innovations are introduced.The importance of marketing factors was cited by– sales promotions are the strongest reason, while direct marketing is the softest. Brand advertising will help to create loyalty among one in five consumers, as will the way consumers are treated by the stores where they
  22. 22. buy these products household goods companies have to be sure that their distribution chains also provide good service. This is further reinforced by the importance of convenience as factor. The factors which create loyalty among consumers range in nature, but also in importance. Filiatrault and Ritchie, 1980 Younger, more educated couples and couples with higher social class were also found to have modern sex role norms . It was suggested that couples with modern sex role orientations will make more joint decisions relative to couples with more traditional sex role orientations, who will be more likely to have one spouse dominate the decision-making process. Traditional sex roles are rigid and tend to make the decision-making in the family less complicated, i.e. the expected roles and responsibilities of each spouse are quite clear. With the modern sex roles, the expected behavior of each spouse is less predictable due to the flexibilities and autonomy associated with each role, complicating the decision-making process. Green and Cunningham (1975), more women are performing traditionally male dominated tasks and vice versa, and with increased autonomy, the wife is able to have more influence in decisions within the family. One of those areas affected by the diminishing sex role distinction is in consumption aspects of family decision-making. The findings showed that husbands of liberal wives make relatively fewer decisions compared to the husbands of moderate and conservative wives. Decisions related to groceries were found to be wife dominated , and decisions related to life insurance were husband dominated. Decisions regarding the purchase of furniture were reported to be made jointly. Interestingly, decisions related to the purchase of major appliances, automobiles, and vacations were reported to be related to the attitudes of the wives. DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATON 1. Awareness about the International /National Brands of Apparels
  23. 23. Aware %age Yes 100 No 0 Interpretation: From above graph & Table it is clear that out of the total sample of 100 male every body is aware about the national & International brands of apparels 2. Degree of Preferences of branded apparels among the Youth Males Preference %age Mostly Preferred 65 Preferred 17 Moderate 10 Least Preferred 5 Not Preferred 3 HYPOTHESIS TESTING Step1: State Hypothesis:
  24. 24. Ho: Branded apparels are least preferred by the youth. . Ha: Branded apparels are Highly preferred by the youth. Step 2: Set the Rejection criteria: DF = 5-1 = 4 At alpha .05 and 4 degrees of freedom, the critical value from the chi square distribution table is 9.49 Step 3: Compute the Test Statistics: χ² = ∑ (O-E)2/E Schemes Observed Expected O-E (O-E)² (O-E)²/E 1 65 20 45 2025 31.15 2 17 20 -3 9 0.529 3 10 20 -10 100 5 4 5 20 -15 225 11.25 5 3 20 -17 289 14.45 χ²= 62.37 Interpretation: As the Chi-square test statistics 62.37 exceeds the critical value of 9.49 hence null hypothesis is rejected and hence we reached at the result that our alternative hypothesis is accepted hence Branded apparels are mostly & Highly preferred by youth (Males) 3. Apparel’s segment mostly liked by the Youth Apparels segment % age Ethnic 5
  25. 25. Corporate 14 Casual 51 Sports 29 HYPOTHESIS TESTING Step1: State Hypothesis: Ho: Youth mostly prefer & like other apparels segment over the Casual wears . Ha: Youth mostly like casual wears amongst the other apparel segment Step 2: Set the Rejection criteria: DF = 4-1 = 3 At alpha .05 and 3 degrees of freedom, the critical value from the chi square distribution table is 7.81 Step 3: Compute the Test Statistics: χ² = ∑ (O-E)2/E Table 4.5 Schemes Observed Expected O-E (O-E)² (O-E)²/E Ethnic 5 25 -20 400 16 Corporate 14 25 -11 121 4.84 Casual 51 25 -26 676 27.04 Sports 29 25 -4 16 0.64 χ² = 48.52 Interpretation:
  26. 26. As the Chi-square test statistics 48.52 exceeds the critical value of 7.81 hence null hypothesis is rejected and hence alternative hypothesis is accepted so the casual wear segment is mostly liked by the youth. 4. Brands of particular apperals segment which are preferred most  Corporate Wears Interpretation John Players dominates this category with a major share of 15% which is due to excellent promotion by signing Hrithik Roshan as brand ambassador and best quality of material. Cambridge occupies the second position comprising a 14% share due to large number of outlets and reasonable rates. Provouge is at the third spot with a 13% share due to absolute publicity using the star-power of Fardeen Khan and good range of collection. Fourth position is shared by Park Avenue, Excalibur.
  27. 27.  Ethnic Wears Interpretation: Millionaire dominates this category with a whooping 18% share because of its recent outstanding publicity tactics using hoardings. Millionaire is followed by Amarsons with 16% share due to its fair advertising and common-man prices. Third position is shared by Cambridge, Siyarams, Feb India and Libas with each taking 13% share. The reason being reasonable prices and good range of collections.
  28. 28.  Sports Wears Interpretation: Adiads runs through all other top brands to finish first with 22% share due to its universal appeal and a very popular logo that signifies better quality. Nike finishes second with 19% share due to brilliant advertising that connects to today’s youth. Adidas and Nike recently sponsored many cricket teams in the World Cup 2007. They even spend a huge amount on Research and Development i.e. R&D. Third position is occupied by Fila with 16% share because of great discounts given by the company. Reebok is at fourth position with 11% share.
  29. 29.  Casual Wears Interpretation: Out of the top ten brands surveyed in casual category, 16% prefer Killer because Killer has a wide variety of range to suit all tastes. Following Killer is Levis with 15% preference because of good promotional strategies used by the company and also the second best company in terms of providing good quality. Third position is taken by Spykar Jeans because of many factors such as fair publicity, affordable prices, suitable
  30. 30. range of colors and comfort. Fourth position is shared by Lee Cooper, Pepe Jeans and Duke. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS  I try for pleasing color combinations in my clothing . According to the survey, majority of the people seldom try to wear pleasing colour combinations in their apparel. Also many people tend to opt for pleasing colour combination. This is because men are not that specific about colour combinations and often have second preferences.  I try on some of the newest clothes each season to see how I look in the new styles.
  31. 31. The chart depicts that majority of the people seldom try new clothes every season and nearly one-fourth of the people try new clothes each season. The reason being, the sample tends to wait for the prices to drop down – typical Indian mentality.  I have a long-term plan for purchasing more expensive clothes items of clothing. The graph shows that majority of the people tend to plan on a long term basis to buy expensive clothes. Nearly half of the remaining seldom follows the above. The reason being a clear difference between higher and middle-class purchasing styles.  I try to buy clothes with well-known labels.
  32. 32. The chart depicts that almost half of the sample size usually tends to buy well-known labels and the demand for labels decreases with decrease in income. The reason for such a huge demand for well-known labels being increasing popularity of branded apparels among today’s youth.  I try to keep my wardrobe up-to-date. According to the survey majority of the people not very often keep their wardrobe up-to- date and one-quarter of the people sometimes tend to up-to-date their wardrobe. The remaining half mostly opts to keep their wardrobe up-to-date with the latest in the apparel section. The reason being ones wardrobe comprises of huge variety of top labels, which sometimes does not go with today’s youth culture.
  33. 33.  I ask my friends what they are wearing to an event before I decide what to wear. According to the survey majority of the sample size sometimes opts to consult their friends before choosing their apparels. Also, one-fourth of the respondents always take their friends opinion before choosing their apparels. The reason being, today’s youth goes for few opinions before taking a decision in terms of choosing apparels  I get new clothes for a special occasion if the clothes I have are not the type my friends will be wearing. The survey shows that majority of the respondents in the sample size sometimes tend to buy new clothes for special occasions and the remaining usually or often purchase new clothes for special occasions. This is because the youth today prefers change in taste in every aspect of apparels.
  34. 34.  I wear different clothes to impress people. According to the survey more than one-third of the respondents not very often tend to wear different clothes to impress people. The remaining respondents sometimes opt to wear different clothes with the intention of impressing people. The reason being today’s youth believes more in simplicity.  I have more self-confidence when I wear my best clothes. According to the survey half of the respondents never tend to relate their self-confidence with their best apparel they wear and close to one-third of them seldom tend to connect their self-confidence with their apparel. The reason for the above being that today’s youth follows the trend that does not connect confidence and apparel.
  35. 35. 5. Reference group which influence the purchasing. Reference groups %age Family 8 Friends 53 co-workers 7 Brand Itself 23 Others 9
  36. 36. HYPOTHESIS TESTING Step1: State Hypothesis: Ho: Friends are not most favored reference group which influence youth to go for branded apparels while purchasing over other like family & brand itself Ha: Friends are most favored reference group which influence youth to go for branded apparels while purchasing over other like family & brand itself Step 2: Set the Rejection criteria: DF = 5-1 = 4 At alpha .05 and 4degrees of freedom, the critical value from the chi square distribution table is 9.49 Step 3: Compute the Test Statistics: χ² = ∑ (O-E)2/E Features Observed Expected O-E (O-E)² (O-E)²/ E 1 8 20 -12 144 7.2 2 53 20 33 1089 54.45 3 7 20 -13 169 8.45 4 23 20 3 9 0.45 5 9 20 -11 121 6.05 χ² = 76.6 Interpretation: As the Chi-square test statistics 76.6 exceeds the critical value of 9.49 hence null hypothesis is rejected and hence alternative hypothesis is accepted & we reached at the result that Friends are most favored reference group which influence youth to go for branded apparels while purchasing over other like family & brand itself 6. Media which males preferred while looking for information’s about apparels. Media used %age
  37. 37. Television 47 Radio 3 Newspaper 10 Magazine 21 Internet 17 Others 2 HYPOTHESIS TESTING Step1: State Hypothesis: Ho: Males usually go for or choose print media for getting information about the Apparels brands Ha: Males go for or choose broadcast media for getting information about the Apparels brands over the Print Media. Step 2: Set the Rejection criteria: DF = 6-1 = 5 At alpha .05 and 5 degrees of freedom, the critical value from the chi square distribution table is 11.07 Step 3: Compute the Test Statistics: χ² = ∑ (O-E)2/E Features Observed Expected O-E (O-E)² (O-E)²/ E 1 47 16.67 30.33 919.90 55.18 2 3 16.67 -13.67 186.86 11.20
  38. 38. 3 10 16.67 -6.67 44.49 2.66 4 21 16.67 4.33 18.75 1.12 5 17 16.67 0.33 0.11 0.006 6 2 16.67 -14.67 215.21 12.91 χ²=83.076 Interpretation: As the Chi-square test statistics 83.07 exceeds the critical value of 11.07 hence null hypothesis is rejected and hence as per the alternative hypothesis Males go for or choose broadcast media for getting information about the Apparels brands over the Print Media. 7. Highest level of education you have completed? Qualification %age Intermediate (+2) 5 Bachelor degree 36 Master Degree 47 PHD 0 Other professional Degree 12
  39. 39. Interpretation: Out of the sample of 100 male, From above table & graph we found that 47 % of the males are qualifying for the master degree as they are studying in the colleges & Universities whereas only 5 % are of intermediate level & 36 % are qualifying for bachelor degree. who are wearing branded apperals . 8. Marital status Marital status % age Single 91 Married 9
  40. 40. Interpretation: Survey which we have conducted, out of 100 respondents 91% of the respondents are single that they are un-married and only 9 % of the male respondents are married. 9. Age Age %age Below 17 6 18-20 34 21-24 51 above 25 9 Interpretation: From the data shown in the table we found that most of the male respondents are between the age of 21-24 years 51% of the males fall in this age interval whereas 34 % of respondents (Males) are falling in the age interval of 18-20 years and only 6% of males are below 17 years of age. 10. Your total income that you, yourself, earn monthly? Income Level %age No Income 47 Below Rs. 10000 25 Rs. 10000-20000 17
  41. 41. Rs. 20001-25000 11 Above Rs. 25000 0 Interpretation: As we have discussed that most of the male youth respondents are qualifying & qualified for bachelor degrees & Master degree so from the above data we found that 47 % of the respondents are having no income they have no source of income other than their parents, who buy branded apparels & 25 % of respondent who have completed their bachelor & master degree who wears branded apparels are doing job in some companies an they have income Below 10000, 17% have income between Rs.10000-20000. Only 11% respondents who wear branded apparels have income between Rs. 20001-25000. FINDINGS: After conducting the whole survey on my project I fount that
  42. 42.  Branded apparels are mostly preferred by the male youth when there are so many national & international brands are existing in the market in the current fashion oriented generation.  Majority of the people are inclined more towards casuals. This is followed by Corporate and Sportswear both getting decent responses. Ethnic comes last with minimal number of respondents preferring ethnic wear.  Out of the top ten brands surveyed in casual category, Male prefer Killer because Killer has a wide variety of range to suit all tastes. over the other brands like Lee Cooper, Pepe Jeans and Duke  In the corporate category John Players dominates this category with a major share of 15% which is due to excellent promotion by signing Hither Roshan as brand ambassador and best quality of material than other brands followed by the Park Avenue, Excalibur. Provouge,Cambridge  In the category of Sports wears Adiads runs through all other top brands to finish first with 22% share due to its universal appeal and a very popular logo that signifies better quality. Adidas is mostly liked by the youth over the other brands like rebook Nike ,Puma Yonex etc  In the Ethnic segment, Millionaire dominates this category with a whooping 18% share Millionaire is followed by Amarsons with 16% share due to its fair advertising and common-man prices.  Friends are most favored reference group which influence youth to go for branded apparels while purchasing over other like family & brand itself  Males go for or choose broadcast media for getting information about the Apparels brands over the Print Media.  Majority of the sample size seldom tend to update their wardrobe and hence not very often do they opt for pleasing colour combinations and seasonal trial of new styles in apparels.
  43. 43.  Today’s youth sometimes ask their friends about their apparels before choosing ones apparel for an event and hence do not care about buying new clothes similar to that of their friends.  The youth today, wears what they like irrespective of his/her friend’s approval. During survey we found that today’s youth always prefers new clothes for special occasions  In servey we also found that today’s youth always try new clothes without planning to buy them. They not very often try on different apparels to impress people.  Today’s youth also very rarely decide on clothes according to their mood and never connect self-confidence with their apparels.
  44. 44. CONCLUSION From the survey that was conducted, we conclude that majority of the people are inclined more towards casuals. This is followed by Corporate and Sportswear both getting decent responses. Ethnic comes last with minimal number of respondents preferring ethnic wear. The survey shows that majority of the sample size seldom tend to update their wardrobe and hence not very often do they opt for pleasing colour combinations and seasonal trial of new styles in apparels. Also today’s youth only sometimes cares to be considered as outstandingly well-dressed by their friends, which is majorly responsible for their trial of accessories during the purchase of new apparels. Today’s youth majorly tend to go for branded clothes and they always plan long-term for the final purchase. Today’s youth sometimes ask their friends about their apparels before choosing ones apparel for an event and hence do not care about buying new clothes similar to that of their friends. The youth today, wears what they like irrespective of his/her friend’s approval. The survey also depicts that today’s youth always prefers new clothes for special occasions. The survey shows that today’s youth always try new clothes without planning to buy them. They not very often try on different apparels to impress people. They also very rarely decide on clothes according to their mood and never connect self-confidence with their apparels.
  45. 45. LIMITATIONS: There are following constraints of the study which can be explained as:-  The time of research was short due to which many fact has been left untouched  The Area undertaken in research in Jalandhar only. But to do a completer research a wide area is required, so the area is also a constraint of the study.  Sample for the study taken is of only 100 consumers. Which can also act as a constraint in the study?  While collecting data some of the respondents are not willing to fill the questionnaire, so they might not fill their true behavior. This can also be a constraint of the study.
  46. 46. RECOMMENDATIONS After studying the buying behaviour of the youth of Jalandhar regarding the branded apparels, what we recommend to the apparel’s manufacturing as well as marketing companies is that:  In Jalandhar youth is aware about the National & International brands but some of the brands are not available in Jalandhar so companies should expand their distribution networks  Consumer of the Indian market are very price conscious ,due to very high prices of some international brand consumer is not able to afford that particular brands ,so companies should make some of the stuffs of apparels available at the affordable price as per the geographical regions.  Most of the youth make the decision of buying the apparels when they aw that celebrity is using & wearing that particular brands like john player brand is promoted by Hritik Roshan. So companies should promote their brands by e endorsing the Celebrity whose personality is matching with the brands.
  47. 47. BIBLIOGRAPHY: REFERENCES:  Agnes Nairn (2008), Armstrong, G.M., Goldberg, M.E. "Children's uses of cognitive defenses against television advertising: a cognitive response approach", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 14 No.March, pp.471-82.  Alford.B., Sherrell, D. (1996), "The role of affect in consumer satisfaction judgments of credence-based services", Journal of Business Research, Vol. 37 No.1, pp.71-84.  Batra, R., Sinha, I. (2000), "Consumer-level factors moderating the success of private label brands", Journal of Retailing, Vol. 76 No.2, pp.175-91.  Buckleitner. W. (2008), Like Taking Candy from a Baby: How Young Children Interact with Online Environments, Media Tech Foundation, Flemington, NJ,  Buijzen . M., Valkenburg, P. (2003), "The unintended effects of television advertising: a parent-child survey", Communication Research, Vol. 30 No.5, pp.483-503.  Bullying Online (2006), The National Bullying Survey 2006: The Results, availableat:www.bullying.co.uk/nationalsurvey/thenationalbullyingsurvey_results .pdf (accessed 28 february 2009), .
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  50. 50. QUESTIONNAIRE: QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Sir, I Pankaj Kaundal, student of MBA 4th Semester (LPU) .I am doing my final project. “A study on the factors affecting the consumer buying behavior towards the Branded Apparels amongst the youth (Male)”.For this I need to get a questionnaire filled by you, the data & information provided by you will be remained confidential & will be used for the academic purpose. So please help me in this project. Name: ___________________________________ Age: _________ Address: ____________________________________________________ Indicate your choice by placing a CHECK or X in the spaces provided after each response. Q.1 Are you aware about the International /National Brands of Apperals?
  51. 51. Yes No Q.2 Degree of preferences of the branded apparels amongst you. Mostly Preferred Preferred Moderate Least Preferred Not Preferred Q.3 Which apparel segment you like the most? a) Ethnic b) Corporate /Formal c) Casual d) Sports
  52. 52. Q.4 If you have to choose from the below listed apparels segment & brands which brands of particular apperals segment will you preferred most?? Sr.no Cas u al Corp orate E th n i c Sp orts wear SP YKAR LOUIS P HILLIP TIM B ER LAND R EEB OK PEP E J OHN P LAYER S LIB AS NIKE LEE C OOP ER PR OVOGUE F AB INDIA ADIDAS LAW M AN ARR OW M ILLIONAIR E F ILA LEVIS P AR K AVENUE HER ITAGE YONEX KIL LER OXEM B ER G DIWAN S AHEB LOTTO MONTE CARLO C AMB R IDGE AM ARS ONS SP EEDO DUKE DONEAR S IYAR AM S HEAD C AR LE OUTLAW C OTTON C OUNTY VIM AL P UM A P OLO PER TER ENGLAND C AMB R IDGE SLAZENGER I f oth ers , pl eas e sp eci fy Q.5 Read the following statements and rate each according to the scale given below. Indicate your choice by recording the number in the blanks provided to the right of each statement.  Scale: Always, very high exceptions 5 usually, majority of the time4 Sometimes 3 Seldom, Not very often, 2 Never, very few exceptions 1 a) I read magazines and newspapers to find out what is new in clothing. b) When new styles appear on the market, I am one of the first to buy them. c) I go for purchase because I get bored with wearing the same type of clothes all the time. d) I have a long-term plan for purchasing more expensive clothes items of clothing. e) I preferred to purchase the apperals which are weared by the celebrities f) I try to dress & even purchase same as my friends so that others will know that I am part of the group. g) I wear Brand clothes to impress people h) It Depicts my Social Class
  53. 53. i) I have more self-confidence when I wear Branded clothes of my choice clothes j) Again you go with the same brand during repurchas Indicate your choice by placing a CHECK or X in the spaces provided after each response. Q.6 Who influence you most while going for the purchase of branded apparels? a) Family b) Friends c) Co-Workers d) Brand Itself e) Others (Explain) ________________ Q.7 Which media do you prefer most while looking for information about apparels? a) Television b) Radio c) Newspapers d) Magazines e) Internet f) Others _____ (Explain)_________________________ g) Do Not Use
  54. 54. Q.8 What is the highest level of education you have completed? a) Intermediate (+2) b) Bachelor’s Degree c) Master’s Degree d) PhD or Equivalent e) Other Professional Degree (Specify)_________________ Q.9 What is your marital status? a) Single b) Married Q.10 What is your total income that you, yourself, earn monthly? a) No Income b) Below Rs 10000 c) Rs10000 -20000 d) Rs 20000-25000 e) Rs 25000 and Above “THANKS FOR GIVING YOUR VALUABLE TIME”

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