Contents 1. Land and the People 1 2. National Symbols 22 3. The Polity 26 4. Agriculture 66 5. Culture and Tourism 116 6. Basic Economic Data 137 7. Commerce 164 8. Communications and Information Technology 182 9. Defence 22010. Education 24311. Energy 27812. Environment 31813. Finance 34614. Corporate Affairs 43015. Food and Civil Supplies 44016. Health and Family Welfare 47617. Housing 52718. India and the World 54519. Industry 59320. Justice and Law 67321. Labour 69522. Mass Communication 72123. Planning 76424. Rural and Urban Development 79825. Scientific and Technological Developments 83326. Transport 92527. Water Resources 95428. Welfare 98229. Youth Affairs and Sports 103530. States and Union Territories 106031. Diary of National Events 117032. General Information 1173 Appendices
Land and the People 11 Land and the People"INDIA is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother ofhistory, the grandmother of legend and the great grandmother of tradition. Our mostvaluable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up inIndia only."—Mark TwainIndia has a unique culture and is one of the oldest and greatest civilizations of theworld. It stretches from the snow-capped Himalayas in the North to sun drenchedcoastal villages of the South, the humid tropical forests on the south-west coast, thefertile Brahamputra valley on its East to the Thar desert in the West. It covers an areaof 32,87,263 sq. km. It has achieved all-round socio-economic progress during thelast 63 years of its Independence. India is the seventh largest country in the worldand ranks second in population. The country stands apart from the rest of Asia,marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give her a distinct geographicalentity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and atthe Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal onthe east and the Arabian Sea on the west. Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends betweenlatitudes 8°4 and 37°6 north, longitudes 68°7 and 97°25 east and measures about3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km fromeast to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km.The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands andAndaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.PHYSICAL BACKGROUNDCountries having a common border with India are Afghanistan and Pakistan to thenorth-west, China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north, Myanmar to the far east andBangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrowchannel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar. The country can bedivided into six zones mainly North, South, East, West, Central and North-east zone.It has 28 states and seven union territories.PHYSICAL FEATURESThe mainland comprises four regions, namely, the great mountain zone, plains of theGanga and the Indus, the desert region and the southern peninsula. The Himalayas comprise three almost parallel ranges interspersed with largeplateaus and valleys, some of which, like the Kashmir and Kullu valleys, are fertile,extensive and of great scenic beauty. Some of the highest peaks in the world are foundin these ranges. The high altitudes admit travel only to a few passes, notably the JelepLa and Nathu La on the main Indo-Tibet trade route through the Chumbi Valley,north-east of Darjeeling and Shipki La in the Satluj valley, north-east of Kalpa(Kinnaur). The mountain wall extends over a distance of about 2,400 km with avarying depth of 240 to 320 km. In the east, between India and Myanmar and Indiaand Bangladesh, hill ranges are much lower. Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and Naga Hills,1 Provisional as on 31 March 1982
2 India 2011running almost east-west, join the chain to Mizo and Rkhine Hills running north-south. The plains of the Ganga and the Indus, about 2,400 km long and 240 to 320 kmbroad, are formed by basins of three distinct river systems - the Indus, the Ganga andthe Brahmaputra. They are one of the world’s greatest stretches of flat alluvium andalso one of the most densely populated areas on the earth. Between the Yamuna atDelhi and the Bay of Bengal, nearly 1,600 km away, there is a drop of only 200 metresin elevation. The desert region can be divided into two parts - the great desert and the littledesert. The great desert extends from the edge of the Rann of Kuchch beyond the Luniriver northward. The whole of the Rajasthan-Sind frontier runs through this. Thelittle desert extends from the Luni between Jaisalmer and Jodhpur up to the northernwastes. Between the great and the little deserts lies a zone of absolutely sterile country,consisting of rocky land, cut up by limestone ridges. The Peninsular Plateau is marked off from the plains of the Ganga and theIndus by a mass of mountain and hill ranges varying from 460 to 1,220 metres inheight. Prominent among these are the Aravalli, Vindhya, Satpura, Maikala andAjanta. The Peninsula is flanked on the one side by the Eastern Ghats where averageelevation is about 610 metres and on the other by the Western Ghats where it isgenerally from 915 to 1,220 metres, rising in places to over 2,440 metres. Between theWestern Ghats and the Arabian Sea lies a narrow coastal strip, while between EasternGhats and the Bay of Bengal, there is a broader coastal area. The southern point ofplateau is formed by the Nilgiri Hills where the Eastern and the Western Ghats meet.The Cardamom Hills lying beyond may be regarded as a continuation of the WesternGhats.GEOLOGICAL STRUCTUREThe geological regions broadly follow the physical features and may be grouped intothree regions: the Himalayas and their associated group of mountains, the Indo-Ganga Plain and the Peninsular Shield. The Himalayan mountain belt to the north and the Naga-Lushai mountain inthe east, are the regions of mountain-building movement. Most of this area, nowpresenting some of the most magnificent mountain scenery in the world, was undermarine conditions about 60 crore years ago. In a series of mountain-buildingmovements commencing about seven crore years ago, the sediments and the basementrocks rose to great heights. The weathering and erosive agencies worked on these toproduce the relief seen today. The Indo-Ganga plains are a great alluvial tract thatseparate the Himalayas in the north from the Peninsula in the south. The Peninsula is a region of relative stability and occasional seismicdisturbances. Highly metamorphosed rocks of the earliest periods, dating back as faras 380 crore years, occur in the area; the rest being covered by the coastal-bearingGondwana formations, lava flows belonging to the Deccan Trap formation andyounger sediments.RIVER SYSTEMSThe river systems of India can be classified into four groups viz., (i) Himalayan rivers,(ii) Deccan rivers, (iii) Coastal rivers, and (iv) Rivers of the inland drainage basin. TheHimalayan rivers are formed by melting snow and glaciers and therefore,continuously flow throughout the year. During the monsoon months, Himalayas
Land and the People 3receive very heavy rainfall and rivers swell, causing frequent floods. The Deccanrivers on the other hand are rainfed and therefore fluctuate in volume. Many of theseare non-perennial. The Coastal streams, especially on the west coast are short inlength and have limited catchment areas. Most of them are non-perennial. The streamsof inland drainage basin of western Rajasthan are few and far apart. Most of them areof an ephemeral character. The main Himalayan river systems are those of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna system. The Indus, which is one of the great rivers of theworld, rises near Mansarovar in Tibet and flows through India and thereafter throughPakistan and finally falls into the Arabian sea near Karachi. Its important tributariesflowing in Indian territory are the Sutlej (originating in Tibet), the Beas, the Ravi, theChenab and the Jhelum. The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna is another importantsystem of which the principal sub-basins are those of Bhagirathi and the Alaknanda,which join at Dev Prayag to form the Ganga. It traverses through Uttarakhand, UttarPradesh, Bihar and West Bengal states. Below Rajmahal hills, the Bhagirathi, whichused to be the main course in the past, takes off, while the Padma continues eastwardand enters Bangladesh. The Yamuna, the Ramganga, the Ghaghra, the Gandak, theKosi, the Mahananda and the Sone are the important tributaries of the Ganga. RiversChambal and Betwa are the important sub-tributaries, which join Yamuna before itmeets the Ganga. The Padma and the Brahmaputra join at Bangladesh and continueto flow as the Padma or Ganga. The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet, where it is known asTsangpo and runs a long distance till it crosses over into India in Arunachal Pradeshunder the name of Dihang. Near Passighat, the Debang and Lohit join the riverBrahmaputra and the combined river runs all along the Assam in a narrow valley. Itcrosses into Bangladesh downstream of Dhubri. The principal tributaries of Brahmaputra in India are the Subansiri, Jia Bhareli,Dhansiri, Puthimari, Pagladiya and the Manas. The Brahmaputra in Bangladesh fedby Tista, etc., finally falls into Ganga. The Barak river, the head stream of Meghna,rises in the hills in Manipur. The important tributaries of the river are Makku, Trang,Tuivai, Jiri, Sonai, Rukni, Katakhal, Dhaleswari, Langachini, Maduva and Jatinga.Barak continues in Bangladesh till the combined Ganga—Brahmaputra join it nearBhairab Bazar. In the Deccan region, most of the major river systems flowing generally in eastdirection fall into Bay of Bengal. The major east flowing rivers are Godavari, Krishna,Cauvery, Mahanadi, etc. Narmada and Tapti are major West flowing rivers. The Godavari in the southern Peninsula has the second largest river basincovering 10 per cent of the area of India. Next to it is the Krishna basin in the region,while the Mahanadi has the third largest basin. The basin of the Narmada in theuplands of the Deccan, flowing to the Arabian Sea and of the Kaveri in the south,falling into the Bay of Bengal are about the same size, though with different characterand shape. There are numerous coastal rivers, which are comparatively small. While onlyhandful of such rivers drain into the sea near the delta of east coast, there are as manyas 600 such rivers on the west coast. A few rivers in Rajasthan do not drain into the sea. They drain into salt lakesand get lost in sand with no outlet to sea. Besides these, there are the desert riverswhich flow for some distance and are lost in the desert. These are Luni, Machhu,Rupen, Saraswati, Banas, Ghaggar and others.
4 India 2011CLIMATEThe climate of India may be broadly described as tropical monsoon type. There arefour seasons: (i) winter (January-February), (ii) hot weather summer (March-May);(iii) rainy south-western monsoon (June-September) and (iv) post-monsoon, alsoknown as north-east monsoon in the southern Peninsula (October-December).India’s climate is affected by two seasonal winds - the north-east monsoon and thesouth-west monsoon. The north-east monsoon commonly known as winter monsoonblows from land to sea whereas south-west monsoon known as summer monsoonblows from sea to land after crossing the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Bayof Bengal. The south-west monsoon brings most of the rainfall during the year in thecountry.FLORAIndia is rich in flora. Available data place India in the tenth position in the world andfourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area surveyedso far, over 46,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey ofIndia (BSI), Kolkata. The vascular flora, which forms the conspicuous vegetationcover, comprises 15,000 species. With a wide range of climatic conditions from the torrid to the arctic, India hasa rich and varied vegetation, which only a few countries of comparable size possess.India can be divided into eight distinct-floristic-regions, namely, the westernHimalayas, the eastern Himalayas, Assam, the Indus plain, the Ganga plain, theDeccan, Malabar and the Andamans. The Western Himalayan region extends from Kashmir to Kumaon. Its temperatezone is rich in forests of chir, pine, other conifers and broad-leaved temperate trees.Higher up, forests of deodar, blue pine, spruce and silver fir occur. The alpine zoneextends from the upper limit of the temperate zone of about 4,750 metres or evenhigher. The characteristic trees of this zone are high-level silver fir, silver birch andjunipers. The eastern Himalayan region extends from Sikkim eastwards and embracesDarjeeling, Kurseong and the adjacent tract. The temperate zone has forests of oaks,laurels, maples, rhododendrons, alder and birch. Many conifers, junipers and dwarfwillows also grow here. The Assam region comprises the Brahamaputra and theSurma valleys with evergreen forests, occasional thick clumps of bamboos and tallgrasses. The Indus plain region comprises the plains of Punjab, western Rajasthanand northern Gujarat. It is dry, hot and supports natural vegetation. The Ganga plainregion covers the area which is alluvial plain and is under cultivation for wheat,sugarcane and rice. Only small areas support forests of widely differing types. TheDeccan region comprises the entire table land of the Indian Peninsula and supportsvegetation of various kinds from scrub jungles to mixed deciduous forests. The Malabarregion covers the excessively humid belt of mountain country parallel to the westcoast of the Peninsula. Besides being rich in forest vegetation, this region producesimportant commercial crops, such as coconut, betelnut, pepper, coffee, tea, rubberand cashewnut. The Andaman region abounds in evergreen, mangrove, beach anddiluvial forests. The Himalayan region extending from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradeshthrough Sikkim, Meghalaya and Nagaland and the Deccan Peninsula is rich inendemic flora, with a large number of plants which are not found elsewhere. The flora of the country is being studied by BSI and its nine circle/field officeslocated throughout the country along with certain universities and research institutions.
Land and the People 5 Ethno-botanical study deals with the utilisation of plants and plant productsby ethnic races. A scientific study of such plants has been made by BSI. A number ofdetailed ethno-botanical explorations have been conducted in different tribal areasof the country. More than 800 plant species of ethno-botanical interest have beencollected and identified at different centres. Owing to destruction of forests for agricultural, industrial and urbandevelopment, several Indian plants are facing extinction. About 1,336 plant speciesare considered vulnerable and endangered. About 20 species of higher plants arecategorised as possibly extinct as these have not been sighted during the last6-10 decades. BSI brings out an inventory of endangered plants in the form of apublication titled Red Data Book.FAUNA1The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), with its headquarters in Kolkata and 16 regionalstations is responsible for surveying the faunal resources of India. Possessing atremendous diversity of climate and physical conditions, India has great variety offauna numbering over 90,000 species. Of these, protista number 2,577, mollusca5,072, anthropoda 69,903, amphibia 240, mammalia 397, reptilia 460, members ofprotochordata 119, pisces 2,546, aves 1,232 and other invertebrates 8,329. The mammals include the majestic elephant, the gaur or Indian bison–the largestof existing bovines, the great Indian rhinoceros, the gigantic wild sheep of theHimalayas, the swamp deer, the thamin spotted deer, nilgai, the four-horned antelope,the Indian antelope or black-buck – the only representatives of these genera. Amongthe cats, the tiger and lion are the most magnificent of all; other splendid creaturessuch as the clouded leopard, the snow leopard, the marbled cat, etc., are also found.Many other species of mammals are remarkable for their beauty, colouring, grace anduniqueness. Several birds, like pheasants, geese, ducks, myanahs, parakeets, pigeons,cranes, hornbills and sunbirds inhabit forests and wetlands. Amongst the crocodiles and gharials, the salt water crocodile is found along theeastern coast and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. A project for breedingcrocodiles which started in 1974, has been instrumental in saving the crocodile fromextinction. The great Himalayan range has a very interesting variety of fauna that includesthe wild sheep and goats, markhor, ibex, shrew and tapir. The panda and the snowleopard are found in the upper reaches of the mountains. Depletion of forest cover due to expansion of agriculture, habitat destruction,over-exploitation, pollution, introduction of toxic imbalance in communitystructure, epidemics, floods, droughts and cyclones, contribute to the loss of floraand fauna.DEMOGRAPHIC BACKGROUNDCENSUSThe Census of India 2001, is historic and epoch making, being the first census of thetwenty-first century and the third millennium. It reveals benchmark data on the stateof abundant human resources available in the country, their demography, culture1 As per information available upto January 2007 on the ZSI Website.
6 India 2011and economic structure at a juncture, which marks a centennial and millenialtransition. The population enumeration of 2001 census was undertaken from 9 to 28February 2001 with a revisional round from 1 to 5 March 2001. The census moment,the referral time at which the snapshot of the population is taken was 00.00 hours of1 March 2001. Until the 1991 Census, the sunrise of 1 March was taken to be thecensus moment. The houseless population, as has been the usual practice, wasenumerated on the night of 28 February 2001.POPULATIONIndia’s population as on 1 March 2001 stood at 1,028 million (532.1 million malesand 496.4 million females). India accounts for a meagre 2.4 per cent of the worldsurface area of 135.79 million sq km. Yet, it supports and sustains a whopping 16.7per cent of the world population. The population of India, which at the turn of the twentieth century was around238.4 million, increased to reach 1,028 million at the dawn of the twenty-first century.The population of India as recorded at each decennial census from 1901 has grownsteadily except for a decrease during 1911-21. Decadal growth of population from1901 is shown in table 1.1. Table 1.2 gives the selected indicators of population growth in different Statesand Union Territories. The per cent decadal growth of population in the inter-censalperiod 1991-2001 varies from a low of 9.43 in Kerala to a very high 64.53 in Nagaland.Delhi with 47.02 per cent, Chandigarh with 40.28 per cent and Sikkim with 33.06 percent registering very high growth rates. In addition to Kerala, Tamilnadu and AndhraPradesh registered low growth rates during 1991-2001.POPULATION DENSITYOne of the important indices of population concentration is the density of popula-tion. It is defined as the number of persons per sq km. The population density of Indiain 2001 was 324 per sq km. The density of population increased in all States and Union Territories between1991 and 2001. Among major states, West Bengal is still the most thickly populatedstate with a population density of 903 in 2001. Bihar is now the second highestdensely populated state pushing Kerala to the third place. Ranking of the States andUnion Territories by density is shown in table 1.3.SEX RATIOSex ratio, defined as the number of females per thousand males is an important socialindicator to measure the extent of prevailing equality between males and females ina society at a given point of time. The sex ratio in the country had always remainedunfavourable to females. It was 972 at the beginning of the 20th century and thereaftershowed continuous decline until 1941. The sex ratio from 1901-2001 is given intable 1.4.LITERACYFor the purpose of census 2001, a person aged seven and above, who can both readand write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate. A person, whocan only read but cannot write, is not literate. In the censuses prior to 1991, childrenbelow five years of age were necessarily treated as illiterates.
TABLE 1.1 : POPULATION 1901-2001 Average Decadal Growth Change in decadal annual ProgressiveCensus growth exponential growth rateyears Population growth rate over 1901 Absolute Per cent Absolute Per cent (per cent) (per cent) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Land and the People1901 23,83,96,327 – – – – – –1911 25,20,93,390 1,36,97,063 5.75 – – 0.56 5.751921 25,13,21,213 -7,72,177 -0.31 -1,44,69,240 -6.05 -0.03 5.421931 27,89,77,238 2,76,56,025 11.00 2,84,28,202 11.31 1.04 17.021941 31,86,60,580 3,96,83,342 14.22 1,20,27,317 3.22 1.33 33.671951 1 36,10,88,090 4,24,27,510 13.31 27,44,168 -0.91 1.25 51.471961 1 43,92,34,771 7,81,46,681 21.64 3,57,19,171 8.33 1.96 84.251971 54,81,59,652 10,89,24,881 24.80 3,07,78,200 3.16 2.22 129.941981 2 68,33,29,097 13,51,69,445 24.66 2,62,44,564 -0.14 2.20 186.641991 3 84,64,21,039 16,30,91,942 23.87 2,79,22,497 -0.79 2.14 255.052001 4 1,02,87,37,436 18,23,16,397 21.54 1,92,24,455 -2.33 1.95 331.47Notes : 1. In working out ‘Decadal Growth’ and ‘Percentage Decadal Growth’ for India 1941-51 and 1951-61 the population of Tuensang district for 1951 (7,025) and the population of Tuensang (83,501) and Mon (5,774) districts for 1961 Census of Nagaland state have not been taken into account as the areas went in for census for the first time in 1951 and the same are not comparable. 2. The 1981 Census could not be held owing to disturbances in Assam. Hence the population figures for 1981 of Assam have been worked out by ‘interpolation’. 3. The 1991 Census could not be held owing to disturbances in Jammu and Kashmir. Hence the population figures for 1991 of Jammu and Kashmir have been worked out by ‘interpolation’. 4. The population figures of 2001 includes estimated figures for those of the three sub-divisions, viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Pural of Senapati district of Manipur as census result of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons. 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 920. Jharkhand 21,843,911 11,363,853 10,480,058 26,945,829 13,885,037 13,060,792 23.3621. Orissa 31,659,736 16,064,146 15,595,590 36,804,660 18,660,570 18,144,090 16.2522. Chhattisgarh 17,614,928 8,872,620 8,742,308 20,833,803 10,474,218 10,369,585 18.2723. Madhya Pradesh 48,566,242 25,394,673 23,171,569 60,348,023 31,443,652 28,904,371 24.2624. Gujarat 41,309,582 21,355,209 19,954,373 50,671,017 26,385,577 24,285,440 22.6625. Daman and Diu 101,586 51,595 49,991 158,204 92,512 65,692 55.73 Land and the People26. Dadra and Nagar Haveli 138,477 70,953 67,524 220,490 121,666 98,824 59.2227. Maharashtra 78,937,187 40,825,618 38,111,569 96,878,627 50,400,596 46,478,031 22.7328. Andhra Pradesh 66,508,008 33,724,581 32,783,427 76,210,007 38,527,413 37,682,594 14.5929. Karnataka 44,977,201 22,951,917 22,025,284 52,850,562 26,898,918 25,951,644 17.5130. Goa 1,169,793 594,790 575,003 1,347,668 687,248 660,420 15.2131. Lakshadweep 51,707 26,618 25,089 60,650 31,131 29,519 17.3032. Kerala 29,098,518 14,288,995 14,809,523 31,841,374 15,468,614 16,372,760 9.4333. Tamilnadu 55,858,946 28,298,975 27,559,971 62,405,679 31,400,909 31,004,770 11.7234. Puducherry 807,785 408,081 399,704 974,345 486,961 487,384 20.6235. Andaman and 280,661 154,369 126,292 356,152 192,972 163,180 26.90 Nicobar IslandsNote : * The 1991 census figures of Jammu & Kashmir are interpolated as no census was conducted there due to disturbances. ** India and Manipur figures include estimated figures for those of the three sub-divisions viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Puru of Senapati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons.Source : Office of the Registrar General, India 9
10 India 2011 The results of 2001 census reveal that there has been an increase in literacy inthe country. The literacy rate in the country is 64.84 per cent, 75.26 for males and 53.67for females. The steady improvement in literacy is apparent from the table 1.5. Kerala retained its position by being on top with a 90.86 per cent literacy rate,closely followed by Mizoram (88.80 per cent) and Lakshadweep (86.66 per cent).Bihar with a literacy rate of 47.00 per cent ranks last in the country preceded byJharkhand (53.56 per cent) and Jammu and Kashmir (55.52 per cent). Kerala alsooccupies the top spot in the country both in male literacy with 94.24 per cent andfemale literacy with 87.72 per cent. On the contrary, Bihar has recorded the lowestliteracy rates both in case of males (59.68 per cent) and females (33.12 per cent). Table1.6 shows the literacy rate among persons, male and female in States and UTs, andtheir ranking. TABLE 1.3 : STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES BY DENSITY Rank State/ Density Rankin 2001 Union territories 2001 1991 in 1991 1 2 3 4 5 1. Delhi 9,340 6,352 1 2. Chandigarh 7,900 5,632 2 3. Puducherry 2,034 1,683 5 4. Lakshadweep 1,895 1,616 3 5. Daman and Diu 1,413 907 4 6. West Bengal 903 767 6 7. Bihar 881 685 7 8. Kerala 819 749 9 9. Uttar Pradesh 690 548 810. Punjab 484 403 1011. Tamilnadu 480 429 1112. Haryana 478 372 1213. Dadra and Nagar Haveli 449 282 1414. Goa 364 316 1315. Assam 340 286 1516. Jharkhand 338 274 1717. Maharashtra 315 257 1618. Tripura 305 263 1819. Andhra Pradesh 277 242 1920. Karnataka 276 235 2021. Gujarat 258 211 2122. Orissa 236 203 2223. Madhya Pradesh 196 158 2324. Rajasthan 165 129 2425. Uttarakhand 159 133 2526. Chhattisgarh 154 130 2627. Nagaland 120 73 2728. Himachal Pradesh 109 93 2829. Manipur* 111 82 3030. Meghalaya 103 79 2931. Jammu and Kashmir 100 77 3132. Sikkim 76 57 3233. Andaman and Nicobar Islands 43 34 33
Land and the People 11 34 . Mizoram 42 33 34 35. Arunachal Pradesh 13 10 35Notes :* Manipur figures include estimated figures for those of the three sub-divisions, viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senapti district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons. TABLE 1.4 : SEX RATIO : 1901-2001 Census Year Sex Ratio (females per 1,000 males) 1 901 972 1911 964 1921 955 1931 950 1941 945 1951 946 1961 941 1971 930 1981 934 1991 926 2001 933Notes : 1. For 1981, interpolated figures for Assam have been used. 2. For 1991, interpolated figures based on final population of 2001 census for Jammu and Kashmir have been used. 3. India figures for 2001 census exclude those of the three sub-divisions, viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senapati district of Manipur as population Census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons. TABLE 1.5 : LITERACY RATE : 1951-2001 Census Year Persons Males Females 1951 18.33 27.16 8.86 1961 28.3 40.40 15.35 1971 34.45 45.96 21.97 1981 43.57 56.38 29.76 1991 52.21 64.13 39.29 2001 64.84 75.26 53.67Notes : 1. Literacy rates for 1951, 1961 and 1971 Censuses relates to population aged five years and above. The rates for the 1981, 1991 and 2001 Censuses relate to the population aged seven years and above. 2. The 1981 Literacy rates exclude Assam where the 1981 Census could not be conducted. 3. The 1991 Literacy rates exclude Jammu and Kashmir where the 1991 Census could not be conducted due to disturbed conditions.
12TABLE 1.6 : RANKING OF STATES/UTs BY LITERACY RATE AMONG PERSONS, MALES AND FEMALES, 2001 CENSUS Persons Males FemalesRank State/ Literacy State/ Literacy State/ Literacy Union Territories Rate Union Territories Rate Union Territories Rate1 2 3 4 5 6 71. Kerala 90.86 Kerala 94.24 Kerala 87.722. Mizoram 88.80 Lakshadweep 92.53 Mizoram 86.753. Lakshadweep 86.66 Mizoram 90.72 Lakshadweep 80.474. Goa 82.01 Puducherry 88.62 Chandigarh 76.475. Chandigarh 81.94 Goa 88.42 Goa 75.376. Delhi 81.67 Delhi 87.33 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 75.247. Andaman and Nicobar Islands 81.30 Daman and Diu 86.76 Delhi 74.718. Puducherry 81.24 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 86.33 Puducherry 73.909. Daman and Diu 78.18 Chandigarh 86.14 Himachal Pradesh 67.4210. Maharashtra 76.88 Maharashtra 85.97 Maharashtra 67.0311. Himachal Pradesh 76.48 Himachal Pradesh 85.35 Daman and Diu 65.6112. Tamilnadu 73.45 Uttarakhand 83.28 Tripura 64.9113. Tripura 73.19 Tamilnadu 82.42 Tamilnadu 64.3314. Uttarakhand 71.62 Tripura 81.02 Punjab 63.3615. Manipur1 70.53 Manipur1 80.33 Nagaland 61.4616. Punjab 69.65 Gujarat 79.66 Manipur1 60.5317. Gujarat 69.14 Haryana 78.49 Sikkim 60.4018. Sikkim 68.81 Chhattisgarh 77.38 Uttarakhand 59.6319. West Bengal 68.64 West Bengal 77.02 West Bengal 59.6120. Haryana 67.91 Karnataka 76.10 Meghalaya 59.61 India 2011
1 2 3 4 5 6 721. Karnataka 66.64 Madhya Pradesh 76.06 Gujarat 57.8022. Nagaland 66.59 Sikkim 76.04 Karnataka 56.8723. Chhattisgarh 64.66 Rajasthan 75.70 Haryana 55.7324. Madhya Pradesh 63.74 Orissa 75.35 Assam 54.61 Land and the People25. Assam 63.25 Punjab 75.23 Chhattisgarh 51.8526. Orissa 63.08 Assam 71.28 Orissa 50.5127. Meghalaya 62.56 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 71.18 Andhra Pradesh 50.4328. Andhra Pradesh 60.47 Nagaland 71.16 Madhya Pradesh 50.2929. Rajasthan 60.41 Andhra Pradesh 70.32 Rajasthan 43.8530. Dadra and Nagar Haveli 57.63 Uttar Pradesh 68.82 Arunachal Pradesh 43.5331. Uttar Pradesh 56.27 Jharkhand 67.30 Jammu and Kashmir 43.0032. Jammu and Kashmir 55.52 Jammu and Kashmir 66.60 Uttar Pradesh 42.2233. Arunachal Pradesh 54.34 Meghalaya 65.43 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 40.2334. Jharkhand 53.56 Arunachal Pradesh 63.83 Jharkhand 38.8735. Bihar 47.00 Bihar 59.68 Bihar 33.12Notes : 1 Manipur figures exclude those of the three sub-divisions, viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senapati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons. Literacy rates relate to the population aged seven years and above. 13
14 India 2011 TABLE 1.7 : TOTAL POPULATION AND PERCENTAGE OF SCHEDULED CASTES AND SCHEDULED TRIBES : 2001 CENSUSSl. India/State/ Total Scheduled Caste Scheduled TribeNo. Union Territory Population Population Percentage Population Percentage (‘000) (‘000) of total (‘000) of total population population 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 INDIA1 1,028,610 166,636 16.20 84,326 8.20 1. Jammu and Kashmir 10,144 770 7.59 1,106 10.90 2. Himachal Pradesh 6,078 1,502 24.72 245 4.02 3. Punjab 24,359 7,029 28.85 0 0.00 4. Chandigarh 901 158 17.50 0 0.00 5. Uttarakhand 8,489 1,517 17.87 256 3.02 6. Haryana 21,145 4,091 19.35 0 0.00 7. Delhi 13,851 2,343 16.92 0 0.00 8. Rajasthan 56,507 9,694 17.16 7,098 12.56 9. Uttar Pradesh 166,198 35,148 21.15 108 0.0610. Bihar 82,999 13,049 15.72 758 0.9111. Sikkim 541 27 5.02 111 20.6012. Arunachal Pradesh 1,098 6 0.56 705 64.2213. Nagaland 1,990 0 0.00 1,774 89.1514. Manipur 1 2,167 60 2.77 741 34.2015. Mizoram 889 0 0.03 839 94.4616. Tripura 3,199 556 17.37 993 31.0517. Meghalaya 2,319 11 0.48 1,993 85.9418. Assam 26,656 1,826 6.85 3,309 12.4119. West Bengal 80,176 18,453 23.02 4,407 5.5020. Jharkhand 26,946 3,189 11.84 7,087 26.3021. Orissa 36,805 6,082 16.53 8,145 22.1322. Chhattisgarh 20,834 2,419 11.61 6,617 31.7623. Madhya Pradesh 60,348 9,155 15.17 12,233 20.2724. Gujarat 50,671 3,593 7.09 7,481 14.7625. Daman and Diu 158 5 3.06 14 8.8526. Dadra and Nagar Haveli 220 4 1.86 137 62.2427. Maharashtra 96,879 9,882 10.20 8,577 8.8528. Andhra Pradesh 76,210 12,339 16.19 5,024 6.5929. Karnataka 52,851 8,564 16.20 3,464 6.5530. Goa 1,348 24 1.77 1 0.0431. Lakshadweep 61 0 0.00 57 94.5132. Kerala 31,841 3,124 9.81 364 1.1433. Tamilnadu 62,406 11,858 19.00 651 1.0434. Puducherry 974 158 16.19 0 0.0035. Andaman & Nicobar Islands 356 0 0.00 29 8.27Note : 1. India and Manipur figures exclude those of the three sub-divisions, viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senapati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons.
Land and the People 15 TABLE 1.8 : RURAL AND URBAN POPULATIONCensus Year Population (Million) Percentage of total population Rural Urban Rural Urban 1 2 3 4 5 1901 213 26 89.2 10.8 1911 226 26 89.7 10.3 1921 223 28 88.8 11.2 1931 246 33 88.0 12.0 1941 275 44 86.1 13.9 1951 299 62 82.7 17.3 1961 360 79 82.0 18.0 1971 439 109 80.1 19.9 1981 524 159 76.7 23.3 1991 629 218 74.3 25.7 2001 743 286 72.2 27.8Note : 1. India and Manipur figures are final and include estimated figures for those of the three sub- divisions, viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senapati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons. 2. The 1991 Census could not be held owing to disturbed conditions prevailing in Jammu and Kashmir. Hence the population figures for 1991 of Jammu and Kashmir have been worked out by interpolation on the basis of 2001 final population. 3. The 1981 census could not be held in Assam. The figures for 1981 for Assam have been worked out by interpolation. TABLE 1.9 : POPULATION BY CLASS OF TOWN, INDIA-2001 CENSUS (in 000s) Class of Town 2001 I 1,00,000 and above 178,224 II 50,000-99,999 34,452 III 20,000-49,999 42,119 IV 10,000-19,999 22,614 V 5,000-9,999 7,890 VI Less than 5,000 821 All Classes 286,120 Urban population as percentage to total population 27.82
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1022. Chhattisgarh 6 80 1,264 4,185 6,465 5,498 2,246 19,74423. Madhya Pradesh 19 362 3,551 10,434 16,277 14,330 7,144 52,11724. Gujarat 153 807 4,154 5,615 4,262 2,297 778 18,06625. Daman and Diu 2 5 5 4 5 2 0 2326. Dadra and Nagar Haveli 0 7 28 15 12 7 1 70 Land and the People27. Maharashtra 262 1,018 5,862 11,570 12,074 7,367 2,942 41,09528. Andhra Pradesh 498 1,788 6,915 6,475 4,467 3,402 3,068 26,61329. Karnataka 131 703 4,024 6,378 7,367 5,563 3,315 27,48130. Goa 3 23 96 77 56 60 32 34731. Lakshadweep 1 2 3 0 0 1 1 832. Kerala 1,072 207 69 10 0 4 2 1,36433. Tamilnadu 168 1,254 4,870 4,484 2,801 1,344 479 15,40034. Puducherry 2 20 45 18 7 0 0 9235. Andaman and 0 2 23 52 62 90 272 501 Nicobar IslandsALL INDIA 3,962 14,798 80,407 129,976 145,408 127,510 91,555 593,616Note :@ India and Jammu & Kashmir State excludes the villages of the areas under unlawful occupation of Pakistan and China where Census could not be taken.* India and Manipur excludes villages for those of the three sub-divisions viz. Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senapati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons.Source : Office of the Registrar General India. 17
20 India 2011 TABLE 1.12 : STATES AND UNION TERRITORIES BY POPULATION IN DESCENDING ORDER AND RANK IN 1991 AND 2001 CENSUS Per cent to total Rank State/ Population Population of India Rankin 2001 Union territories 2001 2001 1991 in 19911 2 3 4 5 61. Uttar Pradesh 166,197,921 16.16 15.59 12. Maharashtra 96,878,627 9.42 9.33 23. Bihar 82,998,509 8.07 7.62 54. West Bengal 80,176,197 7.79 8.04 35. Andhra Pradesh 76,210,007 7.41 7.86 46. Tamilnadu 62,405,679 6.07 6.60 67. Madhya Pradesh 60,348,023 5.87 5.74 78. Rajasthan 56,507,188 5.49 5.20 99. Karnataka 52,850,562 5.14 5.31 810. Gujarat 50,671,017 4.93 4.88 1011. Orissa 36,804,660 3.58 3.74 1112. Kerala 31,841,374 3.10 3.44 1213. Jharkhand 26,945,829 2.62 2.58 1414. Assam 26,655,528 2.59 2.65 1315. Punjab 24,358,999 2.37 2.40 1516. Haryana 21,144,564 2.06 1.95 1717. Chhattisgarh 20,833,803 2.03 2.08 1618. Delhi 13,850,507 1.35 1.11 1819. Jammu and Kashmir2 10,143,700 0.99 0.93 1920. Uttarakhand 8,489,349 0.83 0.84 2021. Himachal Pradesh 6,077,900 0.59 0.61 2122. Tripura 3,199,203 0.31 0.33 2223. Meghalaya 2,318,822 0.23 0.21 24 124. Manipur 2,293,896 0.22 0.22 2325. Nagaland 1,990,036 0.19 0.14 2526. Goa 1,347,668 0.13 0.14 2627. Arunachal Pradesh 1,097,968 0.11 0.10 2728. Puducherry 974,345 0.09 0.10 2829. Chandigarh 900,635 0.09 0.08 29
Land and the People 2130. Mizoram 888,573 0.09 0.08 3031. Sikkim 540,851 0.05 0.05 3132. Andaman and Nicobar Islands 356,152 0.03 0.03 3233. Dadra and Nagar Haveli 220,490 0.02 0.02 3334. Daman and Diu 158,204 0.02 0.01 3435. Lakshadweep 60,650 0.01 0.01 35Notes :1. India and Manipur figures include estimated figures for those of the three sub-divisions viz., Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul of Senepati district of Manipur as census results of 2001 in these three sub-divisions were cancelled due to technical and administrative reasons.2. The 1991 Census could not be held owing to disturbed conditions prevailing in Jammu and Kashmir. Hence the population figures for 1991 of Jammu and Kashmir have been worked out by interpolation.
22 India 20112 National SymbolsNATIONAL FLAGTHE National flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white inthe middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of width of theflag to its length is two to three. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheelwhich represents the chakra. Its design is that of the wheel which appears on theabacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates to the widthof the white band and it has 24 spokes. The design of the National Flag was adoptedby the Constituent Assembly of India on 22 July 1947. Apart from non-statutory instructions issued by the Government from time totime, display of the National Flag is governed by the provisions of the Emblems andNames (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 (No. 12 of 1950) and the Prevention ofInsults to National Honour Act, 1971 (No. 69 of 1971). The Flag Code of India, 2002is an attempt to bring together all such laws, conventions, practices and instructionsfor the guidance and benefit of all concerned. The Flag Code of India, 2002, has taken effect from 26 January 2002 andsupercedes the ‘Flag Code—as it existed. As per the provisions of the Flag Code ofIndia, 2002, there shall be no restriction on the display of the National Flag bymembers of general public, private organisations, educational institutions, etc., exceptto the extent provided in the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act,1950 and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 and any other lawenacted on the subject.STATE EMBLEMThe state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In theoriginal, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with afrieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull anda lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of asingle block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law(Dharma Chakra). In the state emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950,only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears inrelief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and theoutlines of other wheels on extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has beenomitted. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad, meaning TruthAlone Triumphs, are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script. The use of the state emblem of India, as the official seal of the Government ofIndia, is regulated by the state of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005.NATIONAL ANTHEMThe song Jana-gana-mana, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore,was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthemof India on 24 January 1950. It was first sung on 27 December 1911 at the KolkataSession of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas.The first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem :
National Symbols 23 Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. Punjab-Sindh-Gujarat-Maratha Dravida-Utkala-Banga Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga Uchchala-Jaladhi-taranga. Tava shubha name jage, Tava shubha asisa mange, Gahe tava jaya gatha, Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he, Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he! Playing time of the full version of the national anthem is approximately52 seconds. A short version consisting of the first and last lines of the stanza (playingtime approximately 20 seconds) is also played on certain occasions. The following isTagore’s English rendering of the anthem : Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, Dispenser of India’s destiny. Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha, Of the Dravida and Orissa and Bengal; It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea. They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise. The saving of all people waits in thy hand, Thou dispenser of India’s destiny. Victory, victory, victory to thee.NATIONAL SONGThe song Vande Mataram, composed in sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was asource of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom. It has an equal statuswith Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza :Vande Mataram! Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam, Shasyashyamalam, Mataram! Shubhrajyotsna pulakitayaminim, Phullakusumita drumadala shobhinim, Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim, Sukhadam varadam, Mataram!1 As published in Volume Eight of Sri Aurobindo Birth Centenary Library, Popular Edition 1972
24 India 2011 The English translation of the stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo in prose1 is : I bow to thee, Mother, richly-watered, richly-fruited, cool with the winds of the south, dark with the crops of the harvests, The Mother! Her nights rejoicing in the glory of the moonlight, her lands clothed beautifully with her trees in flowering bloom, sweet of laughter, sweet of speech, The Mother, giver of boons, giver of bliss.NATIONAL CALENDARThe national calendar based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and anormal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregoriancalendar for the following official purposes: (i) Gazette of India, (ii) news broadcastby All India Radio, (iii) calendars issued by the Government of India and(iv) Government communications addressed to the members of the public. Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates ofthe Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March inleap year.NATIONAL ANIMALThe magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris, a striped animal is the national animal of India,it has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace, strength,ability and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the nationalanimal of India. Out of eight races of the species known, the Indian race, the RoyalBengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region andalso in the neighbouring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.NATIONAL BIRDThe Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus, the national bird of India, is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and along, slender neck. The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with aglistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green trail of around 200elongated feathers. The female is brownish, slightly smaller than the male and lacksthe trail. The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preeningits feathers is a gorgeous sight.NATIONAL FLOWERLotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn) is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flowerand occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and hasbeen an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial.NATIONAL TREEThe Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis) is the National Tree of India. This huge treetowers over its neighbours and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees,
National Symbols 25easily covering several acres. It sends off new shoots from its roots, so that one tree isreally a tangle of branches, roots, and trunks.NATIONAL FRUITMango (Manigifera indica) is the National fruit of India. Mango is one of the mostwidely grown fruits of the tropical countries. In India, mango is cultivated almost inall parts, with the exception of hilly areas. Mango is a rich source of Vitamins A, Cand D. In India, we have hundreds of varieties of mangoes. They are of differentsizes, shapes and colours. Mangoes have been cultivated in India since timeimmemorial.
26 India 20113 The PolityINDIA, a Union of States, is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic witha parliamentary system of government. The Republic is governed in terms of theConstitution, which was adopted by Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949and came into force on 26 January 1950. The Constitution which envisages parliamentary form of government is federalin structure with unitary features. The President of India is the constitutional head ofexecutive of the Union. Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be aCouncil of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head to aid and advise the Presidentwho shall in exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice. The realexecutive power thus vests in the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as itshead. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the House of the People(Lok Sabha). Similarly, in states, the Governor is the head of executive, but it is theCouncil of Ministers with the Chief Minister as its head in whom real executivepower vests. The Council of Ministers of a state is collectively responsible to theLegislative Assembly of the state. The Constitution distributes legislative power between Parliament and statelegislatures and provides for vesting of residual powers in Parliament. Power toamend the Constitution also vests in Parliament. The Constitution has provision forindependence of Judiciary, Comptroller and Auditor-General, Public ServiceCommissions and Chief Election Commissioner.THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORYIndia comprises 28 States and seven Union Territories. They are: Andhra Pradesh,Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, HimachalPradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan,Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. UnionTerritories are : Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli,Daman and Diu, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Lakshadweep and Puducherry.CITIZENSHIPThe Constitution of India provides for a single citizenship for the whole of India.Every person who was at the commencement of the Constitution (26 January 1950)domiciled in the territory of India and: (a) who was born in India; or (b) either ofwhose parents was born in India; or (c) who has been ordinarily resident in India fornot less than five years became a citizen of India. The Citizenship Act, 1955, dealswith matters relating to acquisition, determination and termination of Indiancitizenship after the commencement of the Constitution.FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTSThe Constitution offers all citizens, individually and collectively, some basic freedoms.These are guaranteed in the Constitution in the form of six broad categories ofFundamental Rights which are justiciable. Article 12 to 35 contained in Part III of theConstitution deal with Fundamental Rights. These are : (i) right to equality includingequality before law, prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste,
The Polity 27sex or place of birth and equality of opportunity in matters of employment; (ii) right tofreedom of speech and expression; assembly; association or union; movement;residence; and right to practice any profession or occupation (some of these rights aresubject to security of the State, friendly relations with foreign countries, public order,decency or morality); (iii) right against exploitation, prohibiting all forms of forcedlabour, child labour and traffic in human beings; (iv) right to freedom of conscienceand free profession, practice and propagation of religion; (v) right of any section ofcitizens to conserve their culture, language or script and right of minorities to establishand administer educational institutions of their choice; and (vi) right to constitutionalremedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.FUNDAMENTAL DUTIESBy the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution, adopted in 1976, Fundamental Dutiesof the citizens have also been enumerated. Article 51 ‘A’ contained in Part IV A of theConstitution deals with Fundamental Duties. These enjoin upon a citizen amongother things, to abide by the Constitution, to cherish and follow noble ideals, whichinspired India’s struggle for freedom, to defend the country and render nationalservice when called upon to do so and to promote harmony and spirit of commonbrotherhood transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities.DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICYThe Constitution lays down certain Directive Principles of State Policy, which thoughnot justiciable, are ‘fundamental in governance of the country’ and it is the duty of theState to apply these principles in making laws. These lay down that the State shallstrive to promote the welfare of people by securing and protecting as effectively as itmay a social order in which justice—social, economic and political—shall form in allinstitutions of national life. The State shall direct its policy in such a manner as tosecure the right of all men and women to an adequate means of livelihood, equal payfor equal work and within limits of its economic capacity and development, to makeeffective provision for securing the right to work, education and to public assistancein the event of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement or other cases ofundeserved want. The State shall also endeavour to secure to workers a living wage,humane conditions of work, a decent standard of life and full involvement of workersin management of industries. In the economic sphere, the State is to direct its policy in such a manner as tosecure distribution of ownership and control of material resources of community tosubserve the common good and to ensure that operation of economic system does notresult in concentration of wealth and means of production to common detriment. Some of the other important directives relate to provision of opportunities andfacilities for children to develop in a healthy manner, free and compulsory educationfor all children up to the age of 14; promotion of education and economic interests ofscheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections; organisation of villagepanchayats; separation of judiciary from executive, promulgation of a uniform civilcode for whole country; protection of national monuments; promotion of justice on abasis of equal opportunity; provision of free legal aid; protection and improvement ofenvironment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife of the country and promotionof international peace and security, just and honourable relations between nations,respect for international law, treaty obligations and settlement of international disputesby arbitration.
28 India 2011THE UNIONEXECUTIVEThe Union executive consists of the President, the Vice-President and the Council ofMinisters with the Prime Minister as the head to aid and advise the President.PRESIDENTThe President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of electedmembers of both Houses of Parliament and Legislative Assemblies of the states inaccordance with the system of proportional representation by means of singletransferable vote. To secure uniformity among state inter se as well as parity betweenthe states, as a whole, and the Union, suitable weightage is given to each vote. ThePresident must be a citizen of India, not less than 35 years of age and qualified forelection as member of the Lok Sabha. His term of office is five years and he is eligiblefor re-election. His removal from office is to be in accordance with procedureprescribed in Article 61 of the Constitution. He may, by writing under his handaddressed to the Vice-President, resign his office. Executive power of the Union is vested in the President and is exercised by himeither directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with theConstitution. Supreme command of defence forces of the Union also vests in him. ThePresident summons, prorogues, addresses, sends messages to Parliament anddissolves the Lok Sabha; promulgates Ordinances at any time, except when bothHouses of Parliament are in session; makes recommendations for introducingfinancial and money bills and gives assent to bills; grants pardons, reprieves, respitesor remission of punishment or suspends, remits or commutes sentences in certaincases. When there is a failure of the constitutional machinery in a state, he can assumeto himself all or any of the functions of the government of that state. The President canproclaim emergency in the country if he is satisfied that a grave emergency existswhereby security of India or any part of its territory is threatened whether by war orexternal aggression or armed rebellion.VICE-PRESIDENTThe Vice-President is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of membersof both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportionalrepresentation by means of single transferable vote. He must be a citizen of India, notless than 35 years of age and eligible for election as a member of the Rajya Sabha. Histerm of office is five years and he is eligible for re-election. His removal from office isto be in accordance with procedure prescribed in Article 67 b. The Vice-President is ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and acts as Presidentwhen the latter is unable to discharge his functions due to absence, illness or anyother cause or till the election of a new President (to be held within six months whena vacancy is caused by death, resignation or removal or otherwise of President).While so acting, he ceases to perform the function of the Chairman of the RajyaSabha.COUNCIL OF MINISTERSThere is a Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister, to aid and advise thePresident in exercise of his functions. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Presidentwho also appoints other ministers on the advice of Prime Minister. The Council iscollectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. It is the duty of the Prime Minister to
The Polity 29communicate to the President all decisions of Council of Ministers relating toadministration of affairs of the Union and proposals for legislation and informationrelating to them. The Council of Ministers comprises Ministers who are members of Cabinet,Ministers of State (independent charge), Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers.LEGISLATURELegislature of the Union which is called Parliament , consists of President and twoHouses, known as Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and House of the People (LokSabha). Each House has to meet within six months of its previous sitting. A jointsitting of two Houses can be held in certain cases.RAJYA SABHAThe Constitution provides that the Rajya Sabha shall consist of 12 members to benominated by the President from amongst persons having special knowledge orpractical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and socialservice; and not more than 238 representatives of the States and of the Union Territories. Elections to the Rajya Sabha are indirect; members representing States are electedby elected members of legislative assemblies of the States in accordance with thesystem of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote, andthose representing Union Territories are chosen in such manner as Parliament mayby law prescribe. The Rajya Sabha is not subject to dissolution; one-third of its membersretire every second year. Rajya Sabha, at present, has 244 seats. Of these, 233 members represent theStates and the Union Territories and 11 members have been nominated by the Presidentand one seat under nomination category is vacant. The names of members of RajyaSabha and party affiliation are given in Appendices.LOK SABHAThe Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of people chosen by direct election onthe basis of adult suffrage. The maximum strength of the House envisaged by theConstitution is now 552 (530 members to represent the States, 20 members to representthe Union Territories and not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian communityto be nominated by the President, if, in his opinion, that community is not adequatelyrepresented in the House). The total elective membership of the Lok Sabha isdistributed among the States in such a way that the ratio between the number of seatsallotted to each State and the population of the State is, as far as practicable, the samefor all States. The Lok Sabha at present consists of 545 members. Of these, 530 membersare directly elected from the States and 13 from Union Territories while two arenominated by the President to represent the Anglo-Indian community. This includesone vacant seat of Banka Constitutency of Bihar and the seat of MP Smt. Meira Kumarwho has become Speaker of Lok Sabha and two nominated members of Anglo-Indiancommunity. It means after excluding the vacant seat and the seat of the speaker, thereare at present 543 seats of the House. Following the Constitution 84th AmendmentAct, 2001 the total number of existing seats as allocated to various States in the LokSabha on the basis of the 1971 census shall remain unaltered till the first census to betaken after the year 2026.
30 India 2011 The term of the Lok Sabha, unless dissolved earlier is five years from the dateappointed for its first meeting. However, while a Proclamation of Emergency is inoperation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law for a period not exceedingone year at a time and not extending in any case, beyond a period of six months afterthe Proclamation has ceased to operate. Fifteen Lok Sabhas have been constituted sofar. The term of each Lok Sabha and its Speaker(s) is given in table 3.1. The names of members of the Fifteen Lok Sabha, their constituencies and partyaffiliations are given in Appendices.QUALIFICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP OF PARLIAMENTIn order to be chosen a member of Parliament, a person must be a citizen of India andnot less than 30 years of age in the case of Rajya Sabha and not less than 25 years ofage in the case of Lok Sabha. Additional qualifications may be prescribed byParliament by law.FUNCTIONS AND POWERS OF PARLIAMENTAs in other parliamentary democracies, the Parliament in India has the cardinalfunctions of legislation, overseeing of administration, passing of the Budget,ventilation of public grievances and discussing various subjects like developmentplans, national policies and international relations. The distribution of powers betweenthe Union and the States, followed in the Constitution, emphasises in many ways thegeneral predominance of Parliament in the legislative field. Apart from a wide-rangeof subjects, even in normal times, the Parliament can, under certain circumstances,assume legislative power with respect to a subject falling within the sphere exclusivelyreserved for the States. The Parliament is also vested with powers to impeach thePresident and to remove the Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts, the ChiefElection Commissioner and the Comptroller and Auditor General in accordancewith the procedure laid down in the Constitution. All legislation require consent of both the Houses of Parliament. In the case ofmoney bills, however, the will of the Lok Sabha prevails. Delegated legislation is alsosubject to review and control by Parliament. Besides the power to legislate, theConstitution vests in Parliament the power to initiate amendment of the Constitution.PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEESThe functions of Parliament are not only varied in nature, but considerable in volume.The time at its disposal is limited. It cannot make very detailed scrutiny of all legislativeand other matters that come up before it. A good deal of Parliamentary business is,therefore, transacted in the committees. Both Houses of Parliament have a similar committee structure, with a fewexceptions. Their appointment, terms of office, functions and procedure of conductingbusiness are also more or less similar and are regulated as per rules made by the twoHouses under Article 118(1) of the Constitution. Broadly, Parliamentary Committees are of two kinds—Standing Committeesand ad hoc Committees. The former are elected or appointed every year or periodicallyand their work goes on, more or less, on a continuous basis. The latter are appointedon an ad hoc basis as need arises and they cease to exist as soon as they complete thetask assigned to them. Standing Committees : Among the Standing Committees, the three FinancialCommittees—Committees on Estimates, Public Accounts and Public Undertakings—
The Polity 31constitute a distinct group as they keep an unremitting vigil over Governmentexpenditure and performance. While members of the Rajya Sabha are associatedwith Committees on Public Accounts and Public Undertakings, the members of theCommittee on Estimates are drawn entirely from the Lok Sabha. The Estimates Committee reports on ‘what economies, improvements inorganisation, efficiency or administrative reform consistent with policy underlyingthe estimates’ may be effected. It also examines whether the money is well laid outwithin limits of the policy implied in the estimates and suggests the form in whichestimates shall be presented to Parliament. The Public Accounts Committee scrutinisesappropriation and finance accounts of Government and reports of the Comptrollerand Auditor-General. It ensures that public money is spent in accordance withParliament’s decision and calls attention to cases of waste, extravagance, loss ornugatory expenditure. The Committee on Public Undertakings examines reports of theComptroller and Auditor-General, if any. It also examines whether publicundertakings are being run efficiently and managed in accordance with soundbusiness principles and prudent commercial practices. Besides these three Financial Committees, the Rules Committee of the Lok Sabharecommended setting-up of 17 Department Related Standing Committees (DRSCs).Accordingly, 17 Department Related Standing Committees were set up on 8 April1993. In July 2004, rules were amended to provide for the constitution of seven moresuch committees, thus raising the number of DRSCs from 17 to 24. The functions ofthese Committees are : (a) to consider the Demands for Grants of various Ministries/Departments of Government of India and make reports to the Houses; (b) to examinesuch Bills as are referred to the Committee by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha or theSpeaker, Lok Sabha, as the case may be, and make reports thereon; (c) to considerAnnual Reports of ministries/departments and make reports thereon; and (d) toconsider policy documents presented to the Houses, if referred to the Committee bythe Chairman, Rajya Sabha or the Speaker, Lok Sabha, as the case may be, and makereports thereon. Other Standing Committees in each House, divided in terms of their functions,are (i) Committees to Inquire: (a) Committee on Petitions examines petitions on billsand on matters of general public interest and also entertains representations onmatters concerning subjects in the Union List; and (b) Committee of Privileges examinesany question of privilege referred to it by the House or Speaker/Chairman;(ii) Committees to Scrutinise : (a) Committee on Government Assurances keeps track ofall the assurances, promises, undertakings, etc., given by Ministers in the House andpursues them till they are implemented; (b) Committee on Subordinate Legislationscrutinises and reports to the House whether the power to make regulations, rules,sub-rules, bye-laws, etc., conferred by the Constitution or Statutes is being properlyexercised by the delegated authorities; and (c) Committee on Papers Laid on the Tableexamines all papers laid on the table of the House by Ministers, other than statutorynotifications and orders which come within the purview of the Committee onSubordinate Legislation, to see whether there has been compliance with the provisionsof the Constitution, Act, rule or regulation under which the paper has been laid;(iii) Committees relating to the day-to-day business of the House: (a) Business AdvisoryCommittee recommends allocation of time for items of Government and other businessto be brought before the Houses; (b) Committee on Private Members’ Bills and Resolutionsof the Lok Sabha classifies and allocates time to Bills introduced by private members,
32 India 2011recommends allocation of time for discussion on private members’ resolutions andexamines Constitution amendment bills before their introduction by private membersin the Lok Sabha. The Rajya Sabha does not have such a committee. It is the BusinessAdvisory Committee of that House which recommends allocation of time fordiscussion on stage or stages of private members’ bills and resolutions; (c) RulesCommittee considers matters of procedure and conduct of business in the House andrecommends amendments or additions to the Rules; and (d) Committee on Absence ofMembers from the Sittings of the House of the Lok Sabha considers all applications frommembers for leave or absence from sittings of the House. There is no such Committeein the Rajya Sabha. Applications from members for leave or absence are consideredby the House itself; (iv) Committee on the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and ScheduledTribes, on which members from both Houses serve, considers all matters relating tothe welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes which come within the purviewof the Union Government and keeps a watch whether constitutional safeguards inrespect of these classes are properly implemented; (v) Committees concerned with theprovision of facilities to members : (a) General Purposes Committee considers and advisesSpeaker/Chairman on matters concerning affairs of the House, which do notappropriately fall within the purview of any other Parliamentary Committee; and(b) House Committee deals with residential accommodation and other amenities formembers; (vi) Joint Committee on Salaries and Allowances of Members of Parliament,constituted under the Salary, Allowances and Pension of Members of Parliament Act,1954, apart from framing rules for regulating payment of salary, allowances andpension to Members of Parliament, also frames rules in respect of amenities likemedical, housing, telephone, postal, constituency and secretarial facility; (vii) JointCommittee on Offices of Profit examines the composition and character of committeesand other bodies appointed by the Central and State governments and UnionTerritories Administrations and recommends what offices ought to or ought not todisqualify a person from being chosen as a member of either House of Parliament;(viii) The Library Committee consisting of members from both Houses, considers mattersconcerning the Library of Parliament; (ix) On 29 April 1997, a Committee onEmpowerment of Women with members from both the Houses was constituted with aview to securing, among other things, status, dignity and equality for women in allfields; (x) On 4 March 1997, the Ethics Committee of the Rajya Sabha was constituted.The Ethics Committee of the Lok Sabha was constituted on 16 May 2000. Ad hoc Committees : Such Committees may be broadly classified under two heads :(a) committees which are constituted from time to time, either by the two Houses on amotion adopted in that behalf or by Speaker/Chairman to inquire into and report onspecific subjects, (e.g., Committees on food management in Parliament House Complex,Committee on installation of portraits/statutes of National leaders and Parliamentarians inParliament House Complex, Committee on Security in Parliament Complex, Committee onMPLADS, Committee on Railway convention, etc.) and (b) Select or Joint Committees on Billswhich are appointed to consider and report on a particular Bill. These Committeesare distinguishable from the other ad hoc committees inasmuch as they are concernedwith Bills and the procedure to be followed by them as laid down in the Rules ofProcedure and Directions by the Speaker/Chairman.LEADERS OF OPPOSITION IN PARLIAMENTIn keeping with their important role, the Leaders of Opposition in the Rajya Sabhaand the Lok Sabha are accorded statutory recognition. Salary and other suitable
The Polity 33facilities are extended to them through a separate legislation brought into force on1 November 1977.GOVERNMENT BUSINESS IN PARLIAMENTThe Minister of Parliamentary Affairs is entrusted with the responsibility ofcoordinating, planning and arranging Government Business in both Houses ofParliament. In the discharge of this function, he is assisted by his Ministers of State.The Minister also keeps close and constant contact with the presiding officers, theleaders as well as chief whips and whips of various parties and groups in both theHouses of Parliament. During the period for 1 July 2009 to 31 May 2010, both Housesof Parliament passed 40 Bills.CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEESFunctioning of Consultative Committees of Members of Parliament for variousMinistries is one of the functions allocated to the Ministry of Parliamentary affairsunder the Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961. The mainobjective of these committees is to provide a forum for informal discussion betweenMembers of Parliament, on the one hand, and Ministers and senior officers of theGovernment, on the other hand, on the policies, principles and programmes of theGovernment and the manner of their implementation. The Minister/Minister of Statein-charge of the Ministry concerned acts as the Chairman of the ConsultativeCommittee attached to that Ministry. The minimum membership of a Consultative Committee is 10 and the maximummembership is 30. The Consultative Committee stand dissolved upon dissolution ofevery Lok Sabha and re-constituted upon constitution of each Lok Sabha. After theConstitution of the 15th Lok Sabha, 35 Consulative Committees attached to variousMinistries have been constituted on 16th September, 2009. 90 meetings of the variousconsultative committees were held upto 31 May 2010.NOMINATION OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT ON GOVERNMENTCOMMITTEES/BODIESThe Minister of Parliamentary Affairs nominates Members of Parliament onCommittees, Councils, Boards and Commissions, etc., set-up by the Government ofIndia in various Ministries (except in case of statutory or other bodies where thestatute or the bye-laws framed thereunder provides that the Member of Parliament tobe appointed thereon will be nominated by the Presiding Officers of the respectiveHouses or will be elected by the Lok Sabha or the Rajya Sabha, as the case may be).The Members are nominated on such Bodies keeping in view their aptitude andspecial interest in the subject.YOUTH PARLIAMENT COMPETITIONIn order to develop democratic ethos in the younger generation the Ministry conductsYouth Parliament Competition in various categories of schools and colleges/universities. The Youth Parliament Scheme was first introduced in the Schools inDelhi in 1966-67. Kendriya Vidyalayas located in and around Delhi were incorporatedinto the ongoing Scheme for Delhi Schools in 1978. Subsequently, as separate schemeof Youth Parliament for Kendriya Vidyalayas at the National Level was launched in1988. Similarly, in 1997-98, two new Youth Parliament Schemes at the national level,one for Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and the other for Universities/Colleges werelaunched.
34 India 2011OTHER PARLIAMENTARY MATTERSALL INDIA WHIPS CONFERENCEThe Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, Government of India has been organising AllIndia Whips Conference from time to time, with the purpose of establishing suitablelinks among the whips of various political parties at the Centre and the States whoare concerned with the practical working of the legislatures to discuss matters ofcommon interest and to evolve high standards to strengthen the institution ofParliamentary Democracy. Fifteen All India Whips Conferences have been organizedso far since 1952.MATTERS UNDER RULE 377 AND SPECIAL MENTIONSThe Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs takes follow-up action on matters raised underRule 377 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha and by wayof Special Mentions in Rajya Sabha. Also after ‘Question Hour’ in both the Houses ofParliament, Members raise matters of urgent public importance. Though it is notmandatory, Ministers sometimes react to the points made by the Members. In theabsence of concerned Minister the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs assures the Houseor the individual Members that their sentiments would be conveyed to the concernedMinisters.IMPLEMENTATION OF ASSURANCESThe Ministry culls out assurances, promises, undertakings, etc., given by Ministersin both the Houses of Parliament, from the daily proceedings and forwards them tothe concerned Ministries/Departments for implementation. After due scrutiny of theimplementation reports received from the various Ministries/Departments concerned,statements showing action taken by the Government in implementation of theassurances are periodically laid on the Table of the Houses by Minister/Minister ofState for Parliamentary Affairs. The Parliamentarians of a country play a significant role in determining thepolicy of the country and strengthening of relations with other countries. It is usefuland necessary for a democratic and developing country like India to select someMembers of Parliament and distinguished personalities and utilize their services inprojecting our policies, programmes and achievement in different fields with theircounterparts and other opinion makers in other countries and secure their support infavour of India. With these objectives in view, the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs sponsorsGovernment Goodwill Delegation of Members of Parliament to other countries andreceives similar Government sponsored delegations of parliamentarians under theexchange programme from other countries through the Ministry of External Affairs. During the period from1 July, 2009 to 31 May, 2010 three ParliamentaryDelegations from Japan, Afghanistan and Paraguay called on Minister ofParliamentary Affairs/Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs and exchangedviews on functions of Parliament and other matters of mutual interest.WELFARE OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENTThe Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs looks after the welfare of ailing Members ofParliament admitted for treatment in hospitals in Delhi and render any assistancerequired by them. Between 01.07.2009 to 31.05.2010, it had extended assistance and
The Polity 35help to 33 Members of Parliament who were admitted to hospitals, as and whenrequired. In the unfortunate event of passing away of a Member of Parliament in Delhi,the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs renders all necessary assistance to the bereavedfamily members in taking the mortal remains of the decreased Member for last rites toa plae chosen by the family. During the period under report, assistance was providedon the sad demise of four Members of Parliament.ADMINISTRATIVE SET-UPThe Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961 are made by thePresident of India under Article 77 of the Constitution for the allocation of business ofthe Government of India. The Ministries/Departments of the Government are createdby the President on the advice of the Prime Minister under these Rules. The businessof the Government are transacted in the Ministries/Departments, Secretariats andoffices (referred to as ‘Department’) as per the distribution of subjects specified inthese Rules. Each of the Ministry(ies) is assigned to a Minister by the President on theadvice of the Prime Minister. Each department is generally under the charge of aSecretary to assist the Minister on policy matters and general administration.CABINET SECRETARIATThe Cabinet Secretariat in terms of provisions of the Government of India (Allocationof Business) Rules, 1961 functions directly under the Prime Minister. Theadministrative head of the Secretariat is the Cabinet Secretary who is also theex-officio Chairman of the Civil Services Board. The business alloted to cabinet secretariat is (i) Secretarial assistance to Cabinetand Cabinet Committees; and (ii) Rules of Business. The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the administration of the Governmentof India (Transaction of Business) Rules, 1961 and the Government of India (Allocationof Business) Rules 1961, facilitating smooth transaction of business in Ministries/Departments of the Government by ensuring adherence to these rules. The Secretariatassists in decision-making in Government by ensuring Inter-Ministerial coordination,ironing out differences amongst Ministries/Departments and evolving consensusthrough the instrumentality of the standing and ad hoc Committees of Secretaries. The Cabinet Secretariat ensures that the President, the Vice-President andMinisters are kept informed of the major activities of all Ministries/Departments bymeans of monthly summary of their activities. Management of major crisis situationsin the country and coordinating activities of various Ministries in such a situation isalso one of the functions of the Cabinet Secretariat. The Cabinet Secretariat is seen as a useful mechanism by the departments forpromoting inter-Ministerial coordination since the Cabinet Secretary is also the headof the civil services. The Secretaries felt it necessary to keep the Cabinet Secretaryinformed of developments from time to time. The Transaction of Business Rules alsorequire them to keep the Cabinet Secretary informed specially if there are anydepartures from these rules. A list of cabinet secretaries since 1950 is given in Chapter 32 - GeneralInformation.
36 India 2011MINISTRIES/DEPARTMENTS OF THE GOVERNMENTThe Government consists of a number of Ministries/Departments, number andcharacter varying from time to time on factors such as volume of work importanceattached to certain items, changes of orientation, political expediency, etc.LIST OF THE MINISTRIES/DEPARTMENTS1. Ministry of Agriculture (Krishi Mantralaya) (i) Department of Agriculture and Co-operation (Krishi aur Sahkarita Vibhag) (ii) Department of Agricultural Research and Education (Krishi Anusandhan aur Shiksha Vibhag) (iii) Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying (Pashupalan aur Dairy Vibhag)2. Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers (Rasayan aur Urvarak Mantralaya) (i) Department of Chemicals and Petro-Chemicals (Rasayan aur Petro-Rasayan Vibhag) (ii) Department of Fertilizers (Urvarak Vibhag) (iii) Department of Pharmaceutical.3. Ministry of Civil Aviation (Nagar Vimanan Mantralaya)4. Ministry of Coal (Koyala Mantralaya)5. Ministry of Commerce and Industry (Vanijya aur Udyog Mantralaya) (i) Department of Commerce (Vanijya Vibhag) (ii) Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (Audyogik Niti aur Samvardhan Vibhag)6. Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (Sanchar aur Soochana Praudyogiki Mantralaya) (i) Department of Telecommunications (Doorsanchar Vibhag) (ii) Department of Post (Dak Vibhag) (iii) Department of Information Technology (Soochana Praudyogiki Vibhag)7. Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution (Upbhokta Mamle, Khadya aur Sarvajanik Vitaran Mantralaya) (i) Department of Consumer Affairs (Upbhokta Mamle Vibhag) (ii) Department of Food and Public Distribution (Khadya aur Sarvajanik Vitaran Vibhag)8. Ministry of Corporate Affairs (Korporate Karya Mantralya)9. Ministry of Culture (Sanskriti Mantralya)10. Ministry of Defence (Raksha Mantralaya) (i) Department of Defence (Raksha Vibhag) (ii) Department of Defence Production (Raksha Utpadan aur Aapoorti Vibhag) (iii) Department of Defence Research and Development (Raksha Anusandhan aur Vikas Vibhag)
The Polity 37 (iv) Department of Ex-servicemen Welfare11. Ministry of Development of North-Eastern Region (Uttar Poorvi Kshetra Vikas Mantralaya)12. Ministry of Earth Sciences (Bhoo Vigyan Mantralaya)13. Ministry of Environment and Forests (Paryavaran aur Van Mantralaya)14. Ministry of External Affairs (Videsh Mantralaya)15. Ministry of Finance (Vitta Mantralaya) (i) Department of Economic Affairs (Arthik Karya Vibhag) (ii) Department of Expenditure (Vyaya Vibhag) (iii) Department of Revenue (Rajaswa Vibhag) (iv) Department of Financial Services (Vittiya Sewayen Vibhag) (v) Department of Disinvestment16. Ministry of Food Processing Industries (Khadya Prasanskaran Udyog Mantralaya)17. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (Swasthya aur Parivar Kalyan Mantralaya) (i) Department of Health and Department of Family Welfare (Swasthya Mantralaya aur Parivar Kalyan Mantralaya) (ii) Department of Ayurveda, Yoga-Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) (Ayurveda, Yoga-Prakritik Chikitsa Paddhati, Unani, Siddha aur Homoeopathy Vibhag) (iii) Department of AIDS Control (iv) Department of Health Research18. Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises (Bhari Udyog aur Lok Udyam Mantralaya) (i) Department of Heavy Industries (Bhari Udyog Vibhag) (ii) Department of Public Enterprises (Lok Udyam Vibhag)19. Ministry of Home Affairs (Grih Mantralaya) (i) Department of Internal Security (Antarik Suraksha Vibhag) (ii) Department of States (Rajya Vibhag) (iii) Department of Official Language (Raj Bhasha Vibhag) (iv) Department of Home (Grih Vibhag) (v) Department of Jammu and Kashmir Affairs (Jammu tatha Kashmir Vibhag) (vi) Department of Border Management (Seema Prabandhan Vibhag)20. Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (Aawas aur Shahari Garibi Upshaman Mantralaya)21. Ministry of Human Resource Development (Manav Sansadhan Vikas Mantralaya) (i) Department of School Education and Literacy (School Shiksha aur Saksharta Vibhag)
38 India 2011 (ii) Department of Higher Education (Uchchatar Shiksha Vibhag)22. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (Soochana aur Prasaran Mantralaya)23. Ministry of Labour and Employment (Shram aur Rozgar Mantralaya)24. Ministry of Law and Justice (Vidhi aur Nyaya Mantralaya) (i) Department of Legal Affairs (Vidhi Karya Vibhag) (ii) Department of Legislative (Vidhi Vibhag) (iii) Department of Justice (Nyaya Vibhag)25. Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (Sukshma Laghu Aur Madhyam Udyam Mantralya)26. Ministry of Mines (Khan Mantralaya)27. Ministry of Minority Affairs (Alpasankhyak Karya Mantralya)28. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (Naveen Aur Navikarniya Oorja Mantralaya)29. Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs (Apravasi Bharatiyon Ke Mamalon Ka Mantralya)30. Ministry of Panchayati Raj (Panchayati Raj Mantralaya)31. Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs (Sansadiya Karya Mantralaya)32. Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions (Karmik Lok Shikayat tatha Pension Mantralaya) (i) Department of Personnel and Training (Karmik aur Prashikshan Vibhag) (ii) Department of Pensions and Pensioners’ Welfare (Pension aur Pension Bhogi Kalyan Vibhag) (iii) Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grivances (Prashasnik Sudhar and Lok Shikayat Vibhag)33. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (Petroleum aur Prakritik Gas Mantralaya)34. Ministry of Power (Oorja Mantralaya)35. Ministry of Railways (Rail Mantralaya)36. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways Sarak Parivahan aur Raj Marg Mantralaya)37. Ministry of Rural Development (Gramin Vikas Mantralaya) (i) Department of Rural Development (Gramin Vikas Vibhag) (ii) Department of Land Resources (Bhumi Sansadhan Vibhag) (iii) Department of Drinking Water Supply (Peya Jal Poorti Vibhag)
The Polity 3938. Ministry of Science and Technology (Vigyan aur Praudyogiki Mantralaya) (i) Department of Science and Technology (Vigyan aur Praudyogiki Vibhag) (ii) Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (Vigyan aur Audyogik Anusandhan Vibhag) (iii) Department of Bio-Technology (Biotechnology Vibhag)39. Ministry of Shipping40. Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (Samajik Nyaya aur Adhikarita Mantralaya)41. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (Sankhyiki aur Karyakram Kiryanvayan Mantralaya)42. Ministry of Steel (Ispat Mantralaya)43. Ministry of Textiles (Vastra Mantralaya)44. Ministry of Tourism (Paryatan Mantralaya)45. Ministry of Tribal Affairs (Janjatiya Karya Mantralaya)46. Ministry of Urban Development (Shahari Vikas Mantralaya)47. Ministry of Water Resources (Jal Sansadhan Mantralaya)48. Ministry of Women and Child Development (Mahila Aur Bal Vikas Mantralaya)49. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (Yuva Karyakram aur Khel Mantralaya) (i) Department of Youth Affairs (ii) Departments of SportsCENTRAL GOVERNMENT (INDEPENDENT DEPARTMENTS)50. Department of Atomic Energy (Parmanu Oorja Vibhag)51. Department of Space (Antariksh Vibhag)APEX/INDEPENDENT OFFICE52. Planning Commission (Yojana Ayog)53. Cabinet Secretariat (Mantrimandal Sachivalaya)54. President’s Secretariat (Rashtrapati Sachivalaya)55. Prime Minister’s Office (Pradhan Mantri Karyalaya)PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT - RESULTS FRAMEWORK DOCUMENTPursuant to the announcement made in the President’s address to both Houses of theParliament on June 4, 2009, the Prime Minister approved the outline of the Performancemonitoring and Evaluation System (PMES) for Government Departments on September11, 2009. Performance Management Division in the Cabinet Secretariat is responsiblefor this activity through the mechanism called Results-Framework Documents. (RFD). At the beginning of each financial year, with the approval of the Ministerconcerned. each Department is required to prepare a Results-Framework Document(RFD) consisting of the priorities set out by the Minister concerned, agenda as speltout by the Government from time to time. The Minister in-charge decides the inter-sepriority among the departmental objectives.
40 India 2011 The RFD seeks to address three basic questions; (a) what are department’s mainobjectives for the year? (b) what actions are proposed to achieve these objectives?(c) how would someone know at the end of the year the degree of progress made inimplementing these objectives. i.e. what are the relevant success indicators and theirtargets? RFDs are discussed and finalized by the Ministers / Departments after thoroughdiscussion with the Ad hoc Task Force (ATF) consisting of retired civil servants,domain experts, and leading management experts. This process helps the Ministries/ Departments in arriving at realistic performance targets. The RFDs so reviewed areapproved by the High Power Committee (HPC) on Government performance headedby the Cabinet Secretary. At the end of the year, all ministries/ departments are required to review andprepare a report listing their respective achievements against the agreed targets inthe prescribed format. This report is expected to be finalized by the 1st of May eachyear. All 59 ministers and departments covered under Phase 1 finalized their Results-Framework Documents (RFD) for the last quarter of 2009-2010 and assessed theirachievements for this period. In the subsequent phase of implementation of this initiative, 62 departmentsand ministries have prepared their Results-Framework Documents for 2010-11, whichhave been reviewed by the ad hoc task force and approved by the High PowerCommittee on Government Performance. These have been placed on the respectivewebsites of the Departments/Ministries. In order to build capacity on performance management in Government,24 workshops have been conducted across the country in collaboration with IIMAhmedabad and Lal Bahadur Shashtri National Academy at Mussoorie. Trainingmaterials and manuals have also been prepared and distributed. In addition to the performance management through results-frameworkdocument, PMD of the Cabinet Secretariat has also undertaken various initiativesrelating to overall improvement in the functioning of the Government departmentsThese are :(i) 2nd ARC on Organisational Structure of Government of India-Implementary ofRecommendationAdministrative Reforms Commission-II (ARC) in its report on “OrganisationalStructure of Government of India” Inter alia recommended that Government of Indiashould primarily focus on core functions and that it should, at all levels, be guided bythe principle of subsidiarity. It was further recommended that there was a need tocarry out a detailed analysis of the functions/activities in each Ministry/Departmentwhich would help the Ministries to prepare an action plan for delegatingimplementation activities and non-core activities to attached and subordinate offices. The Performance Management Division is holding consultations with domainexports for effective implementation of this recommendation of the ARC.(ii) Performance Related Incentives (PRI)Incentives play an important role in improving performance of employees in publicand private sectors. Performance Related Incentives (PRI) is defined as the variable
The Polity 41part of pay which is awarded each year depending on performance. The scheme isapplied at the individual employee level and at the team/group level. The Schemehas two parts-one part measures the performance of the entity; and the second linksthe performance to financial incentives. As per the recommendations of the successive Pay Commissions, and recentlyof the Sixth Pay Commission, the PRI scheme is being proposed to be introduced.(iii) Performance Appraisal Report (PAR) SystemThe system of Performance Appraisal Report as laid down in the All India Service(PAR) Rules, 2007 is being reviewed owing to widespread dissatisfaction with theworking of the PAR system at all levels. Keeping in view the conceptual and proceduralflows in the performance evaluation methodology of PAR system, a set of correctivemeasures is being proposed by the Performance Management Division.(iv) Operationalizing ‘Sevottam’The PMD, in Partnership with Department of Administrative Reforms & PublicGrievances, has decided to operationalize the concept of ‘Sevottam’ through themechanism of Results-Framework Document. Ministries/Departments are expected to design citizen/client charters alongwith a robust Public Grievance Redress Mechanism. In order to better monitorcompliance, ministries/Departments have been advised to include the ‘Sevottam’concept in their Results/Framework Documents as a mandatory performanceindicator.(v) Assisting State Governments in Implementing RFDOn the lines of the Results-Frameworks Documents devised by the Government ofIndia, various States have come forward to put in place a similar performancemanagement mechanism for better and improved performance of their respectiveGovernments. The Performance Management Division of the Cabinet Secretariat is providingassistance from time to time to the State Governments of Maharashtra and Punjab byholding workshops for implementing the RFD based performance management systemin these states. The States of Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Orissa, Bihar andJharkhand have also shown interest and sought cooperation of PMD in this regard.(vi) Implementing e-OfficeIn its efforts to move towards a paperless office, the day to day working of the PMDand the Cabinet Secretariat is being carried out through the e-Office system developedby the NIC. This paperless e-Office system is expected to be a role model for all otherDepartments of the Government of India.NATIONAL AUTHORITY, CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTIONNational Authority, Chemical Weapons Convention (NACWC) was constituted by aGovernment of India resolution dated 5th May 1998 to fulfil the obligations enunciatedin the Chemical Weapons Convention, which was initially signed by 130 countriesin a conference which concluded on 14th January, 1993 for the purpose of prohibitingthe development, production, execution, transfer, use and stockpiling of all chemicalweapons by Member-States in a nondiscriminatory manner. The number of countrieswho have signed the Convention now is 188. To fulfil its obligations, each State Party
42 India 2011has to designate or establish a National Authority to serve as the national focal pointfor effective implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Hence the NACWCunder the administrative control of the Cabinet Secretariat was set up. A high level steering committee under the Chairmanship of the Cabinet Secretaryis in existence to oversee the functioning of the National Authority. The other membersof this steering committee are Secretary (Chemical & Petrochemicals). Foreign Secretary,SA to RM & Secretary, (Defence Research & Development). Defence Secretary. Secretary,(Commerce), Secretary (Revenue) and Chairman, NACWC. The NACWC isresponsible for implementation of CWC Act, collection of data for fulfilling India’sdeclaration obligations. coordinating OPCW inspections. providing appropriatefacilities for training national inspectors and industry personnel, ensuring protectionof confidiential business information, checking declarations for consistency, accuracyand completeness, registration of entities engaged in activities related to CWC, etc.COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERALThe Comptroller and Auditor General of India is appointed by the President. Theprocedure and the grounds for his removal from office are the same as for a SupremeCourt Judge. He is not eligible for further office under the Union or a State governmentafter he ceases to hold his office. He shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to theaccounts of the Union and of the States and of any othr authority or body as may beprescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in thatbehalf is so made, shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation tothe accounts of the Union and of the States as were conferred on or exercisable by theAuditor-General of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitutionin relation to the accounts of the Dominion of India and of the provinces respectively. The accounts of the Union and of the States shall be kept in such form as thePresident may, on the advice of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India,prescribe. The reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India relating to theaccounts of the Union shall be submitted to the president, who shall cause them to belaid before each House of Parliament. The reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India relating to the accounts of a State shall be submitted to the Governorof the State, who shall cause them to be laid before the Legislature of the State. The duties, powers and conditions of service of the Comptroller and Auditor-General have been specified by the Comptroller and Auditor General’s (Duties, Powersand Conditions of Service) Act. 1971.PUBLIC SERVICESALL INDIA SERVICESPrior to Independence, the Indian Civil Service (ICS) was the senior most amongst theServices of the Crown in India. Besides the ICS, there was also the Indian PoliceService. After Independence, it was felt that though the ICS was a legacy of the imperialperiod there was need for the All India Services for maintaining the unity, integrityand stability of the nation. Accordingly, a provision was made in Article 312 of theConstitution for creation of one or more All India Services common to the Union andState. The Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Police Service are deemed tobe constituted by the Parliament in terms of Article 312 of the Constitution. After thepromulgation of the Constitution, a new All India Service, namely, the Indian Forest
The Polity 43Service, was created in 1966. A common unique feature of the All India Services isthat the members of these services are recuited by the Centre but their services areplaced under various State cadres and they have the liability to serve both under theState and under the Centre. This aspect of the All India Services strengthens theunitary character of the Indian federation. Of the three All India Services, namely, the Indian Administrative Service (IAS),the Indian Police Service (IPS) and the Indian Forest Service (IFS), the Ministry ofPersonnel, Public Grievances and Pension is the cadre controlling authority for theIAS. The recruitment to all the three services is made by the UPSC. These officers arerecruited and trained by the Central Government and then allotted to different Statecadres.UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONThe Constitution provides for an independent body known as Union Public ServiceCommission (UPSC) for recruitment to Group ‘A’ and Group ‘B’ Gazetted posts underCentral Government and for advice in various service matters. The Chairman andMembers of the Commisison are appointed by the President for tenure of six years ortill they attain the age. of 65 years, whichever is earlier. To ensure independence,chairman after completion of tenure is not eligible for any further employment eitherunder the Government of India or Government of a State. The Members are alsocovered by the above provision but they are eligible for appointment as chairman ofUnion Public Service Commission or State Public Service Commission. They can notbe removed except for the reasons and in the manner provided for in the Constitution.A list of the Chairman Since 1926 has been given in the chapter on GeneralInformation (Chapter-32). The Union Public Service Commission conducted the Civil ServicesExamination, 2008 for recruitment to the following 23 services out of which 18 areGroup ‘A’ Services and the remaining 5 are Group ‘B’ Services.i) The Indian Administrative Service.ii) The Indian Foreign Service.iii) The Indian Police Service.iv) The Indian P&T Accounts and Finance Services. Group ‘A’v) The Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Group ‘A’vi) Indian Revenue Service (Customs & Central Excise) Gr. ‘A’vii) The Indian Defence Accounts Service, Group ‘A’viii) The Indian Revenue Service, (I.T.) Group ‘A’ix) The Indian Ordnance Factories Service, Group ‘A’ (Asstt. Works Manager-Non- technical)x) The Indian Postal Service. Group ‘A’xi) The Indian Civil Accounts Service, Group ‘A’xii) The Indian Railway Traffic Service, Group ‘A’xiii) The Indian Railway Accounts Service, Group ‘A’xiv) The Indian Railway Personnel Service, Group ‘A’xv) Post of Assistant Security Officer, Group ‘A’ in Railway Protection Force.xvi) The Indian Defence Estates Service, Group ‘A’
44 India 2011xvii) The Indian Information Service, Junior Grade Group ‘A’xviii) The Indian Corporate Law Service, Group ‘A’xix) The Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service, Group ‘B’ ((Section Officer’s Grade)xx) The Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service, Group ‘B’.xxi) The Delhi, Andamand and Nicobar Islands, Laskhadweep Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Police Service, Group ‘B’xxii) Pondicherry, Civil Service, Group ‘B’xxiii) Pondicherry, Police Service, Group ‘B’. On the basis of the results declared in the year 2009 of the Civil ServicesExamination, 2008, the following number of candidates were allocated to the IAS, IFSand IPS, Central Services Group ‘A’ and Central Services Group ‘B’.Service General OBC SC ST TotalIAS 59 33 17 10 119IFS 13 8 4 1 26IPS 65 35 19 9 128Central Civil 215 120 70 34 439Services (Group’A’)Central Civil 3 3 1 1 8Services (Group’B’)Total 355 199 111 55 720CIVIL SERVICES REFORMSSecond ARC in its 10th Report in November, 2008 on the subject “Refurbishing ofPersonnel Administration” has given various recommendations on Civil ServicesReforms. The recommendations include (i) Stage of entry into Civil services (ii) Age ofentry and number of attempts (iii) Structure of Civil Services Examination (iv) Othermodes of induction into Civil Services i.e., induction of officers of State Civil Servicesinto IAS to be made by UPSC on the basis of common examination and (v) Allotmentof cadres to All India Services. The various recommendations given by ARC have been considered by a CoreGroup on Administrative Reforms headed by Cabinet Secretary. Thereafter, decisionwould be taken at an appropriate level for implementing the acceptedrecommendations.INTER-CADRE DEPUTATIONInter-cadre deputation is permissible to All India Service officers on completion oftheir nine years of service and before attaining promotion to super-time scale in his/her own home cadre. Such deputation is considered in view of the personal difficultiesof the officers concerned and is permissible for a maximum period of 5 years in theentire service career of the officers and the period at a time thereof normally do notexceed three years.
The Polity 45INTER-CADRE TRANSFERInter-cadre transfer is normally permissible to an All India Service officer on theground of his/her marriage to another officer of the All India Services. The couple isnormally transferred to one of the two cadres on which they are borne except homeState of the officer whose cadre is changed. In the case of refusal by both the cadres thematter is formally taken up a second time with both the cadres. In case of continuedrefusal by both the cadres to accept the officers concerned, possibilities are exploredfor transfer of the officers to a third cadre being deficit one subject to concurrence ofthe State Government concerned. Other grounds for cadre transfer of All India serviceofficers is ‘extreme hardship’ which includes (a) threat to the life of the officer or hisimmediate family and (b) severe health problems to the officer or his immediate due tothe climate or environment of the state to which he is allotted. In the case of ladyofficers borne on North eastern cadres marries officer borne on another cadre the ladyofficer is mandatorily transferred to her spouse’s cadre the lady officer is mandatorilytransferred to her spouse’s cadre if she so request except her home cadre. All IndiaService officers belonging to North Eastern cadre may be allowed transfer of cadre toany other cadre in the North East in relaxation of the existing conditions subject toavailability of deficit in the insider quota.RESERVATION IN SERVICESReservation in services under the Government of India is available to the ScheduledCastes (SCs.) the Scheduled Tribes (ST’s), the Other Backward Classes (OBCs), thePersons with Disabilities and the Exservicemen, The quantum of reservation for SCs,STs and OBCs in direct recruitment on all-India basis by open competition is 15 percent, 7.5 per cent and 27 per cent respectively. In direct recruitment on all-India basisotherwise than by open competition, it is available at the rate of 16.66 per cent for SCs,7.5 per cent for STs and 25.84 per cent for OBCs. In case of direct recruitment to GroupC and D posts normally attracting candidates from a locality or a region, percentageof reservation for SCs and STs is generally fixed in proportion to their population inthe respective States/UTs and for OBCs it is fixed keeping in view the proportion oftheir population in the concerned State/UT and the fact that total reservation forSCs/STs/OBCs remains within the limit of 50 per cent and reservation for OBCsremains within the limit of 27 per cent. The SCs and STs get reservation in promotionin all grades at the rate of 15 per cent and 7.5 per cent respectively when promotionsare made by non-selection. In case of promotion by selection, reservation to SCs andSTs is available at the same rates upto the lowest rung of Group A. There is noreservation in case of promotion by selection within group ‘A’ but in case of promotionby selection from Group’A’ post to another Group’A’ post carrying a pay-scale,maximum of which is Rs. 18,300/- or less (in the pre-revised scale of pay), the SC andST candidates who are within the number of vacancies are included in the select litprovided they are not found unfit to hold the post. Three percent of vacancies in identified posts in direct recruitment are keptreserved for persons with disabilities in all Groups of posts. Reservation to personswith disabilities is also provided in case of promotion to Group ‘C’ and ‘D’ posts.Reservation is distributed equally amongst three categories of disabilities namely,blindness or low vision, hearing impairment, locomotor disability or cerebral palsy. Ten percent of the vacancies in the posts of the level of Assistant Commandantin para-military forces, ten percent of the vacancies in Group C posts and twentypercent of the vacancies in Group D posts are reserved for the ex-servicemen.
46 India 2011 Reservation for ex-servicemen and physically handicapped persons is termedas “horizontal” reservation and reservation for SCs, STs and OBCs is termed as“vertical” reservation. Guidelines exist explaining how the “horizontal” reservationis to be adjusted against the “vertical” reservation. Articles 341 and 342 of the Constitution define as to who would be the SCs andthe STs with respect to any State or Union Territory. A lit of OBCs has been preparedby the Government. the inter-state area restrictions have been imposed so that thepeople belonging to the specific community residing in a specific are which has beenassessed to qualify for SC, ST or OBC status only benefit from the facilities providedfor them. Definition of ‘ex-servicemen’ for the purpose of getting reservation in servicesis contained in the Ex-servicemen (Re-employment in Civil Services and Posts) Rules,1979 and conditions for reservation to persons with disabilities are derived from thePersons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and FullParticipation) Act, 1995. To ensure that served vacancies are filled by the candidates belonging toappropriate category, certain relaxations and concessions like relaxation in upperage-limit etc. are provided to the candidates belonging to the reserved categories.Liaison officers have been appointed for Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Classesand Persons with Disabilities in each Ministry/Department to ensure properimplementation of reservation policy for them. There is a general ban on de-reservation of vacancies reserved for SCs, STs andOBCs in the matter of direct recruitment. If some vacancies reserved for them couldnot be filled in a recruitment year, these are kept vacant and are treated as backlogreserved vacancies. The Government has been conducting Special Recruitment Drivesto fill up such backlong vacancies, from time to time. The Government has launcheda Special Recruitment Drive in November, 2008 to full up the backlog reservedvacancies of SCs and STs in both direct recruitment and promotion quota and forOBCs in direct recruitment. Similarly, the Government has launched a Special Recruitment Drive to fill upthe backlog reserved vacancies of Persons with Disabilities in November, 2009. The progress of both the drives is being monitored at Joint Secretary Level ineach Ministry/Department. The scheme of reservation is being followed by Public Sector Undertakingsincluding Nationalized Public Sector Banks. This scheme has also been extended tothe Autonomous Bodies, Statutory and Semi-Government Bodies and such VoluntaryAgencies which receive grant of Rs. 2 lakhs and above from the Consolidated Fund ofIndia, employ more than 20 persons on a regular basis and at least 50 per cent of itsrecurring expenditure is met from grants-in-aid from Central Government. StateGovernments have also provided for reservation of posts for SCs, STs, OBCs, etc. andhave taken steps to increase their representation in State services. Reservationin State Government services, however, is under the exclusive jurisdiction of respectiveState Governments. Number of SCs, STs and OBCs in services was initially very small. Theirrepresentation, particularly of SCs and STs has increased substantially as a result ofreservation. The representation of OBCs in the services is low for the reasons thatreservation for OBCs has started only in 1993. The representation of SCs, STs, OBCs,
The Polity 47in the Central Government services as on 1 January, 2008 is given in the followingtable:Group Total SCs % STs % OBCs % EmployeesA 91881 11446 12.5 4419 4.8 5031 5.5B 137272 20481 14.9 7900 5.8 5420 3.9C 1810141 284925 15.7 127074 7.0 145819 8.1D 696891 134907 19.4 48133 6.9 34528 5.0(ExcludingSweeprs)Sweepers 75901 39014 51.4 4576 6.0 2430 3.2Total(Excluding 2736185 451759 16.51 187526 6.85 190798 6.97Sweepers)Total 2812086 490773 17.45 192102 6.83 193228 6.87(IncludingSweepers)It does not include information in respect of six Ministries/ Departments.STAFF SELECTION COMMISSIONStaff Selection Commission (SSC) with Headquarters at New Delhi initially knownas Subordinate Service Commission was set up on 1st July, 1978. It has been entrustedwith the work of making recruitment to (i) all non-Gazetted Group ‘B’ posts in thevarious Ministries/Departments of the Government and their attached andsubordinate offices and (ii) all non-technical Group ‘C’ posts in the variousMinistries/Departments of the Government and their attached and subordinateoffices, except those posts which are specifically exempted from the purview of theStaff Selection Commission. The Commission is an attached office of the Departmentof Personnel and Training and comprises a Chairman, two Members and Secretary-cum-Controller of Examinations. The Commission has Regional offices at New Delhi,Allahabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Chennai and Bangalore and Sub-Regionaloffices at Raipur and Chandigarh.CENTRAL SECRETARIAT SERVICESThe Central Secretariat has three services, namely (i) Central Secretariat Service (CSS),(ii) Central Secretariat Stenographer’s Service (CSSS) and (iii) the Central SecretariatClerical Service CSCS). The Central Secretariat Service Division in the Department ofPersonnel and Training is the cadre controlling authority in respect of these services.The CSS includes posts from Assistant Grade (Group B Non-Gazetted). SectionOfficer’s Grade (Group B Gazetted). Under Secretary, Grade-I (Group A Gazetted),Deputy Secretary-Selection Grade (Group A Gazetted) and Director-Senior SelectionGrade (Group A Gazetted). In addition to the above, some officers of the CSS are alsoplaced in the Senior Administrative Grade and Higher Administrative Grade throughthe Central Staffing Scheme. The first three grades viz. Director, Deputy Secretary andUnder Secretary are centrally administered by the CS Division. The remaining gradesi.e. Section Officers and assistants are partially decentralized into 38 sub-cadresfunctioning for the purpose. Day to day cadre management of these two cadres is
48 India 2011done by the respective cadre units. After the restructuring of the CSS in October, 2003,it was decided by the Government to administer the grades of Section Officer andAssistant on a centralized basis. All policy matters, fixation of seniority as well asSelect Lists, etc are also dealt with centrally by this Department. The Government had set up a Cadre Restructuring Committee on 16 June, 2008(i) to assess the magnitude of stagnation in various grades of CSS, (ii) to review thestructure of the CSS, and (iii) to suggest remedial measures-both short term and longterm. The Committee has since submitted its report in November, 2008. The reportwas later on considered by the Committee of Secretaries on 9 February, 2010. Basedon the recommendations of the Committee of Secretaries a draft cabinet note in themater is being finalised.ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS AND PUBLIC GRIEVANCESDepartment of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG) is the nodalagency of the Government for administrative reforms as well as redressal of publicgrievances relating to the States in general and grievances pertaining to CentralGovernment agencies in particular. The Department disseminates information onimportant activities of the Government relating to administrative reforms, bestpractices and public grievance redressal through publications and documentation.The Department also undertakes activities in the field of international exchange andcooperation to promote public service reforms. The mission of the Department is to foster excellence in governce and pursuit ofadministrative reforms through improvements in government structures, promotingcitizen centric governance with emphasis on grievance redressal, innovations ine-governance and documentation and dissemination of best practices. A briefdescription of the current activities are given below :ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS(i) Annual Conference of the Chief Secretaries of State governments / UTs - To institutionalize the process of interaction with State governments / UT administrations on issues that relate to individual States / UTs as well as issues of common concern, the first conference was organized on February 1-2, 2010. In the conference issues of science and technology and global issues impacting the government were also discusses.(ii) The Civil Services Day - To rededicate and recommit ourselves to the cause of the people, April 21 has been declared as Civil Services Day and is being celebrated every year since 2006. The Fifth Civil Services Day was organized by the Department on April 21, 2010 at Vigyan Bhavan.(iii) The Conference of Secretaries of Administrative Reforms in State/UTs is held annually to share the experiences in the area of government reforms.(iv) Regional Conferences on Administrative Reforms are held every year to disseminate and share best practices.(v) Administrative Reforms Commission The Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) was constituted on31.8.2005, as a Commission of Inquiry, under the Chairmanship of Shri VeerappaMoily for preparing detailed blueprint for revamping the public administrativesystem. The Commission was requested to suggest measures to achieve a proactive,
The Polity 49responsive, accountable, sustainable and efficient administration for the country atall levels of the Government. It has presented 15 reports to the Government forconsideration. The Government constituted a Group of Ministers (GoM) on 30 March, 2007 toconsider the recommendations of the second ARC and to review the pace ofimplementation of the recommendations as well as to provide guidance to theconcerned Ministries/Departments in implementing the decisions. It has since beenreconstituted on 21.08.2009. Core Group on Administrative Reforms under theChairmanship of Cabinet Secretary has finished examination of all the 15 reports. This Group of Ministers has so far considered eleven reports, namely (i) Rightto Information; Master Key to Good Governance (First report), (ii) Unlocking humancapital; Entitlements and Governance - a Case Study relating to NREGA (SecondReport), (iii) Crisis Management; From Despair to Hope (Third report), (iv) Ethics inGovernance (Fourth Report), (v) Local Governance (Sixth Report), (vi) CapacityBuilding for Conflict Resolution (Seventh Report) (vii) Citizen Centric Administration- The Heart of Governance (Twelfth Report ) (viii) Social Capital -A Shared Destiny(Nineth Report) and (ix) Organisational Structure of Government of India (ThirteenthReport) (x) Promoting e-Governance - The Smart Way Forward (Eleventh Report) and(xi) State and District Administration (Fifteenth Report). The decisions of GoM onthese reports are at various stages of implementation. The report on “CombatingTerrorism (Eighth Report)” has been handled by the Ministry of Home Affairs. Thus,in all 12 Reports have been considered, so far. Remaining 3 Reports i.e. Public Order-Justice for each; Refurbishing of Personnel Administration - Scaling New Heightsand Strengthening Financial Management System are also shortly being put up forconsideration of GoM. Out of total 1215 recommendations in the above eleven reports, 978recommendations have been accepted, 191 not accepted, 5 deferred and 18 referred toother fora. Action has been taken on 435 recommendations and action on543 recommendations is under implementation. Action on 23 recommendations isbeing taken by Ministry of Home Affairs.PUBLIC GRIEVANCESThe Department has developed a SEVOTTAM framework for bench marking servicedelivery standards by the Government of India Ministries/Departments. The mainobjective of the project is to set standards in consultation with user group and includethese standards in the Citizen’s Charter. The framework is aimed at bringing aboutexcellence in service delivery in Government of India organizations and is to beimplemented in all Central Ministries / Departments. The Sevottam framework wasstudied by the Second Administrative Reforms Commission which was of the viewthat this model is a step in right direction. The Commission also recommended thatthe Union and State Governments should make the ‘Seven Step Model’ recommendedby it as mandatory for all organizations having public interface. The Department has also developed and implemented a web-based Centralizedpublic Grievances Redress and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS). Initiated in June2007, the System was established in June 2008. The System covers all Ministries /Departments of Government of India. Through it, a citizen may lodge a grievancefrom any internet facility across the country or the world. Ministries /Departments
50 India 2011that actually redress the grievances can access the grievances and take action. Thecitizens also have a facility to view the progress of their grievance and send remindersdirectly to the Ministry concerned. A unique registration number is generated throughwhich citizen can track the status of his/her grievance.e-GOVERNANCEUnder e-Governance, the Department is implementing e-Office, one of the MissionMode Projects (MMP) under National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) of Government ofIndia. The e-Office aims at significantly improving the operational efficiency of CentralGovernment Ministries and Department through improvement in workflowmechanisms and associated office procedure manual. e-Office, as an e-Governanceinitiative, would be crucial in pushing GPR (Government) which eventually impactsquality of services delivered to the citizens. The Department also organizes an annual Conference on e-Governance incollaboration with one of the State governments. The Conference offers a usefulmechanism to improve cooperation amongst different levels of Government-local,state or national and across programmes - whether mission mode projects or nationalflagship programmes as well as vertical and horizontal co-ordination between publicbodies as well as external agencies for interaction amongst all stakeholders involved.This year the 13th National Conference on e-Governance based on the theme“e-Governance from Citizens perspective” was held in Jaipur on 18-19 February,2010.INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGEThe Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances also works as thenodal point in respect of matters relating to international cooperation in the field ofcivil service, personnel management and public administration concerning theMinistry of Personnel, PG and Pensions as a whole, which includes organizingprogrammes and visits of the foreign delegations in India and visit of Indian delegationabroad as part of project/bilateral measures taken up in accordance with theMemorandum of understandings MOUs/ Agreements signed between India andother countries (bilateral or multilateral), viz., China, Malayasia, Brazil and SouthAfrica and in respect of the cooperation with other international organizations ofwhich the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions is an institutionalmember. A Plan Scheme on “International Cooperation”, in the field of AdministrativeReforms, as a component of the “Pilot Projects on AR” was started in 2007-08 as anappropriate measure to meet the expenses in execution of the programme of actionunder thee MOU signed with participating countries and international organisations. At present, there are four countries, with whom MOUs have been signed; China,Malaysia (bilateral) South Africa (bilateral as well as trilateral; ie., IBSA) and Brazil(under IBSA). This involves exchange of visits and undertaking programmes / projectsand activities under the existing MoUs. The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions (DepartmentAdministrative Reforms and Public Grievances) is an institutional member of theInternational Institute of Administrative Sciences (IIAS) since 1998. The membershipenables the Government of India in getting information on the latest development inthe field of public administration through participation in international meetings
The Polity 51and seminars organized by the IIAS as well as through various journals, documentsand study reports prepared/issued by them. The Ministry became an institutional member of CAPAM in 1997. themembership enables the Government of India to keep pace with the latest developmentsin the field of public administration, through participation in various programmesof CAPAM viz; International Innovations Awards Programmes, InternationalInnovations Cascading Programme, international meetings, seminars andconferences organized by CAPAM, as well as through various publications, journalsand study reports issued by CAPAM. India has been participating in the CAPAM Biennial International InnovationsAward Programme since its conception and has won gold medals in 1998, 2000,2002 & 2004 and silver medals in the year 2002, 2004 and 2006, In the 6th CAPAMAwards Programme held at Barbados, 3 projects out of 27 projects submitted by GOI,were selected among the top ten finalists, out of over 150 submissions received byCAPAM from various Commonwealth countries. Recognizing the emergence and consolidation of India-Brazil-South Africa(IBSA) Forum-(IBSA) initiatives and collaboration at regional and global level forpromoting good governance and wishing to strengthen. South-South cooperation,the three countries acknowledge that joint efforts and collaboration will positionthem as active players in helping to direct the Public Administration and Governancetowards democratic values and social inclusion. The Prime Minister of India, thePresident of Brazil and the President of South Africa met in Brasilia (Brazil) onSeptember 13, 2006 for the 1st Summit meeting of the India-Brazil-South Africadialogue forum. Also desiring to promote trilateral exchange of cooperation in thefield of Public Administration and Governance between the three countries inaccordance with their respective national legislation on the basis of equality andmutual benefit, India, Brazil and South Africa agreed to enter into an MOU. Pursuantto the IBSA Summit decision as contained in the Joint Declaration issued on theeoccasion, an IBSA Working Group on Public Administration (WGPA) has been setup. It has since held five meetings and adopted the area of coopertion as (i) Integratedmonitoring and evaluation, (ii) e-governance. (iii) Human Resource Development,(iv) Citizen oriented service delivery, (v) Anti-corruption and ethics and(vi) Accountability and Transparency. The IBSA WGPA meeting was held on 4-5 May, 2009 in New Delhi to formulateand adopt an IBSA Work-Plan 2009, based on the Concept Papers prepared onthe identified areas/ Projects agreed in the last meeting. Based on the decisionstaken in the meeting, the deliverables proposed to Ministry of External Affairs,for consideration of IBSA Focal Points meeting/Trilateral Commission meeting are(i) e-governance, (ii) Public Administration, (iii) Virtual Centra of Excellence in PublicAdministration and (iv) Seminar on “Capacity Building for Effective Service Delivery". A Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in the field of civil service,personnel management and Public Administration between Government of India,represented by the Ministry of Personnel, Public Service Department, was signed inMay, 2001. To facilitate implementation of the MoU across various spheres of interestidentified for exchange and cooperation, a Joint Working Group on Civil Service(JWGCS), which is an inter-governmental machinery of India and Malaysia, hasbeen constituted. The next meeting of India Malaysia JWGCS is expected to take placein Kuala Lumpur in 2010.
52 India 2011 A Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation in the field of Civil Services,Personnel Management and Public administration was entered into in 1992 betweenthe Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions of the Government ofIndia and the Ministry of Personnel of the People’s Republic of China (PRC). TheMinistry of Personnel of the People’s Republic of China, the nodal agency forimplementation of the MoU, has been restructured following its merger with theMinistry of Labour and Social Security, leading to formation of a new Ministry knownas the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security. As a result, a fresh MoU inthe field of Civil Services, Personnel Management and Public administration isrequired to be signed between the two countries, as per the regulations of the ChineseState of Council (Cabinet).DOCUMENTATION AND DISSEMINATIONThe Department has the mandate to identify, incubate, document and disseminatethe best practices. To achieve its mandate the Department has granted financialassistance for professional documentation of 39 good governance’s initiatives of16 different States/UTs. Three series of Regional Conferences on Fostering GoodGovernance and Improving Public Service Delivery were organized. Eleven suchconferences were held in different States of the country during the financial year of2006-07, 2007-08 and 2009-10. Twenty eight documentary films on the best practiceshave been produced to promote these practices. This Department is engaged in organizing lecture series / presentations etc, ofbest practices across the country. These are immensely useful for the administratorsand the dissemination of success storie would facilitate replication of the sameelsewhere also. The Department has published a series of books on the subject. Theseare - Ideas that have Worked. Learn from Them, Splendour in the Grass, RooflessTowers, Management by Listening and In Search of Light. Under the World Bank Project ‘Capacity Building for Poverty Reduction’, theDepartment had taken up an initiative to design and develop a web based repositoryof good governance initiatives and best practices. The GKC encompasses web basedDigital Repository as also a support team comprising domain experts, resourcepersons, analysts along with technical professionals who continuously ensuredynamic updation of Knowledge Resources and Case Studies relevant to theprofile of users visiting the repository. GKC Portal can be assessed onwww.indiagovernance.gov.in. The Department has initiated a project ‘Modeling Best Practices’ under DFIDassisted programme on Capacity Building for Poverty Reduction. The objective of theproject is (i) to identify, incubate document, analyze and customize the best practicesfor actual implementation in other States and (ii) proactively replicate select bestpractices on pilot basis in the willing states by developing states by developing aModel. Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu India Private Ltd. was selected to perform this job.Three Models have been prepared and are ready for replication namely, Jan SevaKendra (Gujarat). Activity Based Learning (Tamil Nadu) and Radical Improvementin Delhi Education (NCT Delhi). The Department also brings out two regular publications namely ‘Managementin Government’ A Quarterly Journal and Civil Services News - A monthly newsletter.The focus of journal is on application of management techniques to practicalsituations of public administration as well as on conceptualization of principles of
The Polity 53good management based upon experience of live situations. The main objective ofnewsletteris to act as an effective medium for transmission of information to civilservants on the latest developments taking place at the Centre with regard to personnelmanagement, pensions, administrative reforms and public grievances and othermatters of interest to the civil servants.RIGHT TO INFORMATIONThe Right to Information Act, 2005 has been enacted with a view to empower thecitizens, promote transparency and accountability in the working of the Government,contain corruption, and make the democracy work for people in real sense. The Actaims at creating an informed citizenry which would be better equipped to keepnecessary vigil on the instruments of governance and make the government moreaccountable to the governed. The Act gives all the citizens the right to seek information held by any authorityor body or institution of self government established or constituted by or under theConstitution; or by any other law made by the Parliament or a State Legislature; or bynotification issued or order made by the Central Government or a State Government.Bodies owned, controlled or substantially financed by the Central Government or aState Government and non-Government organisations substantially financed by theCentral Government or a State Government also fall within the definition of publicauthority. The financing of the body or the NGO by the Government may be direct orindirect. The right includes inspection or work, documents and records; taking notes,extracts or certified copies of documents or records; Taking certified samples of materialheld by the public authority or held under the control of the public authority. It alsoincludes information relating to any private body which can be accessed by thepublic authority under any law for the time being in force. There are some categoriesof information which each public authority is required to publish suo moto. The Acthas created a practical regime through which the citizens of the country may haveaccess to information under the control of public authorities referred to above. The procedure for seeking information under the Act is very simple. Whoeverwants any information from any office of the Government has to simply make arequest to the Public Information Officer of the office. The request has to merely indicatethe information sought and the address at which the information is required. Therequest can be sent either by post or submitted in person. It can be made in Hindi orEnglish or in the official language of the area and can also be sent through e-mail. Ifthe applicant does not get the information within 30 days or the applicant is notsatisfied with the reply given to him, he can make an appeal within 30 days to theappellate authority appointed by the authority who is an officer superior to the PublicInformation Officer. The appellate authority has to decide the appeal within 30 daysof the receipt of appeal. If the applicant is not satisfied even with the decision of theappellate authority, he can file a second appeal with the Central InformationCommission or the State Information Commission, as the case may be within 90 days.The Central Information Commission entertains appeals in respect of offices, financialinstitutions, public sector undertakings, etc. under the Central Government and theUnion Territories and a State Information Commission deals with the appealspertaining to offices, financial institutions, public sector undertakings, etc. under theconcerned State Government.
54 India 2011 The Central Information Commission/State Information Commissions arehigh-powered independent bodies created by the Act. These Commissions haveauthority to impose penalty on the defaulting Public Information Officers. The law is very comprehensive and covers almost all levels of governance andhas the widest possible reach. It is applicable not only to Union, State and LocalGovernments but also to the recipients of government grants. Access to informationunder this Act is extensive with minimum exemptions. The Right to Information Act has converted the prevailing culture of secrecyinto culture of openness and transparency in the working of the Government. It willgo a long way in strengthening our democratic institutions, empowering the public,removing corruption and greater involvement of citizens in the development of thenation.OFFICIAL LANGUAGE - CONSTITUTIONAL/STATUTORY PROVISIONSArticle 343 (1) of the Constitution provides that Hindi in Devanagari script shall bethe Official Language of the Union, Article 343 (2) also provided for continuing theuse of English in official work of the Union for a period of 15 years (i.e., up to25 January 1965) from the date of commencement of the Constitution, Article 343 (3)empowered the parliament to provide by law for continued use of English for officialpurposes even after 25 January 1965. Accordingly, section 3 (2) of the Official LanguageAct, 1963 (amended in 1967) provides for continuing the use of English in officialwork even after 25 January 1965. The Act also lays down that both Hindi and Englishshall compulsorily be used for certain specified purpose such as Resolutions, GeneralOrders, Rules, Notifications, Administrative and other Reports, Press Communiques;Administrative and other Reports and Official Papers to be laid before a House or theHouses of Parliament; Contracts, Agreements, Licences, Permits, Tender Notices andforms of Tender, etc. In 1976, Official Language Rules were framed under the provisions of section 8(1) of the Official Languages Act, 1963. Its salient features are as under:i. They apply to all Central Government Offices, including any office of a Commission, Committee or Tribunal appointed by the Central Government and Corporation or Company owned or controlled by it;ii. Communications from a Central Government Office to State/Union Territories or to any person in Region “A” comprising the States of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, Jharkahnd, Rajasthan, Haryana and UTs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Delhi, shall be in Hindi;iii) Communications from a Central Government Office to States/UTs in Region ‘B’ comprising the State of Punjab, Gujarat, Maharahstra and the Union Territory of Chandigarh, shall ordinarily be in Hindi. However, communication to any person in Region “B” may be either in English or Hindi.iv. Communications from a Central Government Office to a State Government Office in region ‘C’ comprising all other States and UTs not included in region ‘A’ & ‘B’ or to any office (note being a Central Government Office) or persons shall be in English;v. Communications between Central Government Offices and from Central Government Offices to the Offices of the State Government/Union Territories
The Polity 55 and individuals, etc, will be in Hindi in such proportions as may be determined form time to time;vi. All Manuals, Codes and other Procedural literature relating to Central Government Offices are required to be prepared both in Hindi and English, All Forms, Headings of Registers, name Plates, Notice Boards and various items of stationery, etc., are also required to be in Hindi and English;vii. It shall be the responsibility of the officer signing the documents specified in section 3 (3) of the Act to ensure that these are issued both in Hindi and English.viii. Shall be the responsibility of the administrative head of each Central Government Office to ensure that the provisions of the Act, the Rules and directions issued under Sub-Rule-2 are properly complied with and to devise suitable and effective check points for this purposes.POLICYIn compliance with the Official Language Resolution, 1968, an Annual Programmeis prepared by the Department of Official Language in which targets are set for theoffices of the Central Government with regard to originating correspondence,telegrams, telex, etc., in Hindi. A Quarterly Progress Report is called for from theoffices of the Central Government regarding achievements vis-a-vis the said targets.An Annual Assessment Report is prepared on the basis of the Quarterly ProgressReports, which is laid on the Tables of both Houses of the Parliament and copiesendorsed to State Government and the Ministries/Departments of the CentralGovernment. Eight Regional Implementation Offices have been established at Bangalore,Cochin, Mumbai, Kolkata, Guwahati, Bhopal, Delhi and Ghaziabad to monitor theimplementation of Official Language Policy of the Union.COMMITTEES/SAMITISA Committee of Parliament on Official Language was constituted in 1976 undersection 4 of the Official Languages Act, 1963 to periodically review the progress inthe use of Hindi as the Official Language of the Union and to submit a report to thePresident. The Committee consists of 20 Members of the Lok Sabha and 10 of theRajya Sabha. The Committee have decided to submit its report in parts. It has so farsubmitted to the President eight parts of its report. The Presidential Orders on theparts of its report have been issued and work is in progress on the eighth part. The Kendriya Hindi Samiti was constituted in the year 1967. It is charied by thePrime Minister. It is the apex policy making body which lays done the guidelines forthe propagation and progressive use of Hindi as Official Language of the UnionUnder the directions of the Kendriya Hindi Samiti, Hindi Salahakar Samitis havebeen constituted in 57 Ministries/departments under the chairmanship of theMinisters concerned. These Samitis periodically review the progress in the use ofHindi in their respective Ministries/ Departments and the offices/ Undertakingsand suggest measures to promote the use of Hindi. Besides, the Central Official Language Implementation committee (Headed bySecretary, Department as ex-office members) reviews the status of use of Hindi forofficial purposes of the Union, training of its employees in Hindi and implementationof instructions issued from time to time by the Department of Official Language andsuggests measure for removing the shortcomings and difficulties noticed inimplementing these instructions.
56 India 2011 Town Official Languages Implementation Committees are constituted indifferent towns having ten or more Central Government offices etc. to review theprogress made in the use of Hindi in their member offices and exchange experiences.So far 268 Out of this, 26 are in nationalised banks, 12 in Public Sector undertakingand remaining in the officers of the Central Government. Town Official LanguageImplementation Committees have been constituted all over the country.AWARD SCHEMESThe Indira Gandhi Rajbhasha Awards Schemes has been in operation since 1986-87.Shields are given every year to Ministries/Departments, Banks and FinancialInstitutions, Public Sector Undertaking and Town Official Language ImplementationCommittees for outstanding achievements in the implementation of the officiallanguage Police of the Union. Cash awards are given to the working/retired employeesof the Central Government, Banks, Financial Institutions, Universities, TrainingInstitutions and Autonomous Bodies of the Central Government for writing originalbooks in Hindi. The National Awards Scheme for Original Book writing on Gyan-Vigyan hasbeen renamed as Rajiv Gandhi National Awards Scheme for Original Book Writingin Hindi for promoting writing of books in Hindi on all branches of modern Science/Technology and contemporary subjects. This Scheme is open to all citizens of India. At Regional level, Regional Official Language Awards are given each year tothe Regional/Subordinate Offices, Public Sector Undertakings, Town OfficialLanguage Implementation Committees, Banks and Financial Institutions of theCentral Government for outstanding achievements in implementing the OfficialLanguage Policy of the Union and accelerating the progressive use of Hindi.ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNALAdministrative Tribunals in the country were set up in the Year 1985 under theAdministrative Tribunals Act 1985. The Administrative Tribunals Act owes its originto Article 323-A of the Constitution which empowers Central Government to set-upby an Act of Parliament, Administrative Tribunals for adjudication of disputes andcomplaints with respect to recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointedto the public service and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union and theStates. In pursuance of the provisions contained in the Administrative Tribunals Act,1985 the Administrative Tribunals set up under it, exercise original jurisdiction inrespect of service matters of employees covered by it. The Administrative Tribunals exercise jurisdiction only in relation to the servicematters of the litigants covered by the Act. The procedural simplicity of the Act can beappreciated from the fact that the aggrieved persons can also appear before itpersonally. The Government can present its case through its departmental officers orlegal practitioners. Thus, the objective of the Tribunal is to provide for speedy andinexpensive justice to the litigants. The Act provides for establishment of the Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT)and the State Administrative Tribunals. The CAT was set-up on 1 November, 1985.Today, it has 17 regular benches, 15 of which operate at the principal seats of HighCourts and the remaining two at Jaipur and Lucknow. These Benches also holdcircuit sittings at the other seats of High Courts. Earlier the Tribunal consisted of aChairman, Vice Chairman and Members. With the amendment in Administrative
The Polity 57Tribunal Act, 1985 in 2006 the Members have been given the status of judges of HighCourts. The Members are drawn both from judicial as well as administrative streamsso as to give the Tribunal the benefit of expertise both in legal and administrativespheres. As a result of the judgement dated 18 March, 1997 of the Supreme Court, theappeals against the orders of an Administrative Tribunal shall lie before the DivisionBeach of the concerned High Court.INTER-STATE COUNCILIn a federal polity, in view of large areas of common interest and Shared actionbetween the constituent units, coordination of policies and their implementation isextremely important. Article 263 of the Constitution envisages establishment of aninstitutional mechanism to facilitate coordination of policies and their implementationbetween the Union and the State Governments. In pursuance of the recommendation made by the Sarkaria Commission onCentre-State Relations, the Inter-State Council was set up in the year 1990 through aPresidential Order dated 28 May 1990. The Inter-State Council is a recommendatory body and has been assigned theduties of investigating and discussing such subjects, in which some or all of theStates or the Union and one or more of the States have a common interest, for bettercoordination of policy and action with respect to that subject. It also deliberates uponsuch other matters of general interests to the States as may be referred by the Chairmanto the Council. Prime Minister is the Chairman of the Council. Chief Ministers of all the Statesand Union Territories having Legislative Assemblies, Administrators of UnionTerritories not having Legislative Assemblies, Governors of States under President’srule and six Ministers of Cabinet rank in the Union Council of Ministers, nominatedby the Chairman of the Council, are members of the Council, Five Ministers of Cabinetrank nominated by the Chairman of the Council are permanent invites to the Council.The Inter-State Council has recently been reconstituted. The meetings of the Council are held in camera, and all questions, which comeup for consideration of the Council in a meeting, are decided by consensus, and thedecision of the Chairman as to the consensus is final. The Council has not beenassigned the duty envisaged in clause (a) of Article 263 of the Constitution namely,inquiring into and advising upon disputes, which may have arisen between States. The Standing Committee of the Inter-State Council was first constituted in theyear 1996 for continuous consultation and processing of matters for the considerationof the Council. Hon’ble Home Minister is the Chairman of the Standing Committee,and has five Union Cabinet Ministers and nine Chief ministers as members. TheStanding Committee has since been reconstituted. The Inter-State Council has also considered other public policy and governanceissues; these are:(a) Contract Labour and Contract Appointments;(b) Blue Print of an Action Plan on Good Governance;(c) Disaster Mangement - Preparedness of States to cope with disasters;(d) Atrocities on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Status of Implementation of the Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes (prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989.
58 India 2011 The Inter-State Council is assisted by a secretariat, which is headed by a Secretaryto the Government of India. He is assisted by two Additional Secretaries of theGovernment of India and other officers. The Inter-State Council Secretariat Closelymonitors the implementation of the recommendations made by the Inter-State Council,and places the Action Taken Report before the Standing Committee/Council forconsideration. The Inter-State Council Secretariat had entered into a Framework Agreementwith the Forum of Federations. Canada in the year 2005 for an international partnershipwith the Forum in improving governance and enhancing democracy by promotingdialogue on the practices, principles and possibilities of federalism. This agreementhas been renewed for the next three years-2008 to 2011. In the year 2007, the Council Secretariat had in collaboration with the Forum ofFederations, Canada had organized in New Delhi the Fourth International Conferenceon Federalism. The proceedings of this international conference have been publishedin five volumes, namely ‘Building on and accommodating diversities’. ‘Emergingissues in fiscal federalism’. Interaction in federal systems’. ‘Local government infederal systems’ and ‘Policy issues in federalism’ international perspectives’. The Inter-State Council Secretariat has also provided A Secretarial support tothe Commission on Centre-State Relations, which was constituted in the year 2007under the Chairmanship of Justice (retd.) Madan Mohan Punchhi, former Chief Justiceof Supreme Court of India. The Commission on Centre-State Relations has sincesubmitted its Report to the Union Government. The Inter-State Council Secretariathas been entrusted the task of examining the recommendations made by theCommission in consultation with the stake holders Union and the State Governments. The Inter-State Council Secretariat is also providing secretariat support servicesto the Committee for consultations on the situations in Andhra Pradesh, which hasbeen set up by the Union Government in February, 2010 under the Chairmanship ofShri Justice B.N. Srikrishna, retired Judge of Supreme Court of India, to hold wideranging consultations with all sections of the people and all political parties andgroups in Andhra Pradesh.THE STATESThe system of government in States closely resembles that of the Union.EXECUTIVEGOVERNORState executive consists of Governor and Council of Ministers with Chief Minister asits head. The Governor of a State is appointed by the President for a term of five yearsand holds office during his pleasure. Only Indian citizens above 35 years of age areeligible for appointment to this office. Executive power of the State is vested inGovernor. Council of Ministers with Chief Minister as head, aids and advises Governor inexercise of his functions except in so far as he is by or under the Constitution requiredto exercise his functions or any of them in his discretion. In respect of Nagaland,Governor has special responsibility under Article 371 A of the Constitution withrespect to law and order and even though it is necessary for him to consult Council ofMinisters in matters relating to law and order, he can exercise his individualjudgement as to the action to be taken.
The Polity 59 Similarly, in respect of Arunachal Pradesh, Governor has special responsibilityunder Article 371H of the Constitution with respect to law and order and in dischargeof his functions in relation thereto. Governor shall, after consulting Council ofMinisters, exercise his individual judgement as to the action to be taken. These are,however, temporary provisions if President, on receipt of a report from Governor orotherwise is satisfied that it is no longer necessary for Governor to have specialresponsibility with respect to law and order, he may so direct by an order. Likewise, in the Sixth Schedule which applies to tribal areas of Assam,Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram as specified in para 20 of that Schedule,discretionary powers are given to Governor in matters relating to sharing of royaltiesbetween district council and state government. Sixth Schedule vests additionaldiscretionary powers in Governors of Mizoram and Tripura in almost all theirfunctions (except approving regulations for levy of taxes and money lending by non-tribals by district councils) since December 1998. In Sikkim, Governor has been givenspecial responsibility for peace and social and economic advancement of differentsections of population. All Governors while discharging such constitutional functions as appointmentof Chief Minister of a State or sending a report to President about failure ofconstitutional machinery in a State or in respect of matters relating to assent to a Billpassed by legislature, exercise their own judgement.COUNCIL OF MINISTERSThe Chief Minister is appointed by the Governor who also appoints other ministerson the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsibleto legislative assembly of the State.LEGISLATUREFor every state, there is a legislature which consists of Governor and one House or,two Houses as the case may be. In Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtraand Uttar Pradesh, there are two Houses known as legislative council and legislativeassembly. In the remaining states, there is only one House known as legislativeassembly. Parliament may, by law, provide for abolition of an existing legislativecouncil or for creation of one where it does not exist, if proposal is supported by aresolution of the legislative assembly concerned.LEGISLATIVE COUNCILLegislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) of a state comprises not more than one-third oftotal number of members in legislative assembly of the state and in no case less than40 members (Legislative Council of Jammu and Kashmir has 36 members vide Section50 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir). About one-third of members of thecouncil are elected by members of legislative assembly from amongst persons whoare not its members, one-third by electorates consisting of members of municipalities,district boards and other local authorities in the state, one-twelfth by electorateconsisting of persons who have been, for at least three years, engaged in teaching ineducational institutions within the state not lower in standard than secondary schooland a further one-twelfth by registered graduates of more than three years standing.Remaining members are nominated by Governor from among those who havedistinguished themselves in literature, science, art, cooperative movement and socialservice. Legislative councils are not subject to dissolution but one-third of theirmembers retire every second year.
60 India 2011LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLYLegislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) of a state consists of not more than 500 and notless than 60 members (Legislative Assembly of Sikkim has 32 members vide Article371F of the Constitution) chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies inthe state. Demarcation of territorial constituencies is to be done in such a manner thatthe ratio between population of each constituency and number of seats allotted to it,as far as practicable, is the same throughout the state. Term of an assembly is fiveyears unless it is dissolved earlier.POWERS AND FUNCTIONSState legislature has exclusive powers over subjects enumerated in List II of the SeventhSchedule of the Constitution and concurrent powers over those enumerated in ListIII. Financial powers of legislature include authorisation of all expenditure, taxationand borrowing by the state government. Legislative assembly alone has power tooriginate money bills. Legislative council can make only recommendations in respectof changes it considers necessary within a period of fourteen days of the receipt ofmoney bills from Assembly. Assembly can accept or reject these recommendations.RESERVATION OF BILLSThe Governor of a state may reserve any Bill for the consideration of the President.Bills relating to subjects like compulsory acquisition of property, measures affectingpowers and position of High Courts and imposition of taxes on storage, distributionand sale of water or electricity in inter-state river or river valley development projectsshould necessarily be so reserved. No Bills seeking to impose restrictions on inter-state trade can be introduced in a state legislature without previous sanction of thePresident.CONTROL OVER EXECUTIVEState legislatures, apart from exercising the usual power of financial control, use allnormal parliamentary devices like questions, discussions, debates, adjournmentsand no-confidence motions and resolutions to keep a watch over day-to-day work ofthe executive. They also have their committees on estimates and public accounts toensure that grants sanctioned by legislature are properly utilised.UNION TERRITORIESUnion Territories are administrated by the President acting to such extent, as hethinks fit, through an Administrator appointed by him. Administrators of Andamanand Nicobar Islands, Delhi and Pondicherry are designated as Lieutenant Governors.The Governor of Punjab is concurrently the Administrator of Chandigarh. TheAdministrator of Dadra and Nagar Haveli is concurrently the Administrator ofDaman and Diu. Lakshadweep has a separate Administrator. The National Capital Territory of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherryeach has a legislative assembly and council of ministers. Legislative assembly ofUnion Territory of Pondicherry may make laws with respect to matters enumeratedin List II or List III in the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution in so far as thesematters are applicable in relation to the Union Territory. The legislative assembly ofNational Capital Territory of Delhi has also these powers with the exceptions thatEntries 1, 2 and 18 of the List II are not within the legislative competence of thelegislative assembly. Certain categories of Bills, however, require the prior approvalof the Central Government for introduction in the legislative assembly. Some Bills,passed by the legislative assembly of the Union Territory of Pondicherry and National
The Polity 61Capital Territory of Delhi are required to be reserved for consideration and assent ofthe President.LOCAL GOVERNMENTMUNICIPALITIESMunicipal bodies have a long history in India. The first such Municipal Corporationwas set-up in the former Presidency Town of Madras in 1688; and was followed bysimilar corporations in the then Bombay and Calcutta in 1726. The Constitution ofIndia has made detailed provisions for ensuring protection of democracy inParliament and in the state legislatures. However, Constitution did not make thelocal self-government in urban areas a clear-cut constitutional obligation. While theDirective Principles of State Policy refer to village Panchayats, there is no specificreference to Municipalities except the implicity in Entry 5 of the State List, whichplaces the subject of local self-governments as a responsibility of the states. In order to provide for a common framework for urban local bodies and help tostrengthen the functioning of the bodies as effective democratic units of self-government, Parliament enacted the Constitution (74th Amendment) Act, 1992 (knownas Nagarpalika Act) relating to municipalities in 1992. The Act received the assent ofthe President on 20 April 1993. The Government of India notified 1 June 1993 as thedate from which the said Act came into force. A new part IX-A relating to theMunicipalities has been incorporated in the Constitution to provide for among otherthings, constitution of three types of Municipalities, i.e., Nagar Panchayats for areas intransition from a rural area to urban area, Municipal Councils for smaller urbanareas and Municipal Corporation for large urban areas, fixed duration ofmunicipalities, appointment of state election commission, appointment of state financecommission and constitution of metropolitan and district planning committees. AllState/UT Administrations have set-up their state election commissions and FinanceCommissions.PANCHAYATSArticle 40 of the Constitution which enshrines one of the Directive Principles of StatePolicy lays down that the State shall take steps to organise village panchayats andendow them with such powers and, authority as may be necessary to enable them tofunction as units of self-government. In the light of the above a new Part IX relating to the Panchayats has beeninserted in the Constitution to provide for among other things, Gram Sabha in a villageor group of villages; constitution of Panchayats at village and other level or levels;direct elections to all seats in Panchayats at the village and intermediate level, if any,and to the offices of Chairpersons of Panchayats at such levels; reservation of seatsfor the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in proportion to their population formembership of Panchayats and office of Chairpersons in Panchayats at each level;reservation of not less than one-third of the seats for women; fixing tenure of fiveyears for Panchayats and holding elections within a period of six months in the eventof supersession of any Panchayat.ELECTION COMMISSIONIndia is a Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic and the largest democracy in theWorld. The modern Indian nation state came into existence on 15th of August 1947.
62 India 2011Since then free and fair elections have been held at regular intervals as per the principlesenshrined in the Constitution, Electoral Laws and System. The Constitution of Indiahas vested in the Election Commission of India the superintendence, direction andcontrol of the entire process for conduct of elections to Parliament and Legislature ofevery State and to the offices of President and Vice-President of India. Election Commission of India is a permanent Constitution Body. The ElectionCommission was established in accordance with the Constitution on 25 January1950. The Commission celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 2001. Originally the commission had only a Chief Election Commissioner. It currentlyconsists of Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. For thefirst time two additional Commissioners were appointed on 16 October 1989 but theyhad a very short tenure till 1 January 1990. Later, on 1 October 1993 two additionalElection Commissioners were appointed. The concept of multi-member Commissionhas been in operation since then, with decision making power by majority vote. The President appoints Chief Election Commissioner and ElectionCommissioners. They have tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years, whicheveris earlier. They enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as available toJudges of the Supreme Court of India. The Chief Election Commissioner can be removedfrom office only through impeachment by Parliament. The Commission transacts its business by holding regular meetings and alsoby circulation of papers. All Election Commissioners have equal say in the decisionmaking of the Commission. The Commission, from time to time, delegates some of itsexecutive functions to its officers in its Secretariat. The Commission has a separateSecretariat at New Delhi, consisting of about 300 officials, in a hierarchical set up.Two or three Deputy Election Commissioners who are the senior most officers in theSecretariat assist the Commission. They are generally appointed from the nationalcivil service of the country and are selected and appointed by the Commission withtenure. Directors, Principal Secretaries, and Secretaries, Under Secretaries and DeputyDirectors support the Deputy Election Commissioners in turn. There is functionaland territorial distribution of work in the Commission. The work is organized inDivisions. Branches and sections; each of the last mentioned units is i charge of aSection Officer. The main functional divisions are Planning, Judicial, Administration,Information Systems, Media and Secretariat Coordination. The territorial work isdistributed among separate units responsible for different Zones into which the 35constituent States and Union Territories of the country are grouped for convenienceof management. At the state level, the election work is supervised, subject to overallsuperintendence, direction and control of the Commission, by the Chief ElectoralOfficer of the State, who is appointed by the Commission from amongst senior civilservants proposed by the concerned state Government. He is, in most of the States, afull time officer and has a small team of supporting staff. At the district and constituency levels, the District Election Officers, ElectoralRegistration Officers and Returning Officers, who are assisted by a large number ofjunior functionaries, perform election work. They all perform their functions relatingto elections in addition to their other responsibilities. During election time, however,they are available to the Commission, more or less, on a full time basis.
The Polity 63 The givnatic task force for conducting a countrywide general election consistsof nearly five million polling personnel and civil police forces. This huge electionmachinery is deemed to be on deputation to the Election Commission and is subjectto its control, superintendence and discipline during the election period, extendingover a period of one and half to two months. In the performance of its functions, Election is insulted from executiveinterference. It is the Commission which decides the election schedules for the conductof elections, whether general elections or bye-elections. Again, it is the Commissionwhich decides on the location polling stations, assignment of voters to the pollingstations, location of counting centres, arrangements to be made in and around pollingstations and counting centres and all allied matters. Under the Constitution, the Commission also has advisory jurisdiction in themater of post election disqualification of sitting members of Parliament and StateLegislatures. Further, the cases of persons found guilty of corrupt practices at electionswhich come before the Supreme Court and High Courts are also referred to theCommission for its opinion on the question as to whether such person shall bedisqualified and, if so, for what period. The opinion of the Commission in all suchmaters is binding on the President or, as the case may be, the Governor to whom suchopinion is tendered. The Commission has the power to disqualify a candidate who has failed tolodge an account of his election expenses within the time and in the manner prescribedby law. The Commission has also the power for removing or reducing the period ofsuch disqualification as also other disqualification under the law. The decisions of the Commission can be challenged in the High Court and theSupreme Court of the India by appropriate Petitions. By long standing conventionand several judicial pronouncements, once the actual process of elections has started,the judiciary does not intervene in the actual conduct of the polls. Once the pollsarecompleted and result declared, the Commission cannot review any result on its own.This can only be reviewed through the process of an election petition, which can befiled before the High Court, in respect of elections to the Parliament and StateLegislatures. In respect of elections for the offices of the president and Vice President,such petitions can only be filed before the Supreme Court. The Commission has taken several new initiatives in the recent past. Notableamong these are, a scheme for use of State owned Electronic Media for broadcast/telecast by Political parties, checking criminalization of policies, computerization ofelectoral rolls, providing electors with Identity Cards, simplifying the procedure formaintenance of accounts and filling of the same by candidates and a variety ofmeasures for strict compliance of Model Code of Conduct, for providing a level playingfield to contestants during the elections. A list of Chief Election Commissioners since1950 is given in chapter General Information.
TABLE 3.1 : LOK SABHA AND ITS SPEAKER(s) FROM TIME TO TIME 64LOK SABHA Date of first Date SPEAKER1 meeting after of its constitution dissolution Name From ToFirst Lok Sabha 13 May 1952 4 April 19572 Ganesh Vasudev Mavalankar 15 May 1952 27 February 19563 M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar 8 March 1956 10 May 1957Second Lok Sabha 10 May 1957 31 March 19624 M. Ananthasayanam Ayyangar 11 May 1957 16 April 1962 5Third Lok Sabha 16 April 1962 3 March 1967 Hukam Singh 17 April 1962 16 March 1967Fourth Lok Sabha 16 March 1967 27 December 19706 Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 17 March 1967 19 July 19697 Gurdial Singh Dhillon 8 August 1969 19 March 1971Fifth Lok Sabha 19 March 1971 18 January 19778 Gurdial Singh Dhillon 22 March 1971 1 December 19759 Bali Ram Bhagat 5 January 1976 25 March 1977Sixth Lok Sabha 25 March 1977 22 August 1979 10 Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 26 March 1977 13 July 197711 K.S. Hegde 21 July 1977 21 January 1980Seventh Lok Sabha 21 January 1980 31 December 198412 Bal Ram Jakhar 22 January 1980 15 January 1985 13Eighth Lok Sabha 15 January 1985 27 November 1989 Bal Ram Jakhar 16 January 1985 18 December 1989Ninth Lok Sabha 18 December 1989 13 March 199114 Rabi Ray 19 December 1989 9 July 1991Tenth Lok Sabha 9 July 1991 10 May 1996 Shivraj V. Patil 10 July 1991 22 May 1996Eleventh Lok Sabha 22 May 1996 4 December 199715 P.A. Sangma 23 May 1996 23 March 1998 (FN) 16Twelfth Lok Sabha 23 March 1998 26 April 1999 G.M.C. Balayogi 24 March 1998 20 October 1999 (FN)Thirteenth Lok Sabha 20 October 1999 6 February 200418 G.M.C. Balayogi 22 October 1999 3 March 200217 Manohar Gajanan Joshi 10 May 2002 2 June 2004Fourteenth Lok Sabha 2 June 2004 18 May 2009 Somnath Chatterjee 4 June 2004 1 June 2009Fifteenth Lok Sabha 1 June 2009 __ Meira Kumar 1st June 2009 till date1 Under Article 94 of the Constitution, in case of dissolution of the Lok Sabha, the Speaker does not vacate his office until immediately before the first meeting of the House after dissolution.2 Dissolved 38 days before expiry of its term. India 2011
The Polity TABLE 3.1 (Contd.)3 Died.4 Dissolved 40 days before expiry of its term.5 Dissolved 44 days before expiry of its term.6 Dissolved one year and 79 days before expiry of its term.7 Resigned.8 Term of the Lok Sabha which was to expire on 18 March 1976 was extended by one year upto 18 March 1977 by the House of the People (Extension of Duration) Act, 1976. It was extended for a further period of one year upto 18 March 1978 by the House of the People (Extension of Duration) Amendment Act, 1976. However, the House was dissolved after having been in existence for a period of five years, 10 months and six days.9 Resigned.10 House was dissolved after having been in existence for a period of two years, four months and 28 days.11 Resigned.12 Dissolved 20 days before expiry of its term.13 Dissolved 48 days before expiry of its term.14 Dissolved after having been in existence for a period of one year, two months and 25 days.15 House was dissolved after having been in existence for a period of one year, six months and 13 days.16 House was dissolved after having been in existence for a period of one year, one month and four days.17 Died.18 Dissolved 253 days before expiry of its term. 65
66 India 20114 AgricultureAGRICULTURE is the mainstay of the Indian economy. Agriculture and allied sectorscontribute nearly 15.7 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), while about 59.70per cent of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Theagricultural output, depends on monsoon as nearly 56 per cent of area sown isdependent on rainfall. Production of foodgrains is estimated at 218.20 million tonnes in 2009-10 (Asper 4th Advance estimates). This is about 16.27 million tonnes lower than the lastyear’. The production of rice is estimated at 89.13 million tonnes, production ofwheat is estimated at 80.71 million tonnes, production of coarse cereals is estimatedat 33.77 million tonnes and production of pulses is estimated at 14.59 million tonnes.The oilseeds production during 2009-10 is estimated at 249.28 lakh tonnes. Thesugarcane production is estimated at 2777.50 lakh tonnes which is about 73 lakhtonnes less than the production during 2008-09. Cotton production is estimated at239.35 lakh bales (of 170 kgs each) which is 16.59 lakh bales more than theproduction during 2008-09. Jute and Mesta production during 2009-10 is estimatedat 112.91 lakh bales (of 180 kgs. each) which is about 9.26 lakh bales higher than theproduction during 2008-09. The total area coverage under foodgrains in 2009-10 has been reported at121.37 million ha. against 122.83 million ha. in 2008-09. The area under rice isestimated at 418.47 lakh ha. which is lower by about 37,000 ha. as compared to2008-09. However, the area coverage under wheat during 2009-10 is estimated at285.21 lakh ha. which is higher by 7.69 lakh ha. than the area covered under wheatduring 2008-09. The total area coverage under coarse cereals during 2009-10 isestimated at 276.44 lakh ha. which is higher by 1.94 lakh ha. than the area during thelast year. The increase in Minimum Support Prices between 2007-08 to 2009-10, amongstcereals, has ranged between 10.0 per cent (wheat) to 47.3 percent (paddy common). Ifthe bonus of Rs. 100 per quintal for paddy for 2007-08 and of ` 50 per quintal for2009-10 is also considered, the increase in case of paddy (Common), comes to34.2 per cent. In case of pulses, the increase has ranged between 10.0 per cent (masoor-Lentil) to 62.4 per cent (Moong).RASHTRIYA KRISHI VIKAS YOJANAPursuant to the resolution adopted by the National Development Council (NDC), toreorient the current agricultural development strategies to meet the needs of the farmers.4 per cent annual growth during the 11th Five Year Plan has been targeted inagricultural sector. For this objective, a new State Plan Scheme of Additional CentralAssistance (ACA) for agriculture and allied sectors, the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana(RKVY) was launched during 2007-08 with an envisaged outlay of ` 25,000 crore forthe 11th Five Year Plan. The broad objective of RKVY is to incentivize the States to increase publicinvestment to achieve 4 per cent growth rate in agriculture and allied sectors duringthe 11th Five Year Plan. The new Scheme requires the States to prepare District andState Agriculture Plans and at least maintain or increase the percentages share of
Agriculture 67expenditure in agriculture and allied sectors in the State Plan. The ACA would bemade available to the States as 100 per cent. Each State will become eligible to receive RKVY allocation, provided the baseline share of agriculture and allied sectors in its total State Plan (excluding RKVYfunds) expenditure is at least maintained and District Agriculture Plans and StateAgriculture Plans have been formulated. The States have been provided flexibilityand autonomy in the process of selection planning, approval and execution ofschemes. Since the RKVY Scheme is a State Plan Scheme being implemented by theState