Submitted by : Arun Nagarajan Production and selected fuel properties of biodiesel from promising non-edible oils Rui Wang, Milford A. Hanna Renewable energy
Biodiesel - Introduction Fossil fuel : non renewable resource – million year. But depleted – faster than regenerated. Biodiesel - Alternative fuel for diesel engines. Made from vegetable oil or animal fat. Meets health effect testing (CAA). Lower emissions, High flash point (>300F), Safer. Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic. Reduces carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and sulfur emissions. 2 (Ma and Hanna, 1999)
Environmental Issues Combustion of fossil fuels - ↑ atmospheric CO2 level. Fossil fuels are a limited resource. Biodiesel’s Closed Carbon Cycle Edited from: http://www.gift-n-garden.com/algae_biodiesel.jpg 3
Reason for study 95% Biodiesel produced from EDIBLE OIL. Leads to imbalance between Food & Energy resource. So overall production cost is HIGH (> fossil fuel). To promote global commercialization. LOW COST, NON-EDIBLE OIL Jatropha curcus, Madhuca indica – best feed stock.
High monounsaturated fatty acid (C16:1; C18:1)
Low polyunsaturated fatty acid (C18:2, C18:3)
Saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0).
Superior character of Non-edible oil Hence Non-edible oil is preferred 4 (Knothe, 2009; Ramos et al., 2009)
About feed stock Feed stock – Euphorbiaceae – significant amount of oil. Euphorbia lathyris L. (EL) - (Potential source of petroleum crop) Sapiumsebiferum L. (SS) - (Potential source of petroleum crop) Jathropha curcas L. (JC) – (Accepted species for biodiesel) 5 Jathropha Curcas Euphorbia lathyris Sapiumsebiferum Reference: Janick and Paul, 2008; All image sources : http://www.kinmatsu.idv.tw/
About crops 6 Ayerbeet al., 1984; Rattiet al.,1995; Guand Liu, 2001; Janick and Paul, 2008)
Drawback 7 Non-edible oil: Cannot directly transesterified – basic catalyst. Reason: High content of fatty acids. (Pinziet al., 2009) Hence two-step catalytic process. Pre-esterification Transesterification This two-step process was already involved in J. curcus production (Pinziet al., 2009).
FAC & FAME contents 8 EL oil & JC oil – Mechanical expression. SS kernel oil – De waxing and crushed to extract oil. (Rajamet al., 2005) Extracted OIL + KOH + Boron tri fluoride Methylated esters Major fatty acid components were identified by GC/MS. Agilent GC6890 with HP-innowax and flame ionization detector is used. Yield of FAME: FAME YEILD(%)=Total weight of FAMET𝑜tal weight of oil X 100% FAME is not Biodiesel unless it meets the relevant standards.
Production & purification 9 Product (Pre treated oil) Methanol KOH-CH3OH Separating column Pretreated oil Oil bath (600RPM), 60.0±0.3˚C, 30min Oil bath (600RPM) 60.0±0.3˚C Cooled & Allowed to settle Bio Diesel Allowed to settle In separating funnel Separating column
Discussion 11 ELO possessed the Highest monounsaturated fatty acid content (82.66 wt.%) Lowest polyunsaturated fatty acid content (6.49 wt.%) Low saturated fatty acid content (8.78 wt.%) High oxidative stability (10.4h) High Cetane number (59.6) Although cetane number (59.6) of ELO biodiesel was lower than palm oil (61) (Rashid et al., 2008) Good cold flow properties
Discussion (Cont…) 12 (a) Effect of catalyst conc. on esterification reaction. In which conc. Was optimized at 0.8, 0.4, 0.4 wt. % for ELO, DSSKO and JCO. (b) The effect of the methanol to oil ratio on esterification reaction. Optimum result for ELO, DSSKO and JCO were achieved within 1hr at 10:1, 8:1, 8:1 respectively. (c) Effect of reaction time on esterification. 15, 30, 45, 60 min were evaluated. In which 45, 30, 30 were optimum for ELO, DSSKO and JCO respectively. (d) The effect of catalyst (KOH) concentration on transesterification. FAME yields of 85.6%, 86.3% and 84.2% were obtained from ELO, DSSKO and JCO.
Conclusion 13 Comparatively low cetane number (55.4), oxidative stability (8h) of JCO biodiesel were considered moderate biodiesel. (Table 2) Alternatively, low cetane number (40.2), oxidative stability (0.8h) were observed in DSSK biodiesel is due to low degree of saturation (7.58%) and high degree of polyunsaturation(72.79%) and it did not satisfy standards. The ELO and JCO biodiesels fits EN 14124 standard. The fuel properties of ELO biodiesel were superior than other fuels. Thus E. lathyris L. is promising species for biodiesel feed stock and potential substitute for J. curcas L.
My view 14 In my view, Competition of edible oil sources as food vs. fuel makes edible oil not an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production. Instead, Waste edible oil should be made the primary source for biodiesel feedstock due to its abundant availability. Fresh edible and non-edible oils can then be used to supplement the shortfall of WEO as feedstock. Recommended source for waste edible oil are: Industrial deep fryers in potato processing plants, snack food factories and fast food restaurants.
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