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    renewable energy renewable energy Presentation Transcript

    • Submitted by : Arun Nagarajan
      Production and selected fuel properties of biodiesel from promising non-edible oils
      Rui Wang, Milford A. Hanna
      Renewable energy
    • Biodiesel - Introduction
      Fossil fuel : non renewable resource – million year.
      But depleted – faster than regenerated.
      Biodiesel - Alternative fuel for diesel engines.
      Made from vegetable oil or animal fat.
      Meets health effect testing (CAA).
      Lower emissions, High flash point (>300F), Safer.
      Biodegradable, Essentially non-toxic.
      Reduces carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and sulfur emissions.
      2
      (Ma and Hanna, 1999)
    • Environmental Issues
      Combustion of fossil fuels - ↑ atmospheric CO2 level.
      Fossil fuels are a limited resource.
      Biodiesel’s Closed Carbon Cycle
      Edited from: http://www.gift-n-garden.com/algae_biodiesel.jpg
      3
    • Reason for study
      95% Biodiesel produced from EDIBLE OIL.
      Leads to imbalance between Food & Energy resource.
      So overall production cost is HIGH (> fossil fuel).
      To promote global commercialization.
      LOW COST, NON-EDIBLE OIL
      Jatropha curcus, Madhuca indica – best feed stock.
      • High monounsaturated fatty acid (C16:1; C18:1)
      • Low polyunsaturated fatty acid (C18:2, C18:3)
      • Saturated fatty acids (C16:0, C18:0).
      Superior character of Non-edible oil
      Hence Non-edible oil is preferred
      4
      (Knothe, 2009; Ramos et al., 2009)
    • About feed stock
      Feed stock – Euphorbiaceae – significant amount of oil.
      Euphorbia lathyris L. (EL) - (Potential source of petroleum crop)
      Sapiumsebiferum L. (SS) - (Potential source of petroleum crop)
      Jathropha curcas L. (JC) – (Accepted species for biodiesel)
      5
      Jathropha Curcas Euphorbia lathyris Sapiumsebiferum
      Reference: Janick and Paul, 2008; All image sources : http://www.kinmatsu.idv.tw/
    • About crops
      6
      Ayerbeet al., 1984; Rattiet al.,1995; Guand Liu, 2001; Janick and Paul, 2008)
    • Drawback
      7
      Non-edible oil:
      Cannot directly transesterified – basic catalyst.
      Reason: High content of fatty acids. (Pinziet al., 2009)
      Hence two-step catalytic process.
      Pre-esterification
      Transesterification
      This two-step process was already involved in J. curcus production (Pinziet al., 2009).
    • FAC & FAME contents
      8
      EL oil & JC oil – Mechanical expression.
      SS kernel oil – De waxing and crushed to extract oil. (Rajamet al., 2005)
      Extracted OIL + KOH + Boron tri fluoride  Methylated esters
      Major fatty acid components were identified by GC/MS.
      Agilent GC6890 with HP-innowax and flame ionization detector is used.
      Yield of FAME:
      FAME YEILD(%)=Total weight of FAMET𝑜tal weight of oil X 100%
      FAME is not Biodiesel unless it meets the relevant standards.
       
    • Production & purification
      9
      Product
      (Pre treated oil)
      Methanol
      KOH-CH3OH
      Separating column
      Pretreated
      oil
      Oil bath
      (600RPM), 60.0±0.3˚C, 30min
      Oil bath
      (600RPM)
      60.0±0.3˚C
      Cooled &
      Allowed to settle
      Bio Diesel
      Allowed to settle
      In separating funnel
      Separating column
    • Results
      10
    • Discussion
      11
      ELO possessed the
      Highest monounsaturated fatty acid content (82.66 wt.%)
      Lowest polyunsaturated fatty acid content (6.49 wt.%)
      Low saturated fatty acid content (8.78 wt.%)
      High oxidative stability (10.4h)
      High Cetane number (59.6)
      Although cetane number (59.6) of ELO biodiesel was lower than palm oil (61) (Rashid et al., 2008)
      Good cold flow properties
    • Discussion (Cont…)
      12
      (a) Effect of catalyst conc. on esterification reaction.
      In which conc. Was optimized at 0.8, 0.4, 0.4 wt. % for ELO, DSSKO and JCO.
      (b) The effect of the methanol to oil ratio on esterification reaction.
      Optimum result for ELO, DSSKO and JCO were achieved within 1hr at 10:1, 8:1, 8:1 respectively.
      (c) Effect of reaction time on esterification.
      15, 30, 45, 60 min were evaluated. In which 45, 30, 30 were optimum for ELO, DSSKO and JCO respectively.
      (d) The effect of catalyst (KOH) concentration on transesterification.
      FAME yields of 85.6%, 86.3% and 84.2% were obtained from ELO, DSSKO and JCO.
    • Conclusion
      13
      Comparatively low cetane number (55.4), oxidative stability (8h) of JCO biodiesel were considered moderate biodiesel. (Table 2)
      Alternatively, low cetane number (40.2), oxidative stability (0.8h) were observed in DSSK biodiesel is due to low degree of saturation (7.58%) and high degree of polyunsaturation(72.79%) and it did not satisfy standards.
      The ELO and JCO biodiesels fits EN 14124 standard.
      The fuel properties of ELO biodiesel were superior than other fuels.
      Thus E. lathyris L. is promising species for biodiesel feed stock and potential substitute for J. curcas L.
    • My view
      14
      In my view, Competition of edible oil sources as food vs. fuel makes edible oil not an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production.
      Instead, Waste edible oil should be made the primary source for biodiesel feedstock due to its abundant availability. Fresh edible and non-edible oils can then be used to supplement the shortfall of WEO as feedstock.
      Recommended source for waste edible oil are:
      Industrial deep fryers in potato processing plants, snack food factories and fast food restaurants.
    • References
      15
      Ma, F.R., Hanna, M.A., 1999. Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresour. Technol. 70, 1–15.
      Knothe, G., 2009. Improving biodiesel fuel properties by modifying fatty ester composition. Energy Environ. Sci.2, 759–766.
      Janick, J., Paul, R.E., 2008. Encyclopedia of Fruits and Nuts. CABI, London.
      Ayerbe, L., Tenorio, J.L., Ventas, P., Funes, E., Mellado, L., 1984. Euphorbia lathyris as an energy crop-part 1. Vegetative matter and seed productivity. Biomass4, 283–293.
      Ratti, N., Sidhu, O.P., Behl, H.M., 1995. Quantification of polyisoprenes from some promising euphorbs. Bioresour. Technol.52, 231–235.
      Gu, Q., Liu, J., 2001. The analysis of correlation between ratio of different parts and their oil contents of Sapiumsebiferumseed and environmental factors. J. Plant Resour. Environ. 14, 14–16.
      Pinzi, S., Garcia, I.L., Lopez-Gimenez, F.J., Luque de Castro, M.D., Dorado, G., Dorado, M.P., 2009. The ideal vegetable oil-based biodiesel composition: a review of social, economical and technical implications.Energ. Fuel 23, 2325–2341.
      Rajam, L., Soban Kumar, D.R., Sundaresan, A., Arumughan, C., 2005. A novel process for physically refining rice bran oil through simultaneous degumming and dewaxing. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.82, 213–220.
      Rashid, U., Anwar, F., Moser, B.R., Knothe, G., 2008. Moringaoleiferaoil: a possible source of biodiesel. Bioresour. Technol.99, 8175–8179.
    • 16
      Thank you