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Family social science theories used in family health care
 

Family social science theories used in family health care

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    Family social science theories used in family health care Family social science theories used in family health care Presentation Transcript

    • FAMILY SOCIAL SCIENCE THEORIESFAMILY SOCIAL SCIENCE THEORIESUSED IN FAMILY HEALTH CAREUSED IN FAMILY HEALTH CAREBYBYARUN.MARUN.M
    • FAMILY SOCIAL SCIENCEFAMILY SOCIAL SCIENCETHEORIESTHEORIESDuvall’s family developmental theoryDuvall’s family developmental theoryVon Bertalanffy’s systems theory .Von Bertalanffy’s systems theory .Friedman’s structural – functionalFriedman’s structural – functionaltheory.theory.Aguilera & Messick’s CrisisAguilera & Messick’s Crisisintervention theory.intervention theory.
    • 1. DUVALL’S FAMILY DEVELOPMENTAL1. DUVALL’S FAMILY DEVELOPMENTALTHEORYTHEORYMajor conceptsMajor conceptsVIII stages of family life cycleVIII stages of family life cycle ::Beginning families (married couple withoutBeginning families (married couple withoutchildren).children).Early child bearing (oldest child is 30 months ofEarly child bearing (oldest child is 30 months ofage).age).Families with preschoolers (oldest 2.5 – 6 yearsFamilies with preschoolers (oldest 2.5 – 6 yearsof age).of age).Families with School children (oldest of 6-13Families with School children (oldest of 6-13year of age).year of age).
    • Families with teenagers (oldest 13 yearsFamilies with teenagers (oldest 13 years– 20 years).– 20 years).Launching centre families (young adult–Launching centre families (young adult–time from first & last child leavingtime from first & last child leavinghome).home).Middle aged families (Residing along toMiddle aged families (Residing along toretirement).retirement).Aging families (Retirement to death ofAging families (Retirement to death ofboth spouses)both spouses)
    • VIII Basic TasksVIII Basic Tasks1.Physical maintenance1.Physical maintenanceClothingClothingSufficient nourishing foodSufficient nourishing foodHealth careHealth care2.Allocation of resources2.Allocation of resourcesFinancesFinancesShelterShelterPersonal timePersonal timeEnergyEnergyRelationshipsRelationships
    • 3.Division of labour3.Division of labourIncomeIncomeManaging household tasksManaging household tasksMaintaining homeMaintaining homeCare for youngCare for youngCare for oldCare for old4.Socialization of family members4.Socialization of family membersThe family assumes responsibility for guidingThe family assumes responsibility for guidingdevelopment of nature and acceptable patterns ofdevelopment of nature and acceptable patterns ofsocially acceptable behaviour in eating, elimination,socially acceptable behaviour in eating, elimination,sleeping, sexuality, aggression and intervention withsleeping, sexuality, aggression and intervention withothers.others.
    • 5.5. Reproduction, recruitment and release ofReproduction, recruitment and release offamily membersfamily membersChild bearing, adoption and rearing childrenChild bearing, adoption and rearing children6.Maintenance of order6.Maintenance of orderOrder is maintained by the communication ofOrder is maintained by the communication ofacceptable behaviour.acceptable behaviour.Types of intensity of interaction, patterns ofTypes of intensity of interaction, patterns ofaffection and sexual expression are sanctioned byaffection and sexual expression are sanctioned byparental behaviour to ensure acceptance in society.parental behaviour to ensure acceptance in society.
    • 7.Placement of members in the larger7.Placement of members in the largersocietysocietyFamily members establish roots in societyFamily members establish roots in societythrough relationships in church, school,through relationships in church, school,political and other organization.political and other organization.This will protect the family members fromThis will protect the family members fromundesirable outside influences.undesirable outside influences.May prohibit membership in objectionableMay prohibit membership in objectionablegroups.groups.
    • 8.Maintenance of motivation and morale8.Maintenance of motivation and morale::Family members reward each other for theirFamily members reward each other for theirachievements and provide for an individualsachievements and provide for an individualsneeds of acceptance, encouragements andneeds of acceptance, encouragements andaffection.affection.The family develops a philosophy of life andThe family develops a philosophy of life andsense of family unity and loyalty, thereby enablingsense of family unity and loyalty, thereby enablingmembers to adopt to both personal and familymembers to adopt to both personal and familycrisescrises..
    • UsesUses1.1. Can be used an excellent guide for assessing,Can be used an excellent guide for assessing,analyzing and planning around basic familyanalyzing and planning around basic familytasks at a specific developmental stage.tasks at a specific developmental stage.2. Applicable for nuclear families with growing2. Applicable for nuclear families with growingchildren and families who are experiencingchildren and families who are experiencinghealth related problems.health related problems.3. The nurse must first determine the family’s3. The nurse must first determine the family’sstage of development then examine the tasksstage of development then examine the tasksthat are appropriate for respective stage.that are appropriate for respective stage.
    • 2 . STRUCTURAL- FUNCTIONAL2 . STRUCTURAL- FUNCTIONALTHEORY BY FRIEDMANTHEORY BY FRIEDMAN ..Major conceptsMajor conceptsA. Structural componentsA. Structural components::It examines the family composition,It examines the family composition,how it is organized and how members relate tohow it is organized and how members relate toone another in terms of their values,one another in terms of their values,communication, network, role system andcommunication, network, role system andpower.power.
    • Value systemsValue systems:: Developed by exposure to and experience withDeveloped by exposure to and experience withinfluential groups and individuals such as parents,influential groups and individuals such as parents,culture, religion and ethnic groups.culture, religion and ethnic groups.Values leads to chosen behaviours, which areValues leads to chosen behaviours, which arereinforced by others and expressed by familyreinforced by others and expressed by familymembers behaviours, how they allocate resourcesmembers behaviours, how they allocate resourcesand where time and energy are invested.and where time and energy are invested.These values are related to health care, education,These values are related to health care, education,independence, productivity and cleanlinessindependence, productivity and cleanliness..
    • Communication patterns:Communication patterns:As family evolve the develop communicationAs family evolve the develop communicationpatterns, ways of relating to each other.patterns, ways of relating to each other.It may be functional or dysfunctionalIt may be functional or dysfunctionalIt involves verbal and nonverbal behavioursIt involves verbal and nonverbal behavioursincluding tone, intent and message.including tone, intent and message.
    • Role structureRole structure::In a family, members adopt varying roles thatIn a family, members adopt varying roles thatmay change over time.may change over time.Role can be formal (or) informal and adopted orRole can be formal (or) informal and adopted orassignedassignedAre there conflicts which between roleAre there conflicts which between roleexpectations of others & roles adopted byexpectations of others & roles adopted bymembers.members.Flexibility of family members in changing rolesFlexibility of family members in changing rolesas neededas needed
    • Power structure;Power structure;It is determined by various influencing factors –It is determined by various influencing factors –social, ethic class, family, communicationsocial, ethic class, family, communicationpattern, interpersonal and financial resources,pattern, interpersonal and financial resources,family coalitions, and implementation tofamily coalitions, and implementation todecision.decision.To identity the family power structure considerTo identity the family power structure considerwho is really incharge of the family & why.who is really incharge of the family & why.Who makes the major decision & rules?Who makes the major decision & rules?
    • Who is consulted about family plans /Who is consulted about family plans /changes.changes.The family power structure may beThe family power structure may beAuthoritarianAuthoritarianDemocraticDemocraticPaternalisticPaternalisticMaternalisticMaternalisticIt may very with the issue of handIt may very with the issue of hand..
    • ..B. Functional componentsB. Functional components::Interactional outcomes resulting from the familyInteractional outcomes resulting from the familyorganizational structure it includesorganizational structure it includesAffective:Affective:The social and emotional development needs ofThe social and emotional development needs offamily members must be recognized and met by familyfamily members must be recognized and met by familymembers.members.Reduce tensionReduce tensionMaintaining moraleMaintaining moraleConveying esteemConveying esteemLove for family membersLove for family members
    • Physical necessities and care:Physical necessities and care:Adult family members Responsible forAdult family members Responsible forprovidingprovidingFoodFoodClothingClothingShelterShelterHealth careHealth careProtection from dangerProtection from danger
    • EconomicEconomicFinancialFinancialSpaceSpaceMaterial goodsMaterial goodsAllocating resources to family membersAllocating resources to family membersReproduction:Reproduction:The adult family members assumeThe adult family members assumeresponsibility for conception andresponsibility for conception andcontraceptioncontraception
    • Socialization and social placementSocialization and social placement The adult family members determine social rolesThe adult family members determine social rolesfor children.for children. Instill family values and expectations.Instill family values and expectations. These things are accomplished by providing andThese things are accomplished by providing andsharing experiences with others in the family,sharing experiences with others in the family,schools, community organizations and religiousschools, community organizations and religiousgroupgroup
    • Family copingFamily coping::For family stability and growth, the membersFor family stability and growth, the membersneed adaptive patterns and problem solvingneed adaptive patterns and problem solvingabilities to respond to demands andabilities to respond to demands andexpectations outside the family that createexpectations outside the family that createchanges within the familychanges within the familyThe structural functional components andThe structural functional components andparts all intimately interrelate and interactparts all intimately interrelate and interacteach component and part is affected by theeach component and part is affected by theothers.others.
    • Conceptual Frame work based on
    • UsesUsesThis theory is used to assess forThis theory is used to assess formodification of structure or function of themodification of structure or function of thefamily.family.It is used to assess the normal and healthIt is used to assess the normal and healthproblems of family memberproblems of family memberFor E.g.:For E.g.:Head of the family met an accident.Head of the family met an accident.Family with handicapped children.Family with handicapped children.Head of the family suffering with paralysisHead of the family suffering with paralysis
    • Situational or Maturational EventsSituational or Maturational EventsBalancing factorsBalancing factorsRealisticRealistic ←← Perception of eventsPerception of events →→UnrealisticUnrealisticAdequateAdequate ←← Situational supportsSituational supports →→ InadequateInadequateEffectiveEffective ←← Coping mechanismCoping mechanism →→ IneffectiveIneffective↓ ↓↓ ↓Equilibrium DisequilibriumEquilibrium Disequilibrium3. AGUILERA AND MESSICK’S3. AGUILERA AND MESSICK’SCRISIS INTERVENTION MODELCRISIS INTERVENTION MODEL
    • Major conceptsMajor concepts::Aguilera and Messick’s consider a stressfulAguilera and Messick’s consider a stressfulevent or change in the individual’s life involving loss orevent or change in the individual’s life involving loss orthreat of loss, which disturbs the individual’sthreat of loss, which disturbs the individual’sequilibrium.equilibrium.Crises are categorized as maturational or situational.Crises are categorized as maturational or situational.Maturational crisesMaturational crises – Are those events that occurs– Are those events that occursroutinely, It include marriage, pregnancy, going awayroutinely, It include marriage, pregnancy, going awayto school and the death of a friend or spouse.to school and the death of a friend or spouse.Situational crisesSituational crises – Are unexpected event such as failing– Are unexpected event such as failingan examination. Losing a job, receiving a promotionan examination. Losing a job, receiving a promotionand sustaining an injury.and sustaining an injury.
    • Aguilera and messick’s also identified threeAguilera and messick’s also identified threebalancing factors and these factors reducebalancing factors and these factors reducethe risk of crises and help the individual tothe risk of crises and help the individual tomaintain equilibrium.maintain equilibrium.The factors are as follows:The factors are as follows:1.Realistic perception of the event1.Realistic perception of the event2.Adequate situational support2.Adequate situational support3.Adequate coping mechanism3.Adequate coping mechanism
    • 1. Realistic perception of the event1. Realistic perception of the eventThe meaning of an individual attaches to an eventThe meaning of an individual attaches to an eventinfluences the perception.influences the perception.Sometimes past experiences evoke feelingsSometimes past experiences evoke feelingsunrelated to the event.unrelated to the event.These feelings may disort the individualsThese feelings may disort the individualsperception and magnify the consequences of theperception and magnify the consequences of theevent.event.When an individual attaches great significance toWhen an individual attaches great significance toan event, a disorted perception is likely to occur.an event, a disorted perception is likely to occur.
    • The individual’s feelings and emotions may create anThe individual’s feelings and emotions may create anunrealistic picture of the present and future, whichunrealistic picture of the present and future, whichhinders effective decision making and may lead tohinders effective decision making and may lead tocrisis.crisis.Those with a realistic perception of the event are ableThose with a realistic perception of the event are ableto view the situation in perspective, which reducesto view the situation in perspective, which reducesthe chance that their emotions will could decisionthe chance that their emotions will could decisionmaking.making.A realistic perception of the event may avert a crisis.A realistic perception of the event may avert a crisis.
    • The individual’s feelings and emotions mayThe individual’s feelings and emotions maycreate unrealistic picture of the present andcreate unrealistic picture of the present andfuture, which hinders effective decision makingfuture, which hinders effective decision makingand may lead to crisis.and may lead to crisis.Those with a realistic perception of the eventThose with a realistic perception of the eventare able to view the situation in perspective,are able to view the situation in perspective,which reduces the chance that their emotionswhich reduces the chance that their emotionswill could decision making.will could decision making.A realistic perception of the event may avert aA realistic perception of the event may avert acrisis.crisis.
    • 2. Adequate situational supports2. Adequate situational supports::When faced with a loss or threat of loss,When faced with a loss or threat of loss,individuals share the meaning of the eventindividuals share the meaning of the eventwith significant others.with significant others.Individuals rely an others to assist them inIndividuals rely an others to assist them intimes of need.times of need.This sharing helps the individuals place theThis sharing helps the individuals place theevent in perspective.event in perspective.
    • Situational supports are considered adequateSituational supports are considered adequatewhen individuals feel they can share thewhen individuals feel they can share theconcern with and receive support fromconcern with and receive support fromsignificant others.significant others.Sometimes an individual cannot share theSometimes an individual cannot share theconcern with others for fear of losing respectconcern with others for fear of losing respector esteem.or esteem.When individuals lack others with whom toWhen individuals lack others with whom toshare the events or concerns, their situationalshare the events or concerns, their situationalsupports are inadequate. This may causesupports are inadequate. This may causedisequilibrium and lead to crisis.disequilibrium and lead to crisis.
    • 3. Adequate coping mechanisms:3. Adequate coping mechanisms:From life experiences, individuals learn a repertoireFrom life experiences, individuals learn a repertoireof coping responses or pattern.of coping responses or pattern.These patterns assist individuals in reduce tension,These patterns assist individuals in reduce tension,adapting to daily stressful events and maintainingadapting to daily stressful events and maintainingequilibrium.equilibrium.Occasionally a stressful event occurs thatOccasionally a stressful event occurs thatoverwhelms the individual.overwhelms the individual.There may be a unfamiliar situation.There may be a unfamiliar situation.When usual coping responses are ineffective,When usual coping responses are ineffective,disequilibrium and crisis may occur.disequilibrium and crisis may occur.Aguilera and messick’s crisis intervention modelAguilera and messick’s crisis intervention modeldescriber, three balancing factors. Each factor mustdescriber, three balancing factors. Each factor mustbe adequately present to maintain equilibrium andbe adequately present to maintain equilibrium andavoid crisis.avoid crisis.
    • UsesUsesThis model is used for individuals or familiesThis model is used for individuals or familiesexperiencing situational or maturational crisesexperiencing situational or maturational crises1. Pregnancy & child bearing strains1. Pregnancy & child bearing strains2. Illness and Family ‘Care’ strains2. Illness and Family ‘Care’ strains3. Marital strains3. Marital strains4. Family legal violations4. Family legal violations5. Intra family strains5. Intra family strains6.Work family transitions and strains6.Work family transitions and strains7. Transitions ‘in’ & ‘out’7. Transitions ‘in’ & ‘out’8. Losses8. Losses
    • 4. VON BERTALANFFY SYSTEM THEORY4. VON BERTALANFFY SYSTEM THEORYMajor conceptsMajor conceptsSystem:System:It consists of a set of interacting components within aIt consists of a set of interacting components within aboundary that filters the type and rate of exchange withboundary that filters the type and rate of exchange withthe environment. It composed of both structural andthe environment. It composed of both structural andfunctional componentsfunctional components..Structural componentStructural component –– refers to the arrangements of therefers to the arrangements of theparts at a given time.parts at a given time.Functional componentFunctional component –– is the process of continuousis the process of continuouschange in the system as matter, energy and informationchange in the system as matter, energy and informationare exchange with the environmentare exchange with the environment..
    • Family systems are greater than differentFamily systems are greater than differentfrom the sum of their parts.from the sum of their parts.There are hierarchies within family systemThere are hierarchies within family systemand between subsystemsand between subsystems(i.e Mother and Child) and the family and(i.e Mother and Child) and the family andcommunity.community.There are boundaries in the family systemThere are boundaries in the family systemand they can be open, closed, or random.and they can be open, closed, or random.Family systems increase in complexity overFamily systems increase in complexity overtime, to allow greater adaptability, tolerancetime, to allow greater adaptability, toleranceto change, and growth by differentiation.to change, and growth by differentiation.
    • Family systems change constantly in responseFamily systems change constantly in responseto stresses and strains from within as well asto stresses and strains from within as well asfrom outside environments.from outside environments.Change in one part of family systems affects theChange in one part of family systems affects thetotal system.total system.Causality is modified by feedback. Therefore,Causality is modified by feedback. Therefore,causality never exists in the real worldcausality never exists in the real world..
    • Family systems are an organized whole, withFamily systems are an organized whole, withindividuals in the family being interdependentindividuals in the family being interdependentand interactive.and interactive.Family systems patters are circular rather thanFamily systems patters are circular rather thanliner, therefore change must be directedliner, therefore change must be directedtoward the cycle.toward the cycle.Family systems have homeostasis features toFamily systems have homeostasis features tomaintain stable patterns, which can bemaintain stable patterns, which can beadaptive or maladaptiveadaptive or maladaptive..
    • Input ThruputprocessOutputFeedbackSuprasystemCONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK BASED ON VONBERTALANFFY SYSTEM THEORY
    • UsesUsesThis theory is used to educate the familiesThis theory is used to educate the familiesrelates to health problemsrelates to health problemsFor example:For example:Prevention of diarrhoeal diseases amongPrevention of diarrhoeal diseases amongchildren.children.Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.Prevention of nutritional anaemia, diabetesPrevention of nutritional anaemia, diabetesand hypertension.and hypertension.It also used to educate the community peopleIt also used to educate the community peopleregarding nutrition, personal hygiene andregarding nutrition, personal hygiene andimmunizationimmunization..
    • This theory encourages nurses to see clientsThis theory encourages nurses to see clientsas participating members of the family.as participating members of the family.Community health nurse use this theory toCommunity health nurse use this theory toassess the effects of illness.assess the effects of illness.It emphasis on the whole rather than onIt emphasis on the whole rather than onindividuals.individuals.