CURRICULUM PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATIONBASED ON THEORIESBYARUN.M
PART I- CURRICULUM PLANNING• 1)INTRODUCTION• Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledgethat is used to support nursing practice.• In professional education nurses will study a range ofinterconnected subjects which can be applied to thepractice setting.• This knowledge may be derived from experientiallearning, from formal sources such as nursing researchand non-nursing sources.• To speak of nursing theory is often difficult. Nursing ismany things to many people.• Most universally agreed upon is that Nursing is ascience involving people, environment and processfueled by a vision of transcendence in the context ofhealthcare.• It is interesting to note that 90% of all Nursing theorieshave been generated in the last 20 years.
2)Need for theory based curriculum• Models of nursing have always been accused of being"out of touch" with the harsh reality of patient care, andcreating yet more unnecessary paperwork for nurses tocomplete.• Lack of confidence among nurses to utilize the theory.• Ambigious openion among nurse educators in selectionof theory and bringing into practice level.• Nursing students are uncertain about the concept clarityin theory based nursing• Many schools encourage students to formulate theoriesof Nursing as part of their curriculum.
3)SOLUTION TO USE THEORIES WITHCONFIDENCE;• THEORIES CAN BE USED IN ALL THEASPECTS ON NURSING EDUCATION,SUCH AS PLANNING, IMPLEMENTIG ANDEVALUATING CURRICULAM
4) Curriculum can be based on the followingfive principles:• i)Theory-based reasoning and analyticalthinking :• Role of teacher- create a learningenvironment/situation and guide the learners tothink towards the concept and solution/decision• Role of student- learn how to think andreasoning, perceive the given situation anddevelop clear concept in their own way.
• 5) ii)Practical relevance becoming aneffective nurse/ leader• Role of teacher: Guide them to assess,plan, implement and evaluate theorybased practice• Role of student: Choose appropriatetheories, and follow evidence basedpractice
• 6) iii) Becoming an effective national/international team member• Developing and utilizing networks to sharetheoretical knowledge.• initiate formulating theory: A carefully plannedand executed theories project under thesupervision of a qualified faculty member isthe culminating requirement.
• 6A) SELECTION AND PLACEMENT OFSTUDENT AND FACULTY BASED ONROY’S ADAPTATION MODEL• PHISIOLOGICAL MODE :Medical fitness
• SELF CONCEPT: Interview techniqueused to assess• The Interest in Teaching/learning Nursingand patient care.• Strength and weakness.
• ROLE FUNCTION: Pre placementorientation to the roles in the institution.Primary role- Teaching faculty/Student– Roles and responsibilities– Orientation to policies, physical infra structure,– Organization chart, Line of authority– Uniform/dress code• Punctuality and discipline etc
• Secondary role- extended role as• -SNA advisor/member;• -NSS officer/ member• -Workshopcoordinator/participant etc• Tertiary role- Member of an professionalorganization/ Editor in a journal,State/National level SNA advisor/ memberetc
• CURRICULUM PLANNING USING THETEACHING- LEARNING THEORIES.• 1)OREM’S SELF CARE THEORY: Facilitate thenew faculty/student to develop confident andindependence from fully dependence. The headof the institution /HOD plays vital role in it. Thisrequires ongoing periodical assessment of theindependent ability and appropriate guidancewhen ever necessary.• Example: NOTES MAKING/ASSIGNMENTWRITTING
• 2)MASLOW’S NEED/MOTIVATION THEORY:Facilitate the faculty/teacher to accept and adaptto new environment as a basic need / security /self actualization. Further the revenue,working/learning environment, promotion,reward and punishment methods acts as a glueto work together for the common purpose.• Example: PASSING THE COURSE WITHSECOND CLASS TO DISTINCTION WITHUNIVERSITY RANK.
• 3)JOHNSON’S BEHAVIOURAL SYSTEM:Facilitate the faculty / student to orient to theimportance of being a member of the institution,their role is restoration of system as a whole,• to work together. Failed in which discrepancy,incompatibility, insufficiency and dominance willarise between systems.• Example: BALANCED AND RESPONSIBLEINDIVIDUAL IN THE CLASS, COLLEGE,HOSTEL, HOSPITAL, FAMILY AND SOCIETY.
• 4)ROCHNSTOCK’S HEALTH BELIEF MODEL:• In nursing education for the topics requiring behavioralchanges or life style modification, HBM can be used. It is• applicable from the beginning to the end of curriculum, inteaching learning activities and staff management.• Example:• THREAT– FEAR OF FAILING IN THE EXAMINATION.• VARIABLES-RELATED TO STUDENT/TEACHING/INSTITUTION ETC• CUE TO ACTION- INDIVIDUAL GUIDANCE TO STUDENT.• -REPEATED TEACHING/TEST• -PEER ADVICE• BARRIERS- RELATED TO STUDENT/TEACHING/INSTITUTION• ETC• DESIARABLE ACTION- LEARN WITH STANDARD AND PASS THEEXAMINATION.
• 5)ROBERT R. CARKHUFF’S HELPING ANDHUMANRELATIONSHIP MODEL• Facilitate therapeutic human relationshipsthrough communicative interaction. Theteacher/student using information, influence,comforting, relational and identity the therapeuticcommunication developed, maintained andterminated.• Example:• Non attending – Attending – Responding –Personalizing -Initiating.
• 6) IMOGENE KING’S CONCEPTUAL SYSTEMAND THEORY OF GOAL ATTAINMENT.• Facilitate mutual involvement of the teacher andlearner, to help learner to decide what he/shewant to achieve, so that self sufficient even forthe life time.• Example: The Ohio state university college ofnursing used this model as a guide forbaccalaureate curriculum since 1970.
• 7)MARTHA ELIZABETH ROGER’S UNITARYHUMAN BEING.• Facilitate the art of imaginative and creative useof knowledge to human service/teaching andlearning.• Emphasizes on meaningful life and meaningful• transition to death.• Example: What is impossible/ wrong today willbe possible /correct in future.
PART II –CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATIONHOW TO TEACH/LEARN THEORY• 7) Learning requirement in Part-I• Step-1: Orientation to concepts,interrelationships.• Step-2: How to learn theory?• Learning requirement in Part -II• Step-1: Present papers on theory• Step-2: Adopt a theory, discuss its utilityin education and practice the theory.
Part I• :i) Foundation knowledge and skills for direct practicewith individuals, families, and groups.• ii) Covers assessment, development of treatment plansbased on theory and assessment information, goal-setting skills, and selection of appropriate interventions.• iii)The course focuses on students developing workingknowledge of broad perspectives (ecological, strengths-based, empowerment) and specific empirically-basedtheoretical models of practice.• iv)Students begin developing expertise in interventionselection, planning, and evaluation of micro systems(e.g. individuals, couples, families and small groups) withprimary focus on individuals and families.
• 9) Part II• Mastery of the application of micro skills learnedin Part I is achieved through practicingassessment, goal setting and interventions usingthe selected theoretical models.• The course focuses on empirically-basedapproaches to direct services intervention,emphasizing various theoretical approaches topractice.• The class also addresses monitoring the impactof interventions; and appropriate evaluationstrategies.
• 10) Student learning goals• i) General method of instruction• The instructor will use a variety of instructionalmethods including short lectures, large andsmall group exercises, discussions, individualactivities. Four groups of students, eachassigned to a particular theory category, willpresent to the class and lead scenario practiceand discussion.
• 11) ii)Recommended preparation• This class is condensed into many sessions.Therefore, students are encouraged to read textChapters before the first class. Success in thiscourse relies heavily upon studentsunderstanding of the concept and micro skillstaught. Students are encouraged to refer back tothat textbook and the accompanying referenceCD. Students who have had prior classes intheory will benefit from re-acquaintingthemselves with those texts.
• 12) iii)Class assignments and grading• Students will work with their assigned group todevelop a presentation and scenario thatdemonstrates a category of theory. Classparticipation will be very important becausestudents will be expected to apply learning fromassigned readings and from the demonstrationto practice application of micro skills typical ofeach theory group. The final exam will be in-class application of theory to practice
13) Evaluation and Feedback SystemsWhat students will learn can be evaluated through4 papers that they will be asked to submit.These papers can be as follows:• Synthesis of what they learned about their personal self (20 %)1. Personality preferences;2. Ineffective behavior patterns;3. Major life events that shaped the present self;4. Direction of personal growth;5. Emotional quotient.
• 14)ii Synthesis of what they learnedabout interpersonal effectiveness(20%);• Elements of effective collaborations;• Factors that block effectivecommunication;• The nature of effective feedback;• Differences in cultural patterns.
• Written Analysis of a Case (WAC) onTHEORY (30%);• Using evaluation guidelines, the care providedbased on theory will be compared andevaluated.•• And• Synthesis of what they learned in the wholecourse about Theory (30%)• Summative evaluation of the course abouttheory
• CONCLUTION:• Emerging from a theory basededucation, provides a challengingframework for nurse educators/learnersto provide nursing care. It requireseducation and willingness to let go thetraditional and an ability to perceiveworld in a new and creative way.