What Is Personality The inner psychological characteristics that determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment. Personality is a useful concept because it permit us to categorize consumers into different groups on the basis of one or even several traits/Qualities. If each person were different in terms of all personality traits, it would be impossible to group consumers into segments, and that would be very difficult to marketers to develop products and promotional campaigns for targeted to particular segments.
The Nature of Personality Personality reflects individual differences: No two individuals are exactly similar. however, many individuals may be similar in terms of a single personality characteristic but not in terms of others. Like some have willing to accept the risk of buying new launch product on the other hand some are afraid to buy a recently introduced products. Personality is dependable and continuing: Marketers cannot change consumers personalities to conform to their products, if they know which personality characteristics influence specific consumer responses, they can just attempt to appeal to the relevant traits inherent in their target group of consumers. Personality can change: Under certain circumstance personalities change. Like an individuals personality may be altered by major life events, such as marriage, the birth of a child, the death of a parent, or a change of job/profession. Personality is changed also as part of a gradual maturing process of body or age.
Theories of Personality Freudian theory Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation Neo-Freudian personality theory Social relationships are essential to the formation and development of personality Trait theory Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits
1. Freudian Theory This theory was built on the basis of unconscious needs or force, especially for sexual and other natural drives, are at the heart of human motivation and personality . Freud constructed his theory on the basis of patients recollections of early childhood experiences, analysis of their dreams, and the specific nature of their mental and physical adjustment problems. Human personality consists of three interacting systems the id, the superego, and the ego. Id Warehouse of ancient needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction(thirst, hunger etc) Superego The superego role is to see that the individual satisfies needs in a socially acceptable fashion or not. Ego It is Individual’s conscious control that balances the unstructured demands of the id and the sociocultural control of the superego.
Freudian Theory and “Product Personality” Consumer researchers using Freud’s personality theory just to see consumer purchases/or consumption situations as a reflection and an extension of the consumers own personality. In other words, they consider the consumers appearance through clothing, jewellary, and so forth –as these items reflect the individuals personality in terms of their paying capacity and requirement of variety of product.
2. Neo-Freudian Personality Theory This theory believed that social relationships are basic to the formation and development of personality. Human beings as wants to achieve various rational goals, which he called style of life. He also place much emphasis on the individuals efforts to overcome feelings of inferiority. According to proposed that individuals be classified into three personality groups:1. Complaint individuals are those who move toward others(they desire to be loved, wanted and appreciated)2. Aggressive individuals are those who move against others (they desire to do extremely well and win high regard)3. Detached individuals are those who move away from others (they desire independence, self- sufficiency, and individualism or freedom from responsibility)
3. Trait Theory Trait theory concerned with the construction of personality tests that allow them to pinpoint individual differences in terms of specific traits. A trait is defined as any unique, comparatively continuing way in which one individual differs from another. Some traits are consumer innovativeness (how interested a person is to new experiences), consumer materialism(the degree of the consumers attachment to mature possessions) and consumer ethnocentrism (the consumers likelihood to accept or reject foreign made products)
Trait Theory Personality traits that have been useful in determine consumer innovators and noninnovators Innovativeness The degree to which Dogmatism consumers are interested to new Social character products, new services, Variety-novelty seeking or new practices
Trait Theory Personality traits that have been useful in determine consumer innovators and noninnovators Innovativeness A personality trait that Dogmatism reflects the degree of Social character strictness a person displays toward the Variety-novelty seeking unfamiliar product and information that is different to his or her own established beliefs
Trait Theory Personality traits that have been useful in determine consumer innovators and noninnovators Innovativeness Ranges on a variety for inner- Dogmatism directedness to other- directedness Social character Inner-directedness Variety-novelty seeking rely on own values when evaluating products Other-directedness look to others when evaluating products
Trait Theory Personality traits that have been useful in determine consumer innovators and noninnovators Measures a consumer’s degree of variety seeking Examples include: Exploratory Purchase Behavior( e.g. switching brands to experience new, Innovativeness different, and possibly better alternatives) Dogmatism Use Innovativeness( e.g. without securing information about a new or different alternative and directly considering the Social character option) Variety-novelty seeking Vicarious Exploration ( e.g. securing information about a new or different alternative and then consider the option)
Cognitive Personality Factors Need for cognition (NC) Consumer who are high in NC are more likely to be responsive to the part of an ad that is rich in product-related information or explanation; consumers who are relatively low in NC are more likely to be attracted to the background or peripheral aspects of an ad, such as an attractive model or well known celebrity. Visualizers versus verbalizers Consumers who preference visual information and products that stress the visual graphics and images. Verbalizers prefer visual information written or verbal information
Consumer Ethnocentrism Consumer who are highly ethnocentric are likely to feel that it is inappropriate or wrong to purchase foreign-made products because of the resulting economic impact on the domestic economy, whereas Nonethnocentric consumers tend to evaluate foreign-made products- it seems that more objectively-for their extrinsic characteristics (e.g. how good are they?)
This ad isdesigned to appeal to consumer ethno- centrism.
Brand Personality Personality-like traits associated with brands Examples Nike and athlete BMW is performance driven Levi’s 501 jeans are reliable and rough Brand personality which is strong and favorable will strengthen a brand but not necessarily demand a best price
A Brand Personality FrameworkThat framework reflects, extensive consumer research designed to pinpoint thestructure and nature of a brands personality. The framework suggests that thereare five defining dimensions of a brands personality and 15 facets of personalitythat flow from the five dimensions. If we review these brand personalitydimensions and facets, it appears that this framework ends to hold the brandpersonalities follow by many consumer product.
Marketersoften use a untruelocation to help withpersonality.
The Personality-like Associations of Colors • America’s favored color • IBM holds the title to blue • Associated with club soda • Men seek products packaged in blueBLUE Commands • Houses painted blue are avoided respect, authority • Low-calorie, skim milk care, newness, • Eyes register it faster • Coffee in yellow can perceived as “weak” temporary, heatYELLOW • Stops traffic • Sells a house Secure, natural, • Good work environment • Associated with vegetables and chewing gum relaxed or easy- • Canada Dry ginger sales increased when itGREEN going, living changed sugar-free package from red to green things and white
Human, exciting, • Makes food “smell” better hot, passionate, • Coffee in a red can perceived as “rich” RED strong • Women have a preference for bluish red • Men have a preference for yellowish red • Coca-Cola “owns” red Powerful, •Draws attention quicklyORANGE affordable, informal Informal and •Coffee in a dark-brown can was “tooBROWN relaxed, masculine, strong” nature •Men seek products packaged in brown •Suggests reduced calories Goodness, purity, chastity, •Pure and wholesome foodWHITE cleanliness, •Clean, bath products, feminine delicacy, refinement, Sophistication, •Powerful clothingBLACK formality power, authority, •High-tech electronics mysterySILVER, Regal, wealthy, •Suggests premium price Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall GOLD stately
Self and Self-Image A self-images, or perceptions of self, are very closely associated with personality in that individuals tend to buy products and services and support retailers whose images or personalities relate in some meaningful way to their own self- images. In real meaning, consumers seek to represent themselves in their brand choices-they have a tendency to approach products with images that could enhance their self concept and avoid those products that do not.
The Marketing ConceptIssues Related toSelf and Self-Image One or multiple A single consumer will act selves differently in different Makeup of the self- situations or with different image people We have a variety of social Extended self roles Altering the self- Marketers can target image products to a particular “self”
The Marketing Concept Issues Related toSelf and Self-Image One or multiple selves Contains traits, skills, habits, possessions, relationships and Makeup of the self way of behavior -image Developed through background, Extended self experience,and interaction with Altering the self- others image Consumers select products matching with this image
Different Self-Images Actual Self- Ideal Self-Image ImageIdeal Social Social Self-ImageSelf-Image Expected Self-Image
The Marketing Concept Issues Related toSelf and Self-Image One or multiple Possessions can extend self selves in a number of ways: Actually Makeup of the self- Symbolically image Conferring status or rank Extended self Bestowing feelings of immortality Altering the self- Endowing with magical image powers
The Marketing Concept Issues Related toSelf and Self-Image One or multiple Consumers use self- selves altering products to Makeup of the self- express individualism by Creating new self image Maintaining the existing Extended self self Altering the self Extending the self Conforming -image