Papua New Guinea - Bougainville Conflict

1,310 views
963 views

Published on

The Bougainville Civil War or the Bougainville Conflict was an armed conflict fought between Papua New Guinea and the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA), who were fighting for independence. The war has been described as the largest conflict in Oceania since the end of World War II. Approximately 15,000 to 20,000 Bougainvilleans were killed in the war.

Published in: Education, Business, Travel
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,310
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Papua New Guinea - Bougainville Conflict

  1. 1. Papua New Guinea - Bougainville Conflict By Arundathie Abeysinghe Lecturer in English International Aviation Academy SriLankan Airlines Arundathie Abeysinghe 1
  2. 2. Introduction   Bougainville Civil War, also known as the Bougainville Conflict - an armed conflict fought between Papua New Guinea and the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA), who were fighting for independence Largest conflict in Oceania since the end of World War II Arundathie Abeysinghe 2
  3. 3. Background    Bougainville Copper Limited (BCL) , a multinational company started operations in the world’s largest open – cut copper mine in Bougainville Influx of workers from PNG alienated and marginalized natives of Bougainville Revenue of mine was distributed between PNG and BCL Arundathie Abeysinghe 3
  4. 4. Background…. Disappointed land owners attacked employees of the mine and sabotaged operations  A civil war broke out in 1988  The conflict passed stages of escalation and resulted in the most disastrous civil war, the world has ever experienced  Arundathie Abeysinghe 4
  5. 5. Background…. International community including United Nations (UN) and the New Zealand government intervened to solve the conflict  Through a series of negotiations natives of Bougainville the Bougainville Peace Agreement was signed in 2001  Autonomous Government (Bougainville) was established within PNG in 2005  Arundathie Abeysinghe 5
  6. 6. Conflict Analysis Tool – C.R.SIPABIO          C – Contextual factors R – Relationship factors S – Sources I – Issues P – Parties A –Attitudes B –Behaviour I – Interventions O- Outcome Arundathie Abeysinghe 6
  7. 7. Contextual • An island in the eastern part of PNG • 200 km long and 40 km wide • Surrounded by Buka and many small islands • Population of the group around 150,000 -160,000 Arundathie Abeysinghe 7
  8. 8. Politics • Politically separated since 1800s through an agreement between UK and Germany • After World War I became part of the League of Nations mandated territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia • In 1946, the UN appointed trusteeship of PNG including Bougainville to Australia Arundathie Abeysinghe 8
  9. 9. Politics…. • PNG chartered a legislative council in 1949 and a House of Assembly in 1964 • From 1950 – 1960 PNG agitated for independence • PNG gained independence in 1975 • Bougainville refused to be a part of PNG Arundathie Abeysinghe 9
  10. 10. Politics…. • Presence of the mine created a dual economy financially (from employment, consumption) and traditional sector (mostly islanders’ earnings) • Panguna mine was the second largest source of income for the new government of PNG after foreign aid Arundathie Abeysinghe 10
  11. 11. Socio cultural • Women – custodians of the land (Matriarchal Society) • Mineral rights were with the state • Historical, cultural and trading links to the Solomon Islands Arundathie Abeysinghe 11
  12. 12. Economic • Semi commercial system after World War II • Prime agricultural lands taken over by European interests and used to produce export crops, mainly copra (dried coconut) • Discovery of huge copper and gold deposits in 1960 Arundathie Abeysinghe 12
  13. 13. Relationship Factors Power – Power of extended families – Power of women – Wealth, infrastructure development and job opportunities enabled BCL to expand its power Arundathie Abeysinghe 13
  14. 14. Patterns • Sabotage of operations of BCL by Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) • Violent reactions by Papua New Guinea Defense Forces (PNGDF) Arundathie Abeysinghe 14
  15. 15. Patterns…. • Emergence of a pro-independent group – Bougainville Resistance Force (BRF) • Absence of key figures such as Francis Ona (Leader of the BRA) for important occasions • Lethargic attitude of law enforcement authorities Arundathie Abeysinghe 15
  16. 16. Bonds – Copper mine - cause for BCL to get attracted to Bougainville – Strong attachment of natives of Bougainville to the island and each other Arundathie Abeysinghe 16
  17. 17. Sources Inequality in participation and distribution of economic activities  Impact of mining, plantations and other related activities on the natural environment, (impact on wildlife, ancestral land and sacred places)  Social effects of economic development (arrival & settlement of outsiders on native land)  Arundathie Abeysinghe 17
  18. 18. Attitudes Respect towards women by the society  Demanding fair and justifiable compensation for the damage caused by the BCL  Reluctance of the armed forces to accept the outcome of withdrawing prematurely  Strong belief of the BRA that they could win the war  Arundathie Abeysinghe 18
  19. 19. Behaviour Women used status in the family to negotiate peace in their communities  Used influences to maintain constructive dialogues  Collapse of every agreement in the early period - followed by escalation of violence  Arundathie Abeysinghe 19
  20. 20. Behaviour....    Genuine and honest efforts of PNG government to prevent the conflict were undermined by its own law-enforcement body BRA forced withdrawal of the police and soldiers from the area PNG Government withdrew public servants, all bank offices, services, communication links, resulting in collapse of all government authorities Arundathie Abeysinghe 20
  21. 21. Interventions   New Zealand Intervention – Endeavour Accord – Burnham Declaration – Burnham Truce – Lincoln Agreement United Nations – UN Observer Mission Arundathie Abeysinghe 21
  22. 22. Interventions....   Australian Intervention – Peace Monitoring Groups • Multinational Un-armed Truce Monitoring Group (New Zealand, Australia, Vanuatu and Fiji) United Nations – UN Observer Mission Arundathie Abeysinghe 22
  23. 23. Outcomes          2nd March 1990 - The Bougainville Ceasefire Initiative 5th August 1990 – The Endeavour Accord 5th October – Kavien Agreement 23rd January 1991 – Honiara Declaration August 1994 – Tambe Accord October 1994 – North Nasioi Agreement 25th November 1994 – Mirigini Charter 18th May 1995 – Waigini Communique October 1997 – The Burnham Truce Arundathie Abeysinghe 23
  24. 24. Outcomes....       24th November 1997 – Cairns Commitment on Implementation rd 23 January 1998 – Lincoln Agreement th 30 April 1998 – The Lincoln Agreement annex – Agreement covering Implementation of the Ceasefire April / May 1999 – The Matakana and Okataina Understanding 29th June 1999 – The joint Bougainville Negotiating Position 10th July 1999 – Hutjena Minute Arundathie Abeysinghe 24
  25. 25. Arundathie Abeysinghe 25
  26. 26. • Thank you! Arundathie Abeysinghe 26

×