Punctuation rules
Apostrophes and dashes
By Arundathie Abeysinghe
Lecturer in English
International Aviation Academy
SriLa...
Rule 1
Use apostrophes with contractions
e.g. isn’t, don’t
 They’re coming.
To show plural possession, make the noun p...
Rule 3
Use apostrophes to show possession
e.g. a girl’s hat
 Ms. Wetzel’s car
Use apostrophes for nouns ending in ‘s’ ...
Rule 4
Use an apostrophe and ‘s’ after the second name if two
people possess the same item
e.g. Aditya and Monica’s clas...
Rule 5
Use apostrophes for compound nouns to show possession
e.g. My sister-in-law’s office
If the compound noun is plu...
Rule 6
Never use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns
e.g. his, hers, its, theirs, ours, yours
Why ???
They already...
Dashes
Rule 1
To indicate sudden changes in tone or thought or to
insert a comment
e.g. Monica is happy-we all are-abou...
Rule 2
Separate words in the middle of a sentence
e.g. Tom Samuel—the chairman’s most trusted
financial advisor—will res...
Rule 3
To emphasize explanatory material
e.g. “The writer is by nature a dreamer-a conscious
dreamer.”-Carson McCullers
...
Rule 4
To indicate omitted letters or words
e.g. Oh, sh -, I forgot to send the mail
Arundathie Abeysinghe 10
Rule 5
To connect a beginning phrase to the rest of the
sentence
e.g. Michigan, USA; Sydney, Australia; Zurich,
Switzerl...
Thank you!
Arundathie Abeysinghe 12
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Apostrophes and Dashes

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Apostrophes are used to replace dropped letters in contractions and to show possession. Dashes are used sometimes instead of commas and to emphasize what follows.

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Apostrophes and Dashes

  1. 1. Punctuation rules Apostrophes and dashes By Arundathie Abeysinghe Lecturer in English International Aviation Academy SriLankan Airlines 1 Arundathie Abeysinghe
  2. 2. Rule 1 Use apostrophes with contractions e.g. isn’t, don’t  They’re coming. To show plural possession, make the noun plural first. Then use an apostrophe. e.g. two children's hats  two men’s ties 2Arundathie Abeysinghe
  3. 3. Rule 3 Use apostrophes to show possession e.g. a girl’s hat  Ms. Wetzel’s car Use apostrophes for nouns ending in ‘s’ after the ‘s’ e.g. Mr. Straus’s car 3Arundathie Abeysinghe
  4. 4. Rule 4 Use an apostrophe and ‘s’ after the second name if two people possess the same item e.g. Aditya and Monica’s class will start next week. Use an apostrophe where the noun that should follow is implied. This was his daughter’s, not his house. 4Arundathie Abeysinghe
  5. 5. Rule 5 Use apostrophes for compound nouns to show possession e.g. My sister-in-law’s office If the compound noun is plural, form the plural first and then use the apostrophe. e.g. My three sister-in-law's houses 5Arundathie Abeysinghe
  6. 6. Rule 6 Never use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns e.g. his, hers, its, theirs, ours, yours Why ??? They already show possession  They do not require an apostrophe An apostrophe is used for ’it's’ when it is a contraction for it is or it has 6Arundathie Abeysinghe
  7. 7. Dashes Rule 1 To indicate sudden changes in tone or thought or to insert a comment e.g. Monica is happy-we all are-about your good results. Arundathie Abeysinghe 7
  8. 8. Rule 2 Separate words in the middle of a sentence e.g. Tom Samuel—the chairman’s most trusted financial advisor—will resign today after the press briefing. Arundathie Abeysinghe 8
  9. 9. Rule 3 To emphasize explanatory material e.g. “The writer is by nature a dreamer-a conscious dreamer.”-Carson McCullers Arundathie Abeysinghe 9
  10. 10. Rule 4 To indicate omitted letters or words e.g. Oh, sh -, I forgot to send the mail Arundathie Abeysinghe 10
  11. 11. Rule 5 To connect a beginning phrase to the rest of the sentence e.g. Michigan, USA; Sydney, Australia; Zurich, Switzerland – these are ideal places to live. Arundathie Abeysinghe 11
  12. 12. Thank you! Arundathie Abeysinghe 12
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