Laboratory  Safety, Biomedical Waste & Its Management
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Laboratory Safety, Biomedical Waste & Its Management

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Nowadays "Safety" takes up a major role in all the Laboratories, let it be safety equipment or safety measures. This powerpoint gives you a rough idea of the various hazards that may occur in a ...

Nowadays "Safety" takes up a major role in all the Laboratories, let it be safety equipment or safety measures. This powerpoint gives you a rough idea of the various hazards that may occur in a laboratory and the steps to be taken to prevent them. Also a small note is given on the Biomedical Waste and its management.

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Laboratory  Safety, Biomedical Waste & Its Management Laboratory Safety, Biomedical Waste & Its Management Presentation Transcript

  • By Dr.Arun Babu.N.B. II yr MD (Biochemistry) V.M.K.V. Medical College, Salem.
  •  OSHA – Occupational Safety & Health Administration  CDC – Centers for Disease Control & prevention put forward numerous safety standards applicable to clinical laboratories. Key Elements For safety in Clinical Lab: • Formal safety programme • Documented policies & effective use of mandated plans in chemical hygiene, exposure to blood borne pathogens, etc. • Identification of significant occupational hazards (biological, chemical, fire & electrical hazards) and how to deal with each of them. • Recognition of other relevant safety areas of concern (effective waste manangement, etc.)
  • Safety Programme. i. Safety officer / Chair of safety committee ii. 1 Chemical Hygiene officer iii. General Laboratory safety manual – to be given to all new employees. iv. Continuing education program for laboratories – should include periodic talks on safety. v. Ensure that laboratory environment meets accepted safety standards.
  • Safety Equipment. o Clothing (lab coats/gowns) o Gloves o Eye protection o Eye/Face washers o Heat-resistant (non-asbestos) gloves – To handle hot glassware & dry ice. o Safety goggles/glasses/visors. o Tongs – To handle hot beakers o Polyethylene pumps – To pump acids from large bottles o Spill kits (For acids, caustic materials & flammable solvents)
  • Laboratory Hazards. 1. Biological 2. Chemical 3. Electrical 4. Fire
  • UN Classification of hazardous materials dealt in Clinical Laboratories – 9 classes. 1. Explosives 2. Compressed gases 3. Flammable liquids 4. Flammable solids 5. Oxidizer materials 6. Toxic materials 7. Radioactive materials 8. Corrosive materials 9. Miscellaneous materials (not classified elsewhere)
  • Biological Hazards & Steps for prevention. ♠ Never perform mouth pipetting ♠ Do not mix potentially infectious material by bubbling air through the liquid ♠ Barrier protection (gloves, masks, gowns, protective eye wear) ♠ Frequent hand washing ♠ Keep the hands away from mouth, nose, eyes & mucous membrane – to avoid self-inoculation. ♠ Decontaminate all surfaces & reusable devices after use. ♠ All patient specimens to be treated as potentially hazardous. ♠ Try to prevent accidental injuries. ♠ Dispose off all sharps appropriately. ♠ Hepatitis B vaccine to be taken by all employees at risk of accidental exposure.
  • Chemical Hazards & Steps for prevention. ♠ Handle bottles of chemicals & solutions carefully ♠ Glass containers with chemicals – To be transported in rubber/plastic containers that protects them from breakage & will contain the spill in case , it happens. ♠ Appropriate spill kits ♠ Hold the bottle firmly around its body (Not by the neck) either with 1 hand or both depending on the size of the bottle ♠ Acids, caustic materials & strong oxidizing agents – to be mixed in the sink (provides water for cooling & confinement of reagent in case the bottle breaks) ♠ Never pour water into a concentrated acid. Acid should be poured slowly into water. ♠ Label the bottles properly. ♠ Labels to be color coded
  • Electrical Hazards & Steps for prevention. ♠ Worn out wires should be replaced ♠ All electric equipments to be grounded with 3 prong plugs. ♠ Use of extension cords – to be minimised. ♠ Electrical equipments & connections – Not to be handled with wet hands. ♠ No electrical equipment to be used after liquid has been spilled over it. ♠ Lay electrical cords where no one can trip on them or get caught in them. ♠ Never poke anything into electrical outlets ♠ Unplug cords by pulling the plug and not the cord. ♠ Unplug all electrical equipment at the end of the lab period.
  • Fire Hazards & Steps for prevention. ♠ Fire extinguisher to be provided near every laboratory door. ♠ Flammable substances – (a) Use minimum quantity, (b) store in special storage cabinet, (c) Use temperature controlled heating sources (like water bath rather than hot-plate or bunsen burner.)
  • ♠ When lighting a burner, wait until a match is struck or the striker is in place before you turn on the gas. ♠ The amount of air can be adjusted by the air supply valve below the tube of the burner. This regulates the flame temperature and color. ♠ Never leave a burner or hotplate unattended. ♠ Always point the top ends of test tubes that are being heated heated, away from people. ♠ When heating a test tube, move it around slowly over the flame to distribute the heat evenly.
  • General Tidiness. ♠ Keep your workplace tidy ♠ Clear up waste, deal with washing up and put things away as you finish with them ♠ Make sure everything is safe before you leave things unattended ♠ Avoid spillage. ♠ After handling chemicals, always wash your hands with soap and water. ♠ During lab work, keep your hands away from your face. ♠ Tie back long hair. ♠ Roll up loose sleeves. ♠ Keep the work area uncluttered. Take to the lab station only what is necessary. ♠ Refrain loose clothing and jewelery.
  • ♠ Wear glasses rather than contact lenses. ♠ Clean up the laboratory area at the end of the day’s work. ♠ Pour down a glass stirring rod to prevent liquids from splattering. ♠ Do not place hot glassware in water. Rapid cooling may make it shatter. ♠ Never taste any chemicals ♠ If you need to smell the odor of a chemical, waft the fumes toward your nose with one hand. Do not put your nose over the container and inhale the fumes. ♠ Wash your hands after handling chemicals.
  • Glassware Safety. ♠ Pour down a glass stirring rod to prevent liquids from splattering. ♠ Do not place hot glassware in water. Rapid cooling may make it shatter.
  • Let the waste of the “sick” not contaminate the lives of “The Healthy”
  • Biomedical Waste DEFINITION ♠ Any solid or liquid waste generated during the diagnosis, testing, treatment, research or production of biological products for humans or animals. (WHO). ♠ WHO estimates: - 85% of hospital waste as non-hazardous. - 10% is infectious - 5% is non infectious, but consists of hazardous chemicals.
  • 1) Survey of waste generated 2) Segregation of hospital waste 3) Collection & Categorization of waste 4) Storage of waste 5) Transportation of waste 6) Treatment of waste
  • WASTE CATEGORY TYPE OF WASTE TREATMENT Category No. 1 Human Anatomical Waste Incineration/ Deep Burial Category No. 2 Animal Waste Incineration/ Deep Burial Category No. 3 Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste Local Autoclaving/ Microwaving/Incineration Category No. 4 Waste Sharps Autoclaving/Microwaving/Dis infection/Chemical Treatment Category No. 5 Discarded Medicine & Cytotoxic drugs Incineration & Drug disposal in safe landfills Category No. 6 Soiled Waste Incineration/Autoclaving/ Microwaving Category No. 7 Solid Waste Autoclaving/Microwaving/ Disinfection Category No. 8 Liquid Waste Chemical treatment & discharge into drains Category No. 9 Incineration Ash Landfill Category No. 10 Chemical Waste Chemical treatment &
  • COLOR CODING TYPE OF CONTAINER WASTE CATEGORY YELLOW Plastic Bags Category 1, 2, 3 & 6 RED Disinfected Container/ Plastic Bags Category 3, 6 & 7 BLUE Plastic Bags/Puncture proof container Category 4 & 7 BLACK Plastic Bags Category 5, 9 & 10