Laboratory Safety, Biomedical Waste & Its Management

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Nowadays "Safety" takes up a major role in all the Laboratories, let it be safety equipment or safety measures. This powerpoint gives you a rough idea of the various hazards that may occur in a laboratory and the steps to be taken to prevent them. Also a small note is given on the Biomedical Waste and its management.

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Laboratory Safety, Biomedical Waste & Its Management

  1. 1. By Dr.Arun Babu.N.B. II yr MD (Biochemistry) V.M.K.V. Medical College, Salem.
  2. 2.  OSHA – Occupational Safety & Health Administration  CDC – Centers for Disease Control & prevention put forward numerous safety standards applicable to clinical laboratories. Key Elements For safety in Clinical Lab: • Formal safety programme • Documented policies & effective use of mandated plans in chemical hygiene, exposure to blood borne pathogens, etc. • Identification of significant occupational hazards (biological, chemical, fire & electrical hazards) and how to deal with each of them. • Recognition of other relevant safety areas of concern (effective waste manangement, etc.)
  3. 3. Safety Programme. i. Safety officer / Chair of safety committee ii. 1 Chemical Hygiene officer iii. General Laboratory safety manual – to be given to all new employees. iv. Continuing education program for laboratories – should include periodic talks on safety. v. Ensure that laboratory environment meets accepted safety standards.
  4. 4. Safety Equipment. o Clothing (lab coats/gowns) o Gloves o Eye protection o Eye/Face washers o Heat-resistant (non-asbestos) gloves – To handle hot glassware & dry ice. o Safety goggles/glasses/visors. o Tongs – To handle hot beakers o Polyethylene pumps – To pump acids from large bottles o Spill kits (For acids, caustic materials & flammable solvents)
  5. 5. Laboratory Hazards. 1. Biological 2. Chemical 3. Electrical 4. Fire
  6. 6. UN Classification of hazardous materials dealt in Clinical Laboratories – 9 classes. 1. Explosives 2. Compressed gases 3. Flammable liquids 4. Flammable solids 5. Oxidizer materials 6. Toxic materials 7. Radioactive materials 8. Corrosive materials 9. Miscellaneous materials (not classified elsewhere)
  7. 7. Biological Hazards & Steps for prevention. ♠ Never perform mouth pipetting ♠ Do not mix potentially infectious material by bubbling air through the liquid ♠ Barrier protection (gloves, masks, gowns, protective eye wear) ♠ Frequent hand washing ♠ Keep the hands away from mouth, nose, eyes & mucous membrane – to avoid self-inoculation. ♠ Decontaminate all surfaces & reusable devices after use. ♠ All patient specimens to be treated as potentially hazardous. ♠ Try to prevent accidental injuries. ♠ Dispose off all sharps appropriately. ♠ Hepatitis B vaccine to be taken by all employees at risk of accidental exposure.
  8. 8. Chemical Hazards & Steps for prevention. ♠ Handle bottles of chemicals & solutions carefully ♠ Glass containers with chemicals – To be transported in rubber/plastic containers that protects them from breakage & will contain the spill in case , it happens. ♠ Appropriate spill kits ♠ Hold the bottle firmly around its body (Not by the neck) either with 1 hand or both depending on the size of the bottle ♠ Acids, caustic materials & strong oxidizing agents – to be mixed in the sink (provides water for cooling & confinement of reagent in case the bottle breaks) ♠ Never pour water into a concentrated acid. Acid should be poured slowly into water. ♠ Label the bottles properly. ♠ Labels to be color coded
  9. 9. Electrical Hazards & Steps for prevention. ♠ Worn out wires should be replaced ♠ All electric equipments to be grounded with 3 prong plugs. ♠ Use of extension cords – to be minimised. ♠ Electrical equipments & connections – Not to be handled with wet hands. ♠ No electrical equipment to be used after liquid has been spilled over it. ♠ Lay electrical cords where no one can trip on them or get caught in them. ♠ Never poke anything into electrical outlets ♠ Unplug cords by pulling the plug and not the cord. ♠ Unplug all electrical equipment at the end of the lab period.
  10. 10. Fire Hazards & Steps for prevention. ♠ Fire extinguisher to be provided near every laboratory door. ♠ Flammable substances – (a) Use minimum quantity, (b) store in special storage cabinet, (c) Use temperature controlled heating sources (like water bath rather than hot-plate or bunsen burner.)
  11. 11. ♠ When lighting a burner, wait until a match is struck or the striker is in place before you turn on the gas. ♠ The amount of air can be adjusted by the air supply valve below the tube of the burner. This regulates the flame temperature and color. ♠ Never leave a burner or hotplate unattended. ♠ Always point the top ends of test tubes that are being heated heated, away from people. ♠ When heating a test tube, move it around slowly over the flame to distribute the heat evenly.
  12. 12. General Tidiness. ♠ Keep your workplace tidy ♠ Clear up waste, deal with washing up and put things away as you finish with them ♠ Make sure everything is safe before you leave things unattended ♠ Avoid spillage. ♠ After handling chemicals, always wash your hands with soap and water. ♠ During lab work, keep your hands away from your face. ♠ Tie back long hair. ♠ Roll up loose sleeves. ♠ Keep the work area uncluttered. Take to the lab station only what is necessary. ♠ Refrain loose clothing and jewelery.
  13. 13. ♠ Wear glasses rather than contact lenses. ♠ Clean up the laboratory area at the end of the day’s work. ♠ Pour down a glass stirring rod to prevent liquids from splattering. ♠ Do not place hot glassware in water. Rapid cooling may make it shatter. ♠ Never taste any chemicals ♠ If you need to smell the odor of a chemical, waft the fumes toward your nose with one hand. Do not put your nose over the container and inhale the fumes. ♠ Wash your hands after handling chemicals.
  14. 14. Glassware Safety. ♠ Pour down a glass stirring rod to prevent liquids from splattering. ♠ Do not place hot glassware in water. Rapid cooling may make it shatter.
  15. 15. Let the waste of the “sick” not contaminate the lives of “The Healthy”
  16. 16. Biomedical Waste DEFINITION ♠ Any solid or liquid waste generated during the diagnosis, testing, treatment, research or production of biological products for humans or animals. (WHO). ♠ WHO estimates: - 85% of hospital waste as non-hazardous. - 10% is infectious - 5% is non infectious, but consists of hazardous chemicals.
  17. 17. 1) Survey of waste generated 2) Segregation of hospital waste 3) Collection & Categorization of waste 4) Storage of waste 5) Transportation of waste 6) Treatment of waste
  18. 18. WASTE CATEGORY TYPE OF WASTE TREATMENT Category No. 1 Human Anatomical Waste Incineration/ Deep Burial Category No. 2 Animal Waste Incineration/ Deep Burial Category No. 3 Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste Local Autoclaving/ Microwaving/Incineration Category No. 4 Waste Sharps Autoclaving/Microwaving/Dis infection/Chemical Treatment Category No. 5 Discarded Medicine & Cytotoxic drugs Incineration & Drug disposal in safe landfills Category No. 6 Soiled Waste Incineration/Autoclaving/ Microwaving Category No. 7 Solid Waste Autoclaving/Microwaving/ Disinfection Category No. 8 Liquid Waste Chemical treatment & discharge into drains Category No. 9 Incineration Ash Landfill Category No. 10 Chemical Waste Chemical treatment &
  19. 19. COLOR CODING TYPE OF CONTAINER WASTE CATEGORY YELLOW Plastic Bags Category 1, 2, 3 & 6 RED Disinfected Container/ Plastic Bags Category 3, 6 & 7 BLUE Plastic Bags/Puncture proof container Category 4 & 7 BLACK Plastic Bags Category 5, 9 & 10

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