Synchrotron absas


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Synchrotron absas

  1. 1. SynchrotronA synchrotron is a large machine (about the size of a football field) that accelerates electrons toalmost the speed of light. As the electrons are deflected through magnetic fields they createextremely bright light.The light is channeled down beam lines to experimental workstations where it is used forresearch. A synchrotron uses powerful magnets and radio frequency waves to accelerate chargedparticles. The powerful magnet and radio frequency waves accelerate negatively chargedelectron along a stainless steel tube, where they reach high speed. As the magnets are turned onand off, electrons get pulled along the ring of tubes. Since the fast-moving electrons emit acontinuous spectrum of light, with various wavelengths and strength, scientists can pickwhatever wavelength they need for their experiments e.g. visible light, ultraviolet light or X-rays(soft or hard x-rays).Synchrotron LightSynchrotron Light is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged electrons, moving atvelocities close to the speed of light, are forced to change direction by magnetic fields. Thiselectromagnetic radiation is emitted in a narrow cone in the forward direction, at tangent to theparticle’s orbit. Synchrotron light is unique in its intensity and brilliance (see the picture and thetable below).Source: Canadian Light Source website
  2. 2. Another uniqueness of synchrotron light is that it can be generated across the range of theelectromagnetic spectrum including visible, infra-red, ultra-violet, soft and hard x-ray andmicrowaves. Synchrotron scientists are trying to push synchrotron light farther into the X-rayand microwave regions and the brightness has improved over years as shown in the pictureabove.The table below shows the brightness of synchrotron light compared to other lights. Brightness ismeasured by roughly calculating the number of photons that strike a 1mm² samples during onesecond exposure.Comparative brightness of lights from various sourcesType of light Photons per second per mm2Synchrotron Light 10 000 000 000 000 000 000Sunlight 10 000 000 000 000Candle 1 000 000 000Medical X-ray 10 000 000Other useful properties of synchrotron light are:- high energy beams to penetrate deeper into matter- small wavelengths permit the studying of tiny features, e.g. bonds in molecules; Nano scaleobjects- synchrotron beams can be coherent and/or polarized, permitting specific experiments- the synchrotron beam can be made to flash at a very high frequency, giving the light a timestructure.Synchrotron light and electromagnetic spectrumThe electromagnetic spectrum below shows wavelengths of radiation emitted by various sourcesand the names of the radiations based on their wavelength frequencies and sizes and lotsmore.Synchrotron light is not just limited to Synchrotrons. As mentioned above, the real name
  3. 3. of Synchrotron light is electromagnetic radiation. Anything that emits any form ofelectromagnetic radiation from microwaves to x-rays is emitting a form of Synchrotron light.The only difference is that Synchrotrons makes the radiation up to a billion times more brilliantthan the normal radiation emitted by other man-made objects.Synchrotron in detailWhat are the parts of a Synchrotron?1. Electron Gun
  4. 4. Electron Gun (, n.d)A screen near the button is given a short, strong positive charge 125 times per second, whichpulls the negative charge particles, the electrons, away from the disk. This procedure is similar tothat found in a television picture tube.2. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)Linear AcceleratorThe Electron gun feeds into the LINAC. Microwave radio frequency fields provide energy toaccelerate the electrons to almost the speed of light. The speed of the electrons is approximately3x108 m/s.3. Booster Ring (,n.d)
  5. 5. As the electrons circulate in the Booster ring, they receive a boost in energy from approximately250 MeV (Mega electron volt) to approximately 2.9 to 6 GeV (Giga electron volts) — powerequivalent to about 2 billion flashlight batteries — from microwaves generated in a RadioFrequency Cavity.4. Storage Ring, Beam line, and End Station (,n.d)When the electrons have enough energy to produce light, an injection system transfers them fromthe booster ring to the storage ring. The process of transferring electrons from booster to storagering occurs approximately once per second up to 600 cycles (about 10 minutes) as required toreach an average circulating current of. Once in the storage ring, the electrons will circulate forfour to twelve hours producing photons every time the 6800kg dipole magnets change thedirection of the flow of electrons. While the ring looks circular, it is really a series of 12 straight
  6. 6. sections. After each turn there is a photon port to allow the light to travel down the beam lines tothe research stations. The magnets and steerage ring are shown in the picture.Applications of synchrotron• Developing "designer" molecules for pharmaceutical drugs• Optimization of seed oil biotechnology• Improving yields of plant natural health products• Continuing cancer and diabetes research• Watching living cells as they react to drugs.• Medicine and PharmaceuticalsMedicine and PharmaceuticalsDecoding proteins: Reducing need for insulin for diabetic patientsCanadian Scientist Dr. Gerald Audette and his team are trying to reduce the need for insulin fordiabetic patients using synchrotron light to study properties of proteins involved in glucosemetabolism.Two proteins interacting to each otherDr. Audettes team is using powerful international synchrotron while waiting for the CanadianLight Source (CLS) beam lines to be commissioned. They are trying to invent a drug that willstop or more precisely reduce glucose creating proteins from interacting each other inside adiabetic patient without creating any side effects to the patient.
  7. 7. MicromachiningScientists are using synchrotron light to manufacture tiny machine parts. An everyday example isinkjet printer heads. So next time you print a document using inkjet printer heads remember youare using technology created by synchrotron light. Below is a picture of an inkjet printer head.Inkjet printer headWhat are the most import advantages/characteristics of synchrotron radiation compared tolab X-ray sources?The most important advantage of synchrotron radiation over a laboratory X-ray source is itsbrilliance. A synchrotron source like the ESRF has a brilliance that is more than a billion timeshigher than a laboratory source. Brilliance is a term that describes both the brightness and theangular spread of the beam. The difference between the two sources can be likened to thedifference between a laser beam and a light bulb. Higher brilliance lets us see more detail in thematerial under study e.g. there is a greater precision in the diffraction of light from a crystalwhere both the angle and the intensity is significant and recorded by a detector.Cutting edge parts, equipments, techniques usedThe monochromators used are typically periodic, diffracting elements to select given energies ofradiation.- Gratings are used for energies (roughly) below 1 keV.- For higher energies crystals are used which are natural three-dimensional "gratings", mainlyhigh quality silicon crystals. For the ESRF, typical energies are between 5 and 60 keV, but thereexists beam lines using lower and higher energies.
  8. 8. - There exists a further possibility of X-ray optical elements that allows one to select a narrowenergy band. These elements are multilayers, a periodic arrangement of rather thin doublelayers, usually a metal and a lower density material.Prisms could be used in the visible range; however synchrotrons are mainly dedicated toproducing much higher photon energies that is radiation with much shorter wavelengths. Soprisms are not used to our knowledge in synchrotrons like the ESRF.Influence in nano science applicationsIs it possible with synchrotron X-rays to detect particulate matter in the Nano-range inhuman fluids (such as blood) and tell at the same time the composition of the particles(heavy metals, carbon etc.)?X-ray fluorescence imaging can be used to detect trace levels of heavy elements such as metals(but not carbon). If the nanoparticles contain elements such as Pt, Au, Cd, Ag or lanthanides thatare not generally present in body fluids then trace quantities of these nanoparticles can bedetected. The ESRF X-ray Nano probe can be used to visualize nanoparticles or clusters ofnanoparticles if they are 100 nm or larger.ControversiesThe use of synchrotron radiation as a source for single crystal x-ray diffraction studies hasrecently been the subject of considerable discussion and controversy. In contrast to conventionalsources, the polychromatic radiation produced by synchrotron emission can be monochromatedover a large range of wavelengths to give an intense x-ray beam.References:1.How does a synchrotron work? , viewed on 26thmarch 2012,,2.Applications of Synchrotron Light , viewed on 26thmarch 2012, of Synchrotron radiation to protein crystallography, viewed on 26thmarch 2012,
  9. 9. 4.New Approach to quantum corrections in synchrotron radation, viewed on 26thmarch2012, What is synchrotron light? , viewed on 26thmarch2012,
  10. 10. 4.New Approach to quantum corrections in synchrotron radation, viewed on 26thmarch2012, What is synchrotron light? , viewed on 26thmarch2012,