1. KTVR KNOWLEDGE PARK FOR ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY COIMBATORE – 641 019 DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERINGSUBJECT : SOFTWARE ENGINEERINGCLASS : III B.E (CSE)SEMESTER : V - ODD SEMESTER 2 MARK Q & A CHAPTER - 11. What is software engineering? The application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development,operation and maintenance of a software.2. What are the two ways of solving problem? (i)Analysis: Breaking the problem into pieces that we can understand and try to dealwith. (ii)Synthesis: Putting together of a large structure from small building block.3. Define method and procedure. Method: Formal procedure for producing some results. Procedure: combination of both tools and methods .4. Define fault and failure. Fault: Failure: Total damage to the system is known as failure.5. Mention the five different perspectives in defining the quality of a software product. The perspectives are the following (i)Trancedential view (ii)User view (iii)Manufacturing view (iv) Product view (v)Value-based view
2. 6. List the participants in the software project. Participants in the software project is categorized into three categories (i)User (ii)Customer (iii)Developer7. What is COTS? Commercial off-the shelf: Software to be incorporated in the final product that thedeveloper will supply and support.8. List the elements of the system. The elements of the system are (i)Activities and objects (ii)Relationship and boundaries.9. What do you mean by incremental development approach? Incorporates series of the stages.10. What is system boundary? It is easier to see what is within and without and what crosses the boundary.11. What are the software development process? =>System design =>program design =>writing the program =>Unit testing =>Integration testing =>System testing =>System delivery =>Maintenance12. Mention the member of the development team. The members of the development team are =>Analyst =>Programmer
3. =>Designer =>Tester =>Trainer.13. State the eight fundamental notions in software engineering. =>Abstraction =>Analysis a design methods and notation. =>User interface prototyping. =>Software architecture. =>Software process =>Reuse =>Measurement =>Tools and integrated Environment14. List the five ways that is used to partition the system into units. (i)Modular Organization: based on assigning function to modules. (ii)Data-oriented decomposition: based on external data structure. (iii)Event oriented decomposition: based on events that system must handle. (iv)Outside in design: based on user inputs to the system. (v)Object oriented design: based on identifying classed of objects and their relationship.15. State the five issues addressed in any tool integration. (i) Platform Integration : Ability of tools to interpreter. (ii) Presentation integration: Commonality of user integrate. (iii) Process integration: Linkage between tools and development process. (iv) Data integration: The way tools share data (v) Control integration: Ability for one tool to notify and initiate action in another.
4. CHAPTER - 21. Define Process. The Process is refer as the, a serious of steps involving activities, constraints, andresources that produce an intended output of some kind.2. List the characteristics of Process.  The process prescribes all of the major process activities.  Every process has set of guiding principles that explain the goals of each activity.  The process uses resources, subject to a set of constraints, and produces intermediate and final products.3. What is software life cycle and what are the software development stages? When the process involves the building of some product, we sometimes refer to theprocess as a life cycle. Thus, the software development process is sometimes called thesoftware life cycle. Software development usually the following stages:  requirements analysis and definition  system design  program design  writing the programs  unit testing  integration testing  system testing  system delivery  maintenance4. Differentiate validation and verification.Validation: It ensures that the system has implemented all of the requirements, so that each systemfunction can be traced back to a particular requirement in the specification.Verification:
5. It ensures that the each function works correctly. That is, validation makes sure that thedeveloper is building the right product(according to the specification), and verification checksthe quality of the implementation.5. Mention two popular approaches in phase development model.  Increments  Iterations6. List the example of agile method.  Extreme Programming(XP)  Crystal  Scrum  Adaptive software development(ASD)7. Define refactoring. It refers to revisiting the requirements and design, reformulating them to match new andexisting needs.8. List the twelve facets of XP.  The planning game  Small releases  Metaphor  Simple design  Writing test first  Refactoring  Pair programming  Collective ownership  Continuous integration9. What is Pair Programming? Pair programming attempts to address the artistic side of software development,acknowledging that the apprentice-master metaphor can be useful in teaching novice softwaredevelopers how to develop the instincts of masters.
6. 10. Differentiate static and dynamic model.  Static Model: A static Model depicts the process, showing that the inputs are transformed to outputs.  Dynamic Model: A dynamic model enacts the process, so the user can see how intermediate andfinal products are transformed over time.11. Mention the seven elements of the process.  Activity  Sequence  Process model  Resource  Control  Policy  Organization12. State the four characteristics of agility.  Communication  Simplicity  Courage  Feedback
7. CHAPTER - 31. Define Activity and Milestone.  An Activity is a part of the project that takes place over a period of time. An Activity has a beginning and an end.  A milestone is the completion of an activity- a particular point in time. A milestone is the end of the specially designated activity.2. What is WBS?  Work breakdown structure depicts the project as a set of discrete pieces of work.  A project’s work breakdown structure gives no indication of the interdependence of the work units or of the parts of the project that can be developed concurrently.3. State the four parameters of an Activity. 4 parameters of Activity:  Precursor : event or set of events that must occur in order for an activity to start  Duration : length of time needed to complete an activity  Due date : date by which an activity must be completed  Endpoint : activity has to be ended i.e., usually milestone or deliverable4. State the use of Activity Graph with an example.  Activity graphs depict the dependencies among activities  Activity graphs depend on an understanding of the parallel nature of tasks.  The graphs must reflect a realistic depiction of parallelism For Example: In house building example, it is clear that some of the tasks, like plumbing,will be done by different people from those doing other tasks, like electrical work. But onsoftware development projects, where some people have many skills, the theoreticalparallelism may not reflect reality. A restricted number of people assigned to the project mayresult in the same person doing many things in series, even though they could be done inparallel by a larger development team.5. What is CPM? Analyzing the paths among the milestones of a project is called the Critical PathMethod (CPM).CPM reveals those activities that are most critical to completing the project ontime.6. Differentiate Real time and Available time. Real time Available Time The real time or actual time for an The available time is the amount of activity is the estimated amount of time time available in the schedule for the required for the activity to be activity‘s completion completed.
8. 7. Mention the different ways in which the project personnel differ.The project personnel differs in the following ways:  Ability to perform the work  Interest in the work  Experience with similar applications  Experience with similar tools or languages  Experience with similar techniques  Experience with similar development environment  Training  Ability to communicate with others  Ability to share responsibility with others  Management skills8. State the use of communication paths.  A projects progress is affected by ◦ Degree of communication ◦ Ability of individuals to communicate their ideas  Software failures can result from breakdown in communication and understanding  Line of communication can grow quickly  If there is n worker in project, then there are n(n-1)/2 pairs of communication & 2n – 1 possible teams.9. List different Work styles.  Extroverts : people tell their thoughts  Introverts : people ask for suggestions  Intuitive : people base their decisions on feelings and emotional reactions to problem.,  Rational : people base their decisions on facts, options10. List two different organizational structures.  Highly structured organizational structure  Loosely structured organizational structure11. Differentiate highly structure & loosely structure. Highly Structured Loosely Structured High certainity Uncertainity Repetition New techniques or technology Large projects Small projects12. How the structure is different from creativity?  Consider two groups building a hotel
9. ◦ Structured team : clearly defined responsibilities ◦ Unstructured team : no directions  The results are always the same ◦ Structured teams finish a functional Days Inn ◦ Unstructured teams build a creative, multistoried Taj Mahal and never complete one on time  Good project management means finding a balance between structure and creativity13. Mention the types of Effort Estimation.  Expert Judgment  Top-down or bottom-up  Algorithmic methods14. List the three predictions of analogy process in Expert Judgement.The three predictions are:  A pessimistic one(x)  An optimistic one(y) and  A most likely guess(z)15. Give the Equation used in algorithmic methods for expressing effort. The Equation used in algorithmic methods for expressing effort is E=(a+bSc)m(X)16. List any five Walston & Felix model productivity factors.  Customer interface complexity  Overall complexity of code  Complexity of program flow  Complexity of application processing  Use of top-down development17. What is the use of COCOMO?  Boehm developed – COnstructive COst MOdel  Size Estimation model  Boehm (1981) – used Size as primary determinant of cost & then adjusted the initial estimate using cost drivers such as staff, proj., product, dev. env.,18. List the three stages of COCOMO II.  Application composition  Early design  Post Architecture19. What is Back propagation?
10. Some techniques involve looking back to what has happened at other nodes; these arecalled back propagation techniques.20. List the four steps for estimation using CBR (Case Based Reasoning). Estimation using CBR involves four steps:  the user identifies a new problem as a case  the system retrieves similar case from a repository of historical information  the system reuses knowledge from previous case  the system suggests a solution for the new case21. List the two statistics used for accessing the accuracy. The two statistics used for accessing accuracy:  PRED  MMRE(Mean Magnitude of Relative Error)22. Define Risk. Risk is an unwanted event that has negative consequences. Project managers mustengage in risk management to understand and control the risks on their projects.23. What are the two major sources of risk?There are two major sources of risk:  Generic  Project-specificGeneric risks are those common to all software projects such as misunderstanding therequirements, losing key personnel, or allowing insufficient time for testing.Specific risks are threats that result from the particular vulnerabilities of the given project.24. What is Project Plan?To communicate risk analysis and management, project cost estimates, schedule, andorganization to our customers; we usually write a document called a project plan.25. List the four tenets in Enrollment Management Model?  Establishing an appropriately large shared vision.  Delegating completely and eliciting specific commitments from participants.  Inspecting vigorously and providing supportive feedback.  Acknowledging every advance and learning as the program progressed.26. What is Win - Win Spiral model? The spiral model, originally proposed by Boehm [BOE88], is an evolutionary softwareprocess model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled andsystematic aspects of the linear sequential model. It provides the potential for rapiddevelopment of incremental versions of the software.