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Elite 2011 conference proceedings


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  1. 1. Emerging Library and Information Technologies (ELITE 2011)
  2. 2. Emerging Library and Information Technologies Papers presented at the National Seminar on Emerging Library and Information Technologies (ELITE 2011) 9-10 December, 2011 Organised byTamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Chennai Editors Dr.G.Rathinasabapathy Dr.V.Chandrakumar Dr.K.Elavazhakan Department of Library Science Madras Veterinary College Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Chennai – 600 007 December 2011
  3. 3. Emerging Library and Information Technologies 2011Edited by: G.Rathinasabapathy, V.Chandrakumar and K. Elavazhakan© TANUVAS, 2011Published byDepartment of Library ScienceMadras Veterinary CollegeTamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityChennai – 600 007ISBN: 978-81-922103-0-8All data, views, opinions, etc., being published are the sole responsibility of the authors. Neitherthe publishers nor the editors in anyway are responsible for them.All rights reserved. No part of this publication can be reproduced in any form includingphotocopying, microfilming, photo prints, storage in any retrieval system, transmission in anypermanent or temporary form by any means without the prior written permission of thepublisher.
  4. 4. PREFACEInformation management environment has radically transformed in the past three decades due tothe technological advancements taken place in the field of ICT viz., electronic publishing,Internet, open access, interoperability, online services, online databases etc. These advancementshave brought about paradigm shift in library and information management, redefined end usersinteractions with libraries empowering them with new tools for local access to globalinformation resources. In the context of changing information scenario, there is an urgent need tocomprehensively review these advancements and to assess their impact on the Library andInformation Service (LIS) profession.Considering this perspective, the Department of Library Science, Madras Veterinary College,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University has planned to organize a nationalseminar on ‘Emerging Library and Information Technologies (ELITE) 2011’ as a part of theWorld Veterinary Year 2011 celebrations of the University. It is very important that this is thefirst time this library is organizing such a national level event in the history of the library whichwas established in 1903 along with the Madras Veterinary College. Contributions fromprofessionals for presentation in the National Seminar scheduled for 9-10 December 2011 wereinvited. The response to the call for papers has been very encouraging and the papers receivedinclude research reports, survey reports, trend reports, research reviews and case studies. Thesepapers were reviewed for publication in the seminar volume. Based on recommendations of theeditorial committee, though hard at times, the content in the conference volume was limited to109 full length papers.The papers comprising this volume cover all important topics as are relevant to the theme of thenational seminar. In particular the focus is on topics such as Information and CommunicationTechnology (ICT), Emerging trends, Library and Information Services Management, LibraryServices, User studies, Consortia / Networking and Digital library.We sincerely hope the speakers and the participants in the national seminar will find the materialuseful and helpful in brainstorming issues and problems confronting library and informationcentres. Their discussions on research findings and case studies as reported in seminar paperswill certainly help identify challenges facing the information profession and professionals, andevolve, in this process, innovative ideas to help shape library and information centres and theirfuture direction of research.We extend our special thanks to Dr.R.Prabakaran, Hon’ble Vice-Chancellor, TANUVAS,Dr.C.Balachandran, Registrar, TANUVAS and Dr.B.Murali Manohar, Dean, Madras VeterinaryCollege and other authorities of the university for their encouragement and all support extendedto conduct the national seminar.
  5. 5. We extend our special thanks to ELITE 2011 teams of organizing committees, associates andsponsors for their invaluable support. We thank all the invited speakers, contributors, andsession chairs.We are indebted to Prof.A.Amudhavalli, Head, DLIS, University of Madras and her team for alltheir kind support. Editors
  6. 6. CONTENTSPrefaceI. Information and Communication Technology (ICT)Reaching Library 2.0 Services with Web 2.0 Technologies 1 Shahin Rahimi and V. ChandrakumarOpen Access repositories in India as reflected in ROAR 9 L.S Suguna. and A. GopikuttanOverview of Open Source Software for Libraries 16 M. PremaSocial Networking technologies: An Observation 20 Y.Ch.VenkateswarluVirtual Reality Technology as “Library” 27 S.M. Mohamed Lukman and M. ManthiramoorthiWeb tools and its implication in Libraries for an effective Information 31Dissemination M. Jannath Najeemunnisa BeegumThe applications of Web 2.0 in libraries: A study 39 R.PerumalsamyEmerging Technological Innovations in Library Management and Services 46 K. Murugan, S. Ravi, S.Surianarayanan and S.UnnamalaiManaging Technical Information Centre using NEWGENLIB open source 52software: A Case study of SAMEER-CEM P.RamamoorthiCyberspace with a Human Face: Social Software in Academic Libraries 59 Avineni Kishore and M. PandurangaswamyICT and Internet Literacy amongst the University Library users of north 66Eastern States of India for Accessing to Electronic / Web Resources : AnEmpirical Study Manoj Kumar SinhaOpen Source Software for Libraries : An Over view 84 D.Sankara Narayanan and M.Sithi JagannaraRole of Social Networking Sites 92 Sumuki Padmanabhan and N. ThilagavathyLibrary 2.0 - Transition in the Library Environment 102 B. SrilakshmiAn innovative Application of Information and Communication Technology for 107
  7. 7. Veterinary and Animal Husbandry S.Senthilkumar, R.Ramprabhu and V.RanganathanApplication of RFID Technology in Automation of Libraries 113 Dhiraj KumarLibrary 2.0, Information and Digital Literacy in the Light of the 119Contradictory Nature of Web 2.0 Ramireddy PusapatiSocial Networks in N.P.R Library & Info center 129 M.Veerachamy, C.Martin Arokiasamy and P.BalasubramanianSave the Time of the Readers in Public Libraries: A Study of how ICT 133Coincide with the Fourth Law of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan R. Sivasankari and K. NithyanandamWeb 2.0 and Library Services 140 L.R. Divya and K.G. SudhierSocial Networking Sites and its Application in Libraries 146 V.Radha Krishnan, M.S. Premraj and L.RajendranTo e-publishing: a tribute to modern era 149 Ruchika KrishnaUse of social networking sites: a study among university library professionals 155in Coimbatore District K.Mahalakshmi, and S.Ally SornamApplication of RFID Technology in Libraries: An overview 159 Y.Ch.VenkateswarluII. Emerging TrendsKnowledge Mobilisation through e-learning / virtual learning 166 N. NatarajanIntellectual Property Rights in the Digital Environment 176 K.Vijayakumar, and T.PrabakaranRole of Intellectual Property Right in the age of Digital Environment 182 Prashant Kumar, and Anvita SrivastavaIndian Information Law and its Implementation Policy 189 Umesh Kumar Agarwal and Prakash Chandra VijayvargiyaAn overview of E-Learning Technology 197 Subhash ChandraA Study on Emerging Library and Information Technologies about Virtual 206Learning
  8. 8. J.Thangam, S.SurianarayananAn Introduction to MARC 21 Bibliographical formats 214 Subarna Kr. DasNew Techniques of Information Technology 222 T.PrabakaranEmergence of Technological Trajectories in copyright landscape and its impact 227on Public Domain of knowledge – An analysis of intellectual property issues inlibrary and information centres. S. Jasimudeen , E.R.Jayaram , and M. Maghesh RajanE- Learning and Information Literacy in Higher Education Institutions and 236University Libraries: A Study Suresh Kumar T V, Maghesh Rajan M and Jasimudeen SE-learning among Postgraduate Students: A Comparative Study 242 Vahida Beegam, Mahjabeen Aydeed, V. JalajaInformation Literacy Models – An Overview 255 M.Sithi Jagannara, P.Sivaraman and Nagaraja .SIII. Library and Information Services ManagementImpact of E-Resources in the Modern Library 264 A. Seeran, and A.KavithaCustomer Relationship Management in the Perspective of Library Reader 268Service J.Arumugam, G.Rathinasabapathy and L.RajendranApplication of Six Sigma Tool in Library Management: A Bird’s Eye View 272 R. Sevukan, N Suresh, R. MadasamyN-list: A Boon For College Libraries: A case study of SCN Library 278 S. L Jadhav, and Anil N. ChikateGrowth of Engineering Institutions and their Libraries in Tamil Nadu 284 L. Rajendran, V. Radhakrishnan and M.S. PremrajImproving Workforce Capability among LIS Professionals using People CMM 290(Level 2) N. Geetha and S. BabusankarOpportunities and Challenges of Content Management in Digital Era 299 D. PrabhavathiThe Role of Human Resource Management System in Academic Library 303 L. Rajendran, G. Rathinasabapathy, J. ArumugamAgricultural ICT Resources Available to the Farming Community in India 306
  9. 9. C.Prema, K. Chinnasamy and M.SankarKnowledge Management and the Role of Libraries 313 S. ManikandanIV. Library ServicesVirtual Reference Services 317 Yogita SharmaPrint and E-resources: A comparative discussion with special reference to 323Legal Resources Shiva PariharCommunity Information Service and Internet 327 R.PerumalMarketing of Information Sources and Services aimed to provide an Effective 331Access and use By the Research Scholars and Teachers in the MahatmaGandhi University Library: A Case Study Maghesh Rajan M, Jasimudeen S and Dr. Suresh KumarLibrary Marketing: an overview 342 S. Bala, P.Balasubramanian and P.BaalachandaranMarketing Library Services and Products 347 A. AsmaVirtual Reference Service and Marketing of Library Services and Products 354 K. IndumathiTraces of Prior Art Search in Patent and Non- Patent Technical Literature 360Resources J. Kasinathan, K.NithyanandamE-Mail Discussion Forum in Library and Information Services in India: A 369Study M. Tamizhchelvan, S. DhanvandanApplication of Marketing Techniques in Library Services and Products 376 M.Veerabasavaiah and S. PadmammaConservation of Library Materials 381 K.SaravananV. User StudiesAwareness and Ability to Use E-Resources by Faculty in Engineering Colleges 387in Andhra Pradesh: A Study S. LakshmiAwareness and use of Wi-Fi infrastructure in student’s community: A case 394
  10. 10. study Pondicherry University on campus students Mangkhollen Singson and RajeshExpectations of Students and Teaching Faculty on Library Services and 411Resources: A case study of Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences Library,Mandya, Karnataka K. AnanthnagInformation literacy in university library user education 417 K. Chinnasamy and Rimai AtonringInformation Seeking Behavior of Faculty, Research Scholars and Postgraduate 423Students of the University of Mysore towards Electronic Based Resources andServices: A Study G. Kiran Kumar, Chikkamanju and Y. L. SomashekaraEffective Utilization of Electronic Resources in Agriculture Research Institutes 435of Tamilnadu T.Raja, J.Arumugam, A.Lawrence MaryAwareness of Knowledge Management among library professional in Dindigul 443district: A study M.Veerachamy, Martin Arokiasamy and P.BalasubramanianOnline Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) enhance the Professional College 448Students’ Information Retrieval: A study S.G. SundararajanLibrary Habits and Use of ICT among Distance Learning Students of the 452Annamalai University, India S. ThanuskodiPerception of Library staff on the use of Digital Resources by the Faculty 465members of Engineering colleges: An Empirical Study S.Gopalakrishnan and P.RamkumarRole of Electronic Information Resources for the Quality of Education and 469research among the Academic Community: A Study with a Special Referenceto University of Calicut B. Shaji and V. JalajaUse of Electronic Resources by the Faculty Members in Madha Group of 479Academic Institutions at Chennai Ramakrishna Reddy and V.ThangavelWeb-Based Information Retrieval Pattern of the Students and Faculty 494Members of Mysore Medical College, Mysore G. Kiran Kumar, Mallinath Kumbar and M.B ChandrashekarUser’s Satisfaction among Knowledge Resources Available at Regional 503
  11. 11. Campus Library, KVAFS University, Bangalore : A study Shanta S, Betageri and D. KalaUse of Academic Library: A Case Study of Amirta Vishwa Vidyapeetham 508University, Coimbatore S. ThanuskodiEnriching the Teacher Education Student’s Information Literacy Skill 513 Kamatchi.S and Arumugam JUse of E-journals through CeRA (Consortium for e-Resources in Agriculture) 520by the Student in Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University S.V.Agricultural College, Regional Library, Tirupathi: A Study M. Prasantha KumariCera, the Boon and CPRA, the Inevitable Need: An Analytical Study Based on 526KVASU Veterinary Faculty Teachers, Research Scholars and PG Students K.S. Ambili and Adarsh N GokulVI. Consortia / NetworkingAutomation of Library System Using Barcode Reader & Networking 533 Anitesh, and Lavit RawtaniWorld Wide Open Access E-Resource Management Systems: A Case Study 539 R.S.S.Prabhu and V.ThangavelE-Journal Consortia: A Gift to Indian Libraries 545 M. RajaE-Journal Management in INDEST – AICTE Consortium in India 552 N.Arumuga Nainar, K.Chinnasamy, P.Peratchi SelvanE – Journal Consortia, Resource sharing in the Networked Digital Environment 558 P.BoopathiVII. Digital LibraryLibrary Human Resource Development in the Digital Era 561 K. VeeranjaneyuluLibrary Web Page or Library Portals: An Effective Tool for Library 570 Tupe Raju RamdasFuture of Digital Rights Management 573 M.Kavitha and J.ArumugamCollege Libraries in Digital Environment 578 Antonette Lobo and Madhuri TikamRole of Cataloguing and Metadata for Digital Libraries 584 R.Jayshankar, B.Sasikumar, R.Vijayalakshmi
  12. 12. Institutional Repositories: Ownership of Copyright 591 P.Ramamoorthi, R.Jeyshankar and SameerOpen access repositories: The Indian Scenario in the Open DOAR 595 V.S. RakhiDevelopment of Digital Repository in Anna University 604 S. Bharanidharan, G. KrishnamoorthyDesign and Development of Digital Library at Academic Staff College, 608University of Mysore Using Greestone Digital Library Software: A Study G. Kiran Kumar, N. Naganna and B.L ArundathiComparative Study of (GSDL, D-Space, Fedora, E-Print, VUDL): An Open 617Source Software Shalini R. Lihitkar and Ramdas S. LihitkarOpen source ILS (Integrated library System): A 629comparative study Mallikarjuna CDigital Content Management System: A Conceptual Framework 638 N. Sivakumar, P. Sivaraman and N. TamilselvanTechnological Innovations in CCRA Library, Department of AYUSH 645 G. Gnana Sekari and Manorama SrinathCommon Service Centre (CSCs): Will citizens turn to netizens? 648 R. ThirumavalavanBlogs and its applications in Library Science 652 M.S. Premraj, V. Radhakrishnan, G. Rathinasabapathy and L. RajendranRemote Sensing: A Webometrics Study 657 Anand Rangattimath and Ramesh KuriVIII. Scientometrics, Webometrics, Informetrics and BibliometricsScientometrics, Webometrics, Informetrics and Cybermetics application in 668Veterinary Medicine A.VinithaIndian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (2001-201): A Bibliometric 672Analysis P. VijayakumarAn Impact of Research Database for Measuring the Scientometric Indicators 679 C.Baskaran and N. SivakamiA Bibliometric Study of the articles published in the Proceedings of the 685National seminar on Knowledge Management in Libraries A.Tamil Selvi
  13. 13. Scholarly Open Access Journal publications in Medicine and Allied Sciences: 692A Bibliometric study M. Leeladharan and Shejina SreenivasAgriculture Research Publications in in India: A Scientometric Study 699 M. Sankar and S. SrinivasaraghavanLongevity and sustainability of citations by the Journals and suitability of 707Ranking Methodologies D. Gnana BharathiIndian Journal of Medical Research (2006-2010): A Scientometric Study 712 R. Jeyshankar, I. Maria Sujitha and V. ChitraR & D Status of Science and Technology in India 727 Fazlunnisa SyedAssessment of the Scientific Productivity of Middle East Countries 735 Haibat Mirzania and Shahin RahimiDeveloping an art Gallery of Raja Ravi Varma’s Painting using Greenstone 744 G. Kiran kumar , Arundathi B.L and Shivakrishna S.DA Scientometric Study of Swine Research Based on CAB Direct Online 752 Selvaraj, A. D and G. RathinasabapathyList of Contributors
  14. 14. Reaching Library 2.0 Services with Web 2.0 Technologies Shahin Rahimi and V. Chandrakumar Abstract Web 2.0 tools are blogs, wikis, RSS feeds, social networking, podcasting, tagging, mashups and instant messaging. By using web 2.0, libraries are moving towards the next generation library services called Library 2.0. This paper examines the current technologies, tools and services on the web 2.0 and possibility of using them in libraries for effective and efficient library services in the networked digital environment. Keywords: Web 2.0, Library 2.0, RSS Feeds, Social Networking, Podcasting, Tagging, Mashups, Instant messagingIntroduction Since 1990s, web has become multimedia and effective tool in library activities andinformation services and has severely affected the world information system; so, many of theactivities and library services are now available through the web and/or online. Searchengines, like Google as the most important tools to search and retrieve information from theInternet, provide good facilities to retrieve information quickly and in most cases can beachieved in the shortest possible time to the desired information. On the other hand the adventof IT and other communication technologies changed all means of information services andsources. The Internet has given the world numerous easy-to-use and inexpensive researchtools. Internet is changing the way we view information sources. Now-a-days, web-based technologies provide opportunities to libraries to cater theinformation needs of users without time and geographical limitations. Not only are the generalinformation scholarly communications available through web-based technologies. The newweb-based services known as Web 2.0, offer new service models, methods, and technologiesthat can be adapted to improve library services. Also, these services affect library users’information seeking behaviors, communication styles, and expectations. The term Library 2.0has been introduced into the professional language of librarianship as a way to discuss thesechanges. Indeed the aim of Library 2.0 is to provide opportunities of collaborating and sharingexperiences between librarians and users by using web 2.0 technologies which will ultimatelyimprove library services. This paper examines current technologies on the web 2.0 andpossibility of using them in libraries.Web 2.0 Tim O’ Reilly was first used the label web 2.0 as a concept consists of seven centralcomponents: (1) the web as platform;( 2) harnessing collective intelligence; (3) data as nextIntel Inside; (4) the end of the software release cycle; (5) Lightweight programming models;(6) software above the level of a single device; and (7) rich user experiences. (Sauers, 2009) Wikipedia defines a more narrative way, web 2.0 generally refers to a secondgeneration of services available on the World Wide Web that lets people collaborate and shareinformation online. In contrast to the first generation, web 2.0 give users an experience closerto desktop applications than the traditional static web pages (Wikipedia, 2011a).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 1
  15. 15. Web 2.0 is an attempt to make the web much more public (Nouruzi, 2008).Participation, trust, collaboration and experience are key principles of web 2.0. It is userfriendly and user-centered and it provides content with added value. Web 2.0 is a socialinteraction system and somewhat on the collective intelligent (Stephens & Collins, 2007). Web 2.0 affects librarians involve by three important considerations: convergence,remixability, and participation (Sauers, 2009). (View Figure 1). The use of convergence in this context implies that disparate sources are integratinginto one single source. Convergence can be as simple as Google Print Search orAmazon.com’s search inside the book feature, In both of these cases the content of the moretraditional print medium is converging with the online environment, giving us the possibilityof moving beyond the library catalogue to online services that allow us to search the contentof the books on our shelves, not just titles, authors, and subject headings. The next important web 2.0 concepts for librarians and searchers is remixability. Dueto the more technical aspects of web 2.0, it is becoming relativity easy to take the data fromone source, add it to the data of a second source, and create a new source independent of theoriginating sources. Participation is another factor that as being the most important factor of web 2.0.Participation is so important to web 2.0 that the concept itself has also been labeled “the read/write Web” by some, including Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web.Blogs represent the single largest implementation of the participatory factor in web 2.0. Wikisare another form of participation in the web 2.0 environment. With wikis, anyone cancontribute and change any of the content within the wiki. Participation, however, is more thanjust contributing content; take social networking services, such as flicker, MySpace,Facebook, and Del.icio.us for examples. They afford users the chance to interact, sharethemselves, and create content. They enabled massaging, blogging and tagging. MySpace andFacebook enable users to share themselves with one another. Del.icio.us enables users toshare web resources and Flicker enables the sharing of pictures. One type of participation in particular has a large impact on searching: the concept oftagging, also known as “folksonomy”. According to Maness (2006), tagging is essentiallyWeb 2.0 because it allows users to add and change not only content (data), but contentdescribing content (metadata) (Maness, 2006) Figure 1National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 2
  16. 16. Library 2.0 The term Library 2.0 was made by Michael Casey on his Library Crunch Blog(Curran, Murray & Christian, 2005). According to Stephens & Collins (2007), Library 2.0 isnot only an extension of the rebooting of the web; it is an application of the philosophiessurrounding what makes Web 2.0 work. Library 2.0 seeks to break down barriers such asservices, place and time, and inherent in what we do. Library 2.0 is a concept of a verydifferent library service, geared towards the needs and expectations of today’s library users.According to Maness (2006), technology features of Library 2.0 are: • User-centered: Users participate in the creation of the content and services they view within the librarys web-presence, OPAC, etc. The consumption and creation of content is dynamic, and thus the roles of librarian and user are not always clear but look like similar. • Multimedia experience: Both the collections and services of Library 2.0 contain video and audio components. While this is not often cited as a function of Library 2.0, it is here suggested that it should be. • Socially rich: The librarys web-presence includes users presences. There are both synchronous (e.g. IM) and asynchronous (e.g. wikis) ways for users to communicate with one another and with librarians. • Communally innovative. This is perhaps the single most important aspect of Library 2.0. It rests on the foundation of libraries as a community service, but understands that as communities change, libraries must not only change with them, and they must allow users to change the library. It seeks to continually change its services, to find new ways to allow communities, not just individuals to seek, find, and utilize information.Library 2.0 services • Instant Messaging (IM) According to Wikipedia, Instant Messaging is a form of real-time direct text- based chatting communication in push mode between two or more people using personal computers or other devices, along with shared clients. The users text is conveyed over a network, such as the Internet. More advanced instant messaging software clients also allow enhanced modes of communication, such as live voice or video calling and inclusion of links to media. (Wikipedia, 2011b). IM can be a cost-effective means for any library to have a virtual reference presence in virtual spaces where our users already live. The librarian can add IM to reference desk duties and it becomes part of the workflow. The reference interview is till the same, just a new medium. Its made it easier to communicate and to arrange meetings, carpools, etc. There are many programmers and services that can combine, or “aggregate” multiple IM accounts (Yahoo! Messenger, MSN Live Messenger, Google Talk, AOL Instant Messenger, and Meebo.com Messenger) into a single interface. For example the MeeboMe widget is a box that can be appears on the Ask-a-Librarian page of the Library’s website. Persons wanting to ask questions can type their question directlyNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 3
  17. 17. into the box. The librarian at the reference desk receives the question and can have a conversation with the person to answer the question. There are another programmers and services: Digsby—another instant message aggregator, that also incorporates social networking and email capabilities. Hab.la—another IM box you can put on your webpage. What is different is that Hab.la will “travel” between webpages. It stays with the user as you continue the conversation, even if the user visits several webpages (even outside your site!). Trillian Astra—Trillian Astra promises compatibility with many IM protocols and social networking services, with a fresh new interface. Skype—Skype allows a user to make a phone call free of charge through a computer to other Skype users and also allows for file transfer and instant messaging among other things. Some libraries are using Skype for reference services. Libraryh3lp— Libraryh3lp is software designed for library reference that combines IM, a Meebo-like widget, the ability to queue and route users, and other features. Several academic libraries are using this software to replace other IM or web chat systems. • Wikis One of the prime technologies supporting the participatory nature of web 2.0 is the wiki. A wiki is “a type of website that allows users to add, remove or otherwise edit all content very quickly and easily (Sauers, 2009). A library wiki as a service can enable social interaction among librarians and patrons, essentially moving the study group room online. As users share information and ask questions, answer questions, and librarians do the same within a wiki, a record of these transactions is archived perhaps for perpetuity. And these transcripts are in turn resources for the library to provide as reference. Wikis could be used internally in libraries to create knowledge bases, to support work that moves quickly from discussion to collaborative writing, to create a place for writing, editing and storing meeting notes and reports, or it could even become the platform for the library intranet. Public wikis could be used to support courses, create subject pages, and to facilitate planning and delivering conferences and meetings. Wikis can also be used to start a conversation with our community of users. For example, they can be used to engage the community in library planning processes, to collaborate with members of the community in recording or documenting local histories and events. Wikis can be used to enhance collections by allowing our community to contribute stories and information about collections of historical photos or places. These are just a few of the ways that libraries can use wikis. The information architecture community established IAWiki (www.iawiki.net) as a place to create a collaborative knowledge base about information architecture. This particular wiki is a good place to learn about special wiki pages like RoadMaps, StartingPoints and Talk/Discussion pages. When it comes to choosing wiki software, there are several choices. There are wiki engines that run on almost any server platform. There are several open source wiki packages that you can download and install locally at no charge. There are vendors targeting the enterprise market, for example Jotspot, Socialtext, and Atlassian.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 4
  18. 18. Some of the free and fee-based hosted wikis are XWiki, Seed Wiki, Jotspot, EditMe, and Socialtext Workspace. • Blogs Blogs are fundamentally web 2.0, and has enormous implications for libraries. According to Wikipedia, Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order the following provides a few ideas for blogging in library. This is just a small selection – blogs are very versatile and there are many more practical applications. Library & Topical News, Announce New Services, Recent Acquisitions List, Book/Movie/Web Site Recommendations, Book Discussions, Local Events Calendar, Recommended Research Sources. There is some blogging software that libraries can create their blogs: Type Pad, Word Press and Movable Type. • Tagging and Folksonomies Taxonomy is the science of finding, describing, classifying, and naming organisms (Sauers, 2009). The Wikipedia define folksonomy “the freely chosen labels – called tags – help to improve a search engine’s effectiveness because content is categorized using a familiar, accessible, and shared vocabulary” (Wikipedia, 2011c). In Library 2.0, users could tag the librarys collection and thereby participate in the cataloging process. Of course, tags and standardized subjects are not mutually exclusive. According to Maness (2006), the catalog of Library 2.0 would enable users to follow both standardized and user-tagged subjects; whichever makes most sense to them even more specifically, implementations of user tagging that are designed to enhance the functionality of online public access catalogues ((OPACs) are the results of developers’ consideration of the potential of “OPAC 2.0”—a model for the redesign of catalogs as “social OPACs” that purposefully invite the users of catalogs to participate not only in the exploration and exploitation of catalogue records, but also in their creation. • RSS Feeds Really Simple Syndication (RSS) is a technology that enables publishers to syndicate news and other contents on the web. Users republish content from other sites or blogs on their sites or blogs, aggregate content on other sites in a single place, and ostensibly distill the web for their personal use. Such syndication of content is another Web 2.0 application that is already having an impact on libraries, and could continue to do so in remarkable ways. Libraries are keeping up to date by subscribing to news & information sources via RSS feeds. RSS can be applied to some of the following Library & Information Services: Selective Dissemination of Information, Current Awareness Service, Bibliographic Service, and Bulletin Board Service. To take advantage of the convenience of RSS,National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 5
  19. 19. one needs a special piece of software (called a “newsreader” or “aggregator”) to collect, organize, and display all his feeds. A variety of free and commercial readers are available. Some (such as Bloglines, Google Reader, NetVibes, and My Yahoo) are web-based; others (such as FeedDemon, AmphetaDesk, or NetNewsWire for Macs) have to be downloaded to one’s computer. Some browsers, such as Firefox and Safari, offer integrated feed readers. • Podcasting A podcast (or non-streamed webcast) is a series of digital media files (either audio or video) that are released episodically and often downloaded through web syndication (Wikipedia, 2011d). With more and more audio content being presented via RSS, known as podcasting and then archived online, a need for being able to search the content of audio files has become necessary. Library tutorials, interviews, reports, news etc. might utilize podcasting. Podcasting has the potential to engage all library users in an innovative way. With podcasting the library user is afforded control over when and where the content will be reviewed. This control is important in today’s information saturated landscape. Within this format, there is a possibility that conversations can be created based on the structure and content of the podcasts. The desired outcome is that these conversations will lead to a deeper understanding of how to conduct research as well as what library services have to offer. An additional benefit for libraries is that podcasting enhances the visibility of library web pages and online presence. It engages rich media and creates interest because it demonstrates an exploration of new ways of delivering content to library users. Here are two samples of libraries that are already incorporating podcasting into their websites. The Arizona State University Library using podcasts to provide tours, subject related lectures, news, and library mission statements and planning. The Science and Engineering Library at the University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC) is using sound and video podcasting to record a faculty lecture series. The library is archiving the lectures as well, which adds to the goals of life-long learning and advancing the library as a center for scholarly exchange. In essence it showcases the library as an active participant in scholarly communications. • Social Networking Sites (SNS) As libraries are inherently social organizations, SNS technology enables them to interact more with their users. For example LibraryThing is a social network enables users to catalogue their books and view the books other users shared and cataloged. Social networks enable blogging and tagging, etc. (Maness, 2006). Users can create accounts with the library reference network, recommend reference resources to one another, and the network recommend reference resources to users, based on similar profiles. In the library context, social networking presents three interesting opportunities: marketing, professional development, and socially enhanced search. Social networking sites allow librarians to adopt a new role by placing themselves into a social realm with users. By reading blogs, group postings, andNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 6
  20. 20. message boards, the librarian becomes an active participant, who is able to anticipate and advise patrons as needs arise. Linking to patron profiles also keeps the library within the consciousness of users, potentially increasing interaction. • Mashup: A set of functions, procedures or classes for accessing a web service that allow a computer program to access and manipulate data on a web service the same way that a website interface lets the human user surf and dive into its content. On the other hand Mashup is integration / combination / aggregation / visualization of data to produce enriched results, that causes libraries hold large amount of data Interface with users to provide services using their data. It is a hybrid of blogs, wikis, streaming media, content aggregators, instant messaging, and social networks. Conclusion Library 2.0 is fully democratic system and based on double correlation between librarian and library users. The heart of Library 2.0 is user-centered change. It is a model for library service that encourages constant and purposeful change, inviting user participation in the creation of both the physical and the virtual services they want, supported by consistently evaluating services. It also attempts to reach new users and better serve current ones through improved customer-driven offerings. Each component by itself is a step toward better serving our users; however, it is through the combined implementation of all of these that we can reach Library 2.0 While not required, technology can help libraries create a customer-driven, Library 2.0 environment. Web 2.0 technologies have played a significant role in our ability to keep up with the changing needs of library users. Technological advances in the past several years have enabled libraries to create new services that before were not possible, such as virtual reference, personalized OPAC interfaces, or downloadable media that library customers can use in the comfort of their own homes References Chandra Dey, Nabin; Sarkar, Pronab; RSS Feeds and its Application in Library Services. 7th International CALIBER, Pondicherry University, 2009. Curran, Kevin, Murray, Michelle and Christian, Martin; Taking the information to the public through library 2.0. Library Hi Tech. 25 (2), 2007. Kaushik, Anna; Podcasting in Library Environment. Annals of Librray and Information Science. vol. 57, 2010. Kumar Dhiman, Anil; Sharma, Hemant; Blogging and Uses of Blogs in Libraries. 6th International CALIBER, University of Allahabad, 2008. Habib, Michael C.; Toward Academic Library 2.0: Development and Application of a Library 2.0 Methodology. A Master’s Paper for the M.S. in L.S degree.University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2006. .National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 7
  21. 21. Hanif, Mohmed N.; Need for Web 2.0 Technology for the Libraries. 7th International CALIBER, Pondicherry University, 2009. Maness, Jack M.; Library 2.0: The next generation of web-based library services. LOGOS: Journal of the World Book Community, vol. 17, no. 3, 2006. Maness, Jack M.; Library 2.0 theory: Web 2.0 and its implications for libraries. Webology. 3 (2), Available at http://www.webol ogy.ir /2006/v3n2/a25.html, 2006. Mukhopadhyay, Parthasarathi; Das, Subarna K ; Towards Library 2.0: Designing and Implementing the Modern Library Service. 6th Convention PLANNER , Nagaland University., 2008. Nouruzi, Alireza; Ketabkhaneye 2: khadamate ketabkhaneiee mobtani bar Web 2. Ketab- emah kolliat, 11 (131), 2008. O’Reilly, Tim; What is Web 2.0? Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software, 2005. Online: http:// www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/ tim/news/ 2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html, Sauers, Michael P.; Searching 2.0. London: Facet Publishing., 2009. Stephens, Michael and Collins, Maria; Web 2.0, library 2.0, and hyperlinked library. Serials Review, 33, 2007. Tajer, Pegah; Reference Services 2.0: A Proposal Model for Reference Services in Library 2.0. 7th International CALIBER, Pondicherry University, 2009. Wikipedia (2011a). ‘Web 2.0’. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. [online]. Available: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library 2.0 (Accessed 14 Nov. 2011). Wikipedia (2011b). ‘Instant messaging’. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. [online]. Available: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library 2.0 (Accessed 14 Nov. 2011). Wikipedia (2011c). ‘Tag’. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. [online]. Available: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library 2.0 (Accessed 14 Nov. 2011). Wikipedia (2011d). ‘Podcast’. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. [online]. Available: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library 2.0 (Accessed 14 Nov. 2011).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 8
  22. 22. Open Access Repositories in India as Reflected in ROAR L.S. Suguna and A. Gopikuttan Abstract An open access repository is an online database that makes the full text of items it contains freely and immediately available without any access restrictions. The number of open access repositories available in internet is growing every day and here a special interest is taken in collecting its contribution from India. This paper describes the concept of open access and open access repositories from India. The analysis covers mainly the number of repositories, state wise, and year wise distribution etc. based on open access Indian repositories as reflected in ROAR. Keywords: Open Access Repositories, ROAR, India, JISCIntroduction Information Age can become a reality only with the help of Internet. It extendsinformation sharing, learning and networking. In the digital environment the academicians’interest are moving towards accessing and using electronic materials for their day to dayacademic activities. These are one of the main means used by researchers for scholarlycommunication. They play an important role in the creation and communication ofknowledge. There are thousands of open access titles available. The promising open accessmovement is opening alternate channels for the distribution of scholarly work1. The numberof open access repositories available in internet is growing every day and here a specialinterest is taken in collecting its contribution from India.Open Access The open access movement in India has gained considerable footing in the last tenyears. The open access movement is an attempt to scholarly communication free fromrestrictions on access, control, cost, and to enable benefits such as data mining and increasedcitations. Open access has gained significant momentum through mandates from researchfunders and universities. It has become the most successful scholarly publishing reformmovement in modern times, and it has begun to transform the scholarly communicationsystem1. It states that "open access" to literature, mean its free availability on the publicinternet, permitting any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to thefull texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use themfor any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than thoseinseparable from gaining access to the internet itself 2.Open Access Repositories An OA repository can be defined as, “an online database that makes the full text ofitems (or complete files) it contains freely and immediately available without any accessrestrictions” 3. There are nearly 3000 repositories around the world. Over the past three yearsthe number has been growing per day. Open Access repositories may be institutionally-based,enhancing the visibility and impact of the institution, or they may be centralised. Institutionalrepositories are digital collections of the outputs created within a university or researchinstitution. Whilst the purposes of repositories may vary (for example, some universities haveteaching/learning repositories for educational materials), in most cases they are established toprovide Open Access to the institution’s research output4. It gives the institution’s researchNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 9
  23. 23. programme worldwide visibility and increases its impact. Institutional repositories containtheses, dissertations and other research-related outputs such as presentations, images, peerreviewed articles and books. In an open access model, the publication costs are paid from anauthors research budget, or by their supporting organization / institution, in the form ofProcessing Charges. Payment of a fee depends upon institution, journal, funding agency, etc.Fee also depends on the length of the material, institutional membership, reviews, etc.ROAR ROAR is Registry of Open Access Repositories. Now there are 2559 repositorieslisted in the registry. The aim of ROAR is to promote the development of open access byproviding timely information about the growth and status of repositories throughout theworld. Open access to research maximises research access and thereby also research impact,making research more productive and effective. ROAR is hosted at the University ofSouthampton, UK and is made possible by funding from the JISC. Joint Information SystemsCommittee continues to win the use of digital technology to ensure that UK remains world-class in research, teaching and learning.Need for the study Former studies show that open access literature receives twice as many citations andpossibly greater impact. People publish in the open access mode in order to get better impactand wider access 5. Universities, research institutions, government organisations, etc have alsodemonstrated support for open access by becoming a member of ROAR, and by hosting openaccess repositories. As the number of Open access repositories available in internet is growingevery day, India’s present position in the count should be known. A study on this basis hasnot been extensively studied so far. Keeping in view the above aspects, a study has been takenup to know the current state of contribution from India. These studies serve as an indicator toassess the research output of various institutions.Methodology To explore open access repositories from India, ROAR have been searched by thename of country, which listed all the nations that have joined the directory. The data coveredunder the study are gathered on 25 October 2011. The list shows country name, number ofrepositories added into ROAR, total number of records of each institutions, graphicalrepresentation of deposit activity, etc. The field ‘India’ have been selected to know the list ofopen access repositories from India. Details of each repository were recorded and analysedwith Microsoft office Excel 2007. Tables and graphs were used for analyzing the rest of thedata. The reference tool, Microsoft office word 2007 version was used to providebibliographic references, according to the American Psychological Association Style.Data Analysis and Interpretation In this study attention is drawn to the relative concentration of Indian research: byinstitution, by location, where there has been an increasing concentration of research activitydue to the presence of universities, research institutions and other organisations. There arealtogether 2559 repositories covered in ROAR as on 25th October 2011. They contain free,full text, quality controlled, scientific and scholarly materials covering various subjects. In all,there are institutional repositories, subject repositories, theses and dissertation repositories.The quality of these repositories varies widely as well as their maintenance.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 10
  24. 24. India’s Rate When searched by country, ROAR shows the current spread of O A repositories ineach nation. There are altogether 94countries currently listed in the registry. America, Britainand Japan are in first, second and third positions. India occupies the seventh place. USA’soutput rose to more than five times larger than India. USA had a total of three hundred andninety five; Britain had two hundred and fifteen and Japan with one hundred and thirty eightrepositories. They are followed by Germany, Brazil, Spain and China. India is in the eighthposition with seventy five open access repositories. This can be represented in the followingfigure. Many of the high research active nations have low open access repository output. It ishigh time that their research contribution should be freely available to the public and moreOA initiative should be made. Of course, there is an increasing tendency of open accesspublishing irrespective of countries in each year. This year India has added thirteen morerepositories in ROAR. Figure1: Countries that tops in ROAR No. of repositories 395 215 138 133 109 94 78 75 USA UK Japan Germany Brazil Spain China InaiaYear wise growth OA Repositories in India Open access repositories are attracting readers’ attention in today’s digitalenvironment. They open up many opportunities. These are one of the main vehicles used byresearchers for scholarly communication. Various institutions such as Libraries, Associations,and Universities are taking initiative in publicizing their institutional repositories. It is seenthat there is an increase of open access repositories during the last few years. The year wisegrowth of open access journals from India is represented in the following figure. Each yearmore and more publishers are making their materials in to open access mode. This may be dueto the awareness created by the academic community.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 11
  25. 25. Figure 2: year wise growth of OA Repositories in India No. of repositories 75 62 52 39 29 24 12 4 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Type of repository There are different types of repositories. Repositories that provide an online depositfor collecting, preserving, and disseminating the intellectual output of an institution comeunder research institutional repository. Individual departments should not sit and wait for theiruniversity to get its OA. Research Multi-Institutional Repository contains output of three ormore academic and research institutions. Cross institutional means the collaboration betweenvarious research institutions. Then there are open access repositories of e-journal/publications, e-thesis, learning & teaching objects and other kind of repositories. Thefollowing table shows the different kinds of repositories from India as listed in ROAR. Table 1: Type of repositories Type No. of repositories Research Institutional/Departmental 50 Multi-Institutional Repository 2 Research cross-Institutional 6 e journal/publication 4 e-thesis 6 Learning & Teaching objects 3 Other types 4 TOTAL 75National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 12
  26. 26. Deposit activity in Indian institutions India can claim of having many top research institutions in the world. There is a greatrole and responsibility of promoting open access repositories by colleges, Universities,research institutions, professional bodies and other private organisations. For the entireperiod, output growth rates were greater in government of India and state funded researchinstitutions than in private institutions and universities. Universities offer a full range ofprograms that are committed to graduate education through the doctorate, and give highpriority to research. And they award at least fifty or more doctoral degrees each year. Theopen access repositories from universities are very low. Five institutions that tops withmaximum number of records in ROAR can be seen in this diagram. These institutionsrepresent a significant concentration of India’s research power. Figure 3: Record output by the most prolific groups in India. 29659 11260 No. of Records 8434 4132 3966 Indian Institute Online NISCAIR of SciencePeriodical E prints @ National Central Marine Reository Aeronautic Raman Research Fisheries Institute Digital Limited Research Repository Institutional Institute Repository Research is central to the overall mission of these institutions. And many of whichachieve or aspire to worldwide recognition as research leaders. Output trends for theseinstitutions basically mirror trends for the research sector as a whole.Software used in the OA repositories Software that supports data management, including books, theses, 3D digital scans ofobjects, photographs, film, video, research data sets and other forms of content are used inrepositories. Table 2 shows that most of the OA repositories in India are using Dspace forarchiving. Table 2: Software used in OA repositories Softwares No. of repositories Dspace 41 Eprints 23 Greenstone 2 Others 9 TOTAL 75National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 13
  27. 27. DSpace is an open source software package that provides the tools for management ofdigital assets, and is commonly used as the basis for an institutional repository6. EPrints is yetDigital Repository free software that provides a web interface for managing, submitting,downloading and archiving documents. Greenstone is a suite of open-source software forbuilding and distributing digital library collections. Some repositories use various othersoftwares for data management.State wise distribution The current state of research in the India will remain strong, with significant funding,excellent academic institutions, collective research efforts, innovations, and results. Allpublicly-funded research should be available through OA channels. The figure below showsthat Karnataka has the maximum number of open access repositories from India. Delhi is inthe next place. Many states have taken only a less initiative in this direction. Figure 4: State wise distribution of open access repositories No. of repositories Kerala 11 Karnataka 14 West Bengal 1 Uttarakhand 2 Kashmir 3 Uttar Pradesh 4 Gujarat 7 Delhi 12 Maharashtra 8 Orissa 4 Tamil Nadu 5 Andra Pradesh 1 Jharkhand 1 Goa 2National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 14
  28. 28. Conclusion Building up a repository is a tough task. It requires careful planning and resources. Itrequires sufficient hardware, software and competent human resources etc. Internetconnectivity should be of high bandwidth and available around the clock. Starting an openaccess repository is beneficial to all. Such bodies should come up in higher educational andresearch institutions in the country. Once the repository is established, winning trust ofcontent owners and end users for popularising repository is another major challenge. Itrequires spreading awareness among scientific community about various benefits of openaccess self-archiving7. The primary motivation for open access is providing fundamentalaccess to research. There has been a perceptible increase in the number of OA materialspublished in each discipline especially in science. Government have started promotionguidelines to encourage openness mandating article archiving at the university, college, ordepartment level and publishing in open access journals. More and more people preferpublishing their research activities in open access mode because of the high visibility andincreased rate of citation. Researchers must also be able to easily access and utilize otherscholar’s work and to ensure that their own work is equally available for use by otherscholars. Though we have several universities and research laboratories in the government,corporate and the non-government sectors, our open access repository output is not up to theexpectation level.ReferencesVishala, B. K. & Bhandi. (n.d.).Web Resource Service: Usage of Open Access Journals bytheAcademicians of Autonomous Colleges in Dakshina Kannada-A Survey. RetrievedOctober 17, 2011, from http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/dxml/bitstream/handle/1944/1647/55.pdfPeter, S. (n.d.). Timeline of the Open Access Movement. Retrieved November 3, 2011, fromhttp:// www. earlham. edu/~peters/ fos/timeline.htm.Pinfield, S. (2005). A mandate to self archive? The role of open access institutionalrepositories. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from http:// uksg.metapress.com/media/d86tgdpafp4yvl806ywv/contributions/y/b/j/r/ybjrxgwpp57hvllf.pdfOpen access repositories. (n.d.). Retrieved November 7, 2011, fromhttp://www.openoasis.org/index.php?option=comcontent&view=article&id=137&Itemid=333Stuart, M. (n.d.). Equity for Open-Access Journal Publishing. Retrieved June 7, 2011, fromhttp://www.plosbiology.org/article/ info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal. pbio.1000165.Dspace. (n.d.). Retrieved November 5, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dspace.Building the Open Access Self-Archiving repository for the Bio Medical Sciences at NationalInformatics Centre. (n.d.). Retrieved October 28, 2011, fromhttp://openmed.nic.in/1108/02/mlai.pdf.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 15
  29. 29. Overview of Open Source Software for Libraries M. Prema Abstract Open source software tools have been gaining increased attention in the field of librarianship. This paper attempts to introduce open source software with definition. Further, characteristics, features, advantages and disadvantages of OSS are also discussed. This paper also attempts to profile some of the open source software viz., KOHA, DSpace, GSDL, EAS, Archimede, ACS, etc., useful for library and information science professionals. Keywords: Open Source Software, KOHA, Dspace, Green Stone, EAS, Archimede, ACSIntroduction Due to tremendous growth in the field of information and communication technologyopen source came into existence. The term “Open Source” refers to software that is free andthat includes the original source code used to create it. So that user can modify if to make itwork better for them. It is created by programmers who want to share their source codewhich is part of a program that is readable by anyone who might find the program or avariation of the program useful which they can view, amend and adopt. It is maintained by ateam of developers cutting across the institutional and national boundaries. In general the source code of open source software is widely accessible freelyavailable and reusable. The most popular open source license, the general public license(GPL) allows most full use and reuse of source code.Definition of Open Source Software According to www.oss4lib.org the clearing house for information on open sourcedevelopment within the library community. OSS means many things. • It is typically created and maintained by developers crossing institutional and national boundaries, collaborating by using internet based communications and development tools. • Products are typically a certain kind of “free” of ten through a license that specifies that applications and source code are free to use, modify and redistribute as long as all uses modifications & redistribution are similarly licensed. • Successful applications tend to be developed more quickly and with better responsiveness to the needs of users who can readily use and evaluate open source applications because they are free. • Quality, not profit, drives open source developers who take personal pride in seeing their working solutions adopted. • IPR rights to OSS belong to everyone who help to build it, simply use it, not just the vendor or institution that created or sold the software.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 16
  30. 30. A more succinct definition from www.opensource.org claims that OSS promotessoftware reliability, quality of supporting independent peer review and rapid evolution ofsource code. To be certified as open source, the license of a program must be guarantee theright to read, redistribute, modify and use it freely.Characteristics of OSS • Manufacturer or developer has no right to claim royalties on the distribution of these OSS. • OSS can be acquired freely or at minimal cost. • Source code of open source software is accessible to the user and distributed with the software. • OSS has provision of modifications and derivations of the work under the programmers original name. • No denial to an individual or to a group to access source code of the software. • Rights or facilities attached to the programmes being part of a particular software distribution. • Licensed software cannot place restrictions on other software that is distributed with it. In simple word, the OSS are those software that are available to the user with sourcecode. A user can make modification or edit the software’s source code as per specificrequirements. The OSS is different from free software (FS). In case of FS the user has notfreedom to edit or modify source code as per their requirements. It can be downloaded orprocured without paying any cost to the manufacturers like OSS.Features of OSS According to Bruce Perens & Debian having Open Access (OA) were mentionedbelow: • Free Distribution • Source Code • Derived works • Integrity of the author’s source code • No discrimination against person or group • Distribution of License • License must not restrict other software • License must not be specific to a product • License must be technology – neutralNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 17
  31. 31. Advantages of OSS • Lower cost or Initial cost • Greater accessibility • Easier evaluation • Allows for more support options • Vendor lock-in is dramatically reduced with OSS.Disadvantages of Oss • Compatibility • Lack of control & responsibility • Technical SupportOverview of OSS in Library Automation & DigitizationLet us see some of the OSS in the field of Library & Information Science.KOHA – Koha Open source library system (http://www.koha.org/) koha is the first opensource integrated library system. (ILS) It is used in worldwide. Koha’s impressive featureset continues to evolve and expand to meet the needs of its user base. Some of the importantfeatures of Koha system are • Library Catalogue front end / OPAC • Library system intranet. • Circulation tracking system. • Acquisition / budgeting system.D Space Durable Digital Depository (http://www.dspace.org/) D space is one of the first open source software platforms to store, mange anddistribute its collection in digital format. Developed by Massachusctts Institute ofTechnology (MIT) Libraries & Hewlett Packard (HP) can support a wide variety of artifacts,including books, theses, 3D digital scans of objects, photographs, film, research data sets andother forms of content.Green Stone POPULAR (http;//www.greenstone.org/) Green stone is a suite of software for building and distributing digital librarycollections. It provides new way of organizing information and publishing it on the Internetor on CD-ROM. It is produced by Newzealand Digital Library Project at the Univerisity ofWaikato, and developed and distributed in co-operation with UNESCO and Human InfoNGO. It is open source, multi lingual software, issued under the terms of General PublicLicense.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 18
  32. 32. E Prints Archive Software (EAS) (http://wiki.eprints.org/) E-prints is generic archive software under development by the University ofSouthampton. Its primary goal is to set up an open for research papers, but it could be easilyused for other things such as images, research data, audio archives anything that can be storeddigitally by making changes in configuration.Archimede http://www/bib1.ulaval.ca/archimede/ It is developed by Laval University Library. Archimede is open source software forbuilding institutional repositories. It has been developed with a multilingual perspective. Itincludes English, French & Spanish interfaces. The user can switch from language tolanguage anywhere & anytime for searching & retrieving content comes under general publiclicense.Avanti Circulation System (http://www/avantilibrarysystems.com/index/html) The Avanti circulation system is a simple, scalable net workable, client / servercirculation system can be deployed in small to medium scale libraries. This can beimplemented for circulative module, minimal OPAC & net work user interfaces.Conclusion OSS is a vital tool for the management of a computerized in an organization. Libraryand Information science professionals can automate library activities and services byapplication of this kind of software even with the decreasing library budgets. With thefeature of open source one can add or modify software features as per its own requirements. In house skill can be developed to address future requirements. Life long learningprocess and competitiveness can be inculcated among the workers. This type of software isalso suited for the organizations and persons those who are unable to afford costlycommercial software.Referenceshttp://en.wikipedia.org/http://wikiopensource-softwarehttp://www.opensource.org/docs/definitions.phphttp://sourceforge.nethttp://www.doaj.org/Sardana J.L., Library vision Indian libraries & librarianship : in retrospect and prospect. Pg185 – 188, 2010.Jaswal D.S. etal., Recent trends in library & information science. Pg. 285 to 291, 315 to 320.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 19
  33. 33. Social Networking Technologies: An Observation Y.Ch.Venkateswarlu Abstract The paper covers the social networking when it comes to online social networking. It describes the need of social networking, their common features and emerging trends in the social networking use. It further comprehensively covers the issues in the social networking and elaborates the top 10 ranked social networking sites of the world. It concludes with the opinion that even though the social networking has its benefits in the virtual world, the real world is greatly impeded by the increasing use of online social networking. It is therefore felt that socializing and having real friends in the real world is much better than living in a virtual world. Keywords: Social Networking Site, Face Book, Twitter, Orkut, Bebo, Zorpia, Hi5Introduction Social networking is the way the 21st century communicates today. Social networkingis the grouping of individuals into specific groups. Although online community services aresometimes considered as a social network service but in a broader sense, social networkservice usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services aregroup-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, andinterest within their individual networks. The main types of social networking services are those which contain category placessuch as former school-year or classmates mean to connect with friends usually with self-description pages and a recommendation system linked to trust.Why Social Networking? Through social networking, people can use networks of online friends and groupmemberships t keep in touch with current friends, reconnect with old friends or create real-lifefriendships through similar interests or groups. Besides establishing important socialrelationships, social networking members can share their interests with other like-mindedmembers by joining groups and forums. Some networking can also help members find a jobor establish business contacts. Most social networking websites also offer additional features. In addition to blogsand forums, member’s can express themselves by designing their profile page to reflect theirpersonality. The most popular extra features include music and video sections.Some Common Features of Social Networking Sites Most social networking sites present freedom of expression by offering the ability toupload photos, music and videos. Each site also offers customized profile pages using varyingthemes making homepage design a quick and simple process. Another shared quality is theability to search for new friends with common interests or the option to search for existingfriends by simply entering their name or e-mail address.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 20
  34. 34. Trends in Social Networking Use As the increase in popularity of social networking is on a constant rise, new uses forthe technology are constantly being observed. At the forefront of emerging trends in socialnetworking sites is the concept of “real time” and “location based” real time allows users tocontribute contents, which is then broadcasted as it is being uploaded the concept is similar tolive television broadcasts. Twitter set the trend for “real time” services, where users canbroadcast to the world what they are doing, or what is on their minds within a character limit.Face book followed suit which their “Live feed “where user’s activities are streamed as soonas it happen. While twitter focuses on words, Clixtr, another real time service, focuses ongroup photo sharing where users can update their photo streams with photos while at an event.In the location based social networking space, foursquare gained popularity as it is allowedfor users to “check –in” to places that they are frequenting at the movement. Gowalla isanother search service which functions in much the same way that the foursquare does,leveraging the GPS in phones to create a location based user experience. Clixtr, though in thereal time space, is also a location based social networking site since events created by usersautomatically retagged, and users can view events occurring nearby through the Clixtr iphoneapp. One popular use for this new technology is social networking between businesses.Companies have found that social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are grateways to build their brand image. These companies are able to drive traffic to their own onlinesites while encouraging their consumers and clients to have discussions on how to improve orchange products or services. Social networks are also being used by teachers and students as a communication tool.Because many students are already using a wide-range of social networking sites, teachershave begun to familiarize themselves with this trend and are now using it to their advantage.Teachers and professors are doing everything from creating chat-room forums and groups toextend class room discussion to posting assignments, tests and quizzes to assisting withhomework outside of the class room setting. Social network are also being used to fosterteacher-parent communication. These sites make it possible and more convenient for parentsto ask questions and voice concerns without having to meet face –to- face. Social networksare also being used by activists as a means of low-cost grassroots organizing. The use of online social networks by libraries is also an increasingly prevalent andgrowing tool that is being used to communicate with more potential library users, as well asextending the services provided by individual libraries. A final rise in social network use isbeing driven by college students using the services to network with professionals forinternship and job opportunities.Issues in social networking:Privacy On large social networking, services, there have been growing concerns about usersgiving out too much personal information and the threat of sexual predators. Users of theseservices also need to be aware of data theft or viruses. However, large services, such asMyspace and Nelog, often work with law enforcement to try to prevent such incidents. Every day teens go on social networking sites and reveal their most inner thoughts for the whole world to see. Information such as street address, phone number, named isNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 21
  35. 35. disclosed to an unknown population in cyberspace. What’s more, the creation of a Facebook, Myspace,Twitter, etc account is a fairly is process to do and no identification is required, which can lead to identity theft or impersonation. Privacy on the net is a rare thing these days and ultimately it is left to the user to be responsible and improve his or her privacy online. Potential for misuse The relative freedom afforded by social networking services has caused regarding the potential of its misuse by individual patrons. In October 2006, a fake Myspace profile created in the name of Josh Evans by Lori Janine Drew led to the suicide of Megan Meier (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/social_network_service#cite_note-50). The event incited global concern regarding the use of social networking services for bullying purposes. At the same time, genuine use of social networking services has been treated with suspicion on the ground of the services’ misuse. In September 2008, the profile of Australian Facebook users Elmo Keep was banned by the site’s administrators on the grounds that it violated the site’s terms of use. Keep is one of several users of Facebook who were banned from the site on the presumption that their names aren’t real, as they bear resemblance the name of characters like Sesame Street’s Elmo. Social network services are increasingly being used in legal and criminal investigations. Information posted on sites such as Myspace and Facebook has been used by police (forensic profiling) probation and university officials to prosecute users of said sites. in some situations, contents posted on Myspace have been used in court. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/social network service-cite note-57 Facebook is increasingly being used by school administrations and law enforcement agencies as a source of evidence against student users. The site the number one online destination for college student, allows users to create profile pages with personal details. These pages can be viewed by other registered users from the same school which often include resident assistance and campus police who have signed-up for the service. Notifications on websites There has been a trend for social networking sites to send out only positive notifications to users. For example sites such as Bebo, Facebook and Myspace will not send notifications to users when they are removed from a person’s friends list. Similarly Bebo will send out a notification if a user is moved to the top of another user’s friends list but no notification is sent if they are moved down the list. This allows users to purge undesirables from their list extremely easily and often without conformation since a user will rarely notice if one person disappears from their friends list. It also enforces the general positive atmosphere of the website without drawing attention to unpleasant happenings such as friends falling out, rejection and failed relationships.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 22
  36. 36. Access to information Many social networking services, such as Facebook, provide the user with a choice of who can view their profile. This prevents unauthorized user (s) form accessing their information. Parents have become a big problem to teens who want to avoid their parents to access their Myspace or Facebook accounts. By choosing to make their profile private, teens are able to select who can see their page and this prevents unwanted parents from lurking. This will also mean that only people who are added as “friends” will be able to view the profile. Teens are constantly trying to create a structural barrier between their private life and their parents. To edit information and a certain social networking service account, the social networking sites require you to login or provide an access code. This prevents unauthorized user(s) form adding, changing, or removing personal information, pictures, and /or other data. Trolling A common misuse of social networking sites such as Face book is that it is occasionally used to emotionally abuse individuals. Such actions are often referred to as trolling. It is not rare for confrontations in the real world to be translated online. Online bullying (Cyber-bullying) is a relatively common occurrence and it can often result in emotional trauma for the victim. The teenager expresses frustration towards networking sites like Myspace because it causes drama and too much emotional stress. There are not many limitations as to what individuals can post when online. Inherently individuals are given the power to post offensive remarks or pictures that could potentially cause a great amount of emotional pain for another individual. Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal communication has been a growing issue as more and more people have turned to social networking as a means of communication. Further, social networking sites have become popular sites for youth culture to explore them, relationship and share cultural artifacts. Many teens and social networking users may be harming their interpersonal communication by using sites such as Facebook and Myspace. Risk for Child Safety Citizens and Government have been concerned by misuse by child and teenagers of social network services, particularly in relation to online sexual predators.Top 10 Social Networking Sites 2011 According to a latest study b y Digital Percept.com (http://www.digitalpercept.com/ 2011/01/top-11-social-networking-websites-of-2011), the top 10 world social networking sites of 2011 with their features in the hierarchy are below. Twitter Twitter is a free social networking and micro-blogging service that enables its users to send and read messages known as tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 23
  37. 37. characters displayed on the author’s profile page and delivered to the author’s subscribers who are known as followers. Senders can restrict delivery to those in their circle of friends or, by default, allow open access. Users can send and receive tweets via the Twitter website, short message service (SMS) or external applications. While the service itself costs nothing to use, accessing it through SMS may incur phone service provider fees. Link: http://www.twitter.com Myspace.Com Myspace is a social networking website with its headquarters in Beverly Hills, California. Myspace became the most popular social networking site in the United States in the June 2006 and was over taken internationally by its main competitor, Facebook, in April 2008, based on monthly unique visitors. It offers all the important features available in the social networking sites. Link http://www.myspace.com Facebook Facebook users can add friends and send them messages, and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. Additionally, users can join networks organized by city, workplace, school and region. The websites name stems from the colloquial name of books given at the start of the academic year by university administrations with the intention of helping students to get to know each other better. Link http://www.facebook.com Bebo Bebo is a popular social networking site which connects you to everyone and everything you care about. It is your life online a social experience that helps you discover what’s going on with your world and helps the world discover what’s going on with you. Bebo combines community, self-expression and entertainment, enabling you to consume, create, discover, curate and share digital contents in entirely new ways. Link http://www.bebo.com Friendster The service allows users to contact other members maintain those contacts and share online contacts. The web site is also used for dating and discovering new events, bands and hobbies. Users may share videos, photos, messages and comments with other member via their profile and their network. Link http://www.friendster.com Hi5 The Hi5, users create an online profile in order to show information such as interests, age and hometown and upload user pictures where users can post comments. Hi5 also allows the users create personal photo albums and set up a music player in the profile. Users can also send friend requests via e-mail to other users. Link http://www.Hi5.comNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 24
  38. 38. Orkut Orkut is a social networking service owned and operated by Google. The service is designed to help users meet new friends and maintain existing relationships. The website is named after its creator, Google employee Orkut BuyUkkokten. Although orkut is less popular in the United States than competitors Facebook and Myspace, it one of the most visited websites in India and Brazil. Link http://www.orkut.com Zorpia Zorpia was founded in 2003 with a goal of bringing people together form all over the world and allowing them to share their ideas and interests. Since then the Zorpia Team has worked ceaselessly to reach people’s heart and provide the best features in order to maximize user’s satisfaction. Primary features are photo album, online journal, social networking, customized homepage, comment system and discussion forum. Link http://www.zorpia.com Netlog Netlog (formerly known as Facebox and Bingbox) is a Belgian social networking website specifically targeted at the European youth demographic. On Netlog, members can create their own web page, extend their social network, publish their music play lists, share videos post blogs and join groups. Link http://www.netlog.com Propeller Propeller is a social news portal, meaning that it is programmed by you- the audience. The members post links to stories from all over the web. Many of these stories originate from the websites of traditional media, including newspapers and magazines. But you will also find many stories that seldom pop up in the mainstream. Perhaps it does take a village –or at least a large community of news-hungry citizens- to nudge certain stories into the limelight. Link http://www.propeller.comConclusion Online social networking offers people grate convenience for social networking. Itallows people to keep in touch with friends reconnect with old friends or acquaintances, meetnew people, and even conduct business, with the click of a few buttons. You can find peoplewith similar interests and get to know them better, even if are in a different country withouthaving to worry about an enormous phone bill or going over the restricted minutes on a phonecard. However, like all things, nothing can be too good to be true. With an increased amountof time spent on the internet comes with consequences. As studies have shown, the more timespent on the internet browsing through online communities and chatting through instantmessenger means less time spent socializing with real people. People slowly becomedisembodied with real life and believe they live in a virtual world with virtual friends. As theyNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 25
  39. 39. begin to lose tough with other people, they increasingly isolate themselves. Though suicide isquite drastic in this sense, it explains how people can become depressed. Therefore, even though it has its benefits in the virtual world, the real world is greatlyimpeded by the increasing use of online social networking. It is therefore felt that socializingand having real friends in the real world is much better than living in a virtual world.Referenceshttp://addthis.com/bookmark.php?v=250&username=suite101comhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/online_communityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/social_network_service#cite_not-marketing-jive.com-35http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/use_of_social_network_websites_in_investigationshttp://eunis.dk/papers/p41.pdfhttp://www..digitalpercept.comhttp://www.meetup.comhttp://family.jrank.org/pages/1607/social-networks-Conclusion.html#ixzz0rXHEkjFGNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 26
  40. 40. Virtual Reality Technology as “Library” S.M. Mohamed Lukman and M. Manthiramoorthi Abstract Change has become a way of life for most organizations in the 21st century. In Order to withstand profound change, an organization must be flexible and incorporate the ability to adapts and respond to its external environment. At the same times, in an era of increasing fiscal constraints, new technologies and an explosion of information, informatics plays an increasingly important and prominent role in society in knowledge exchange in communication and commerce between organizations. Accordingly, the most remarkable opportunities and challenges have emerged within libraries with regard to the incorporation of technology into daily functioning. Libraries only achieve real change when every person from staff to administer, is willing to examine functions, strategies and goals. This paper explains the Virtual libraries implementations and its reality with incorporated with the advancement in technologies and also explains the applications and its advantages of virtual libraries and its technical aspects. Keywords: Virtual Reality, Virtual Library, Online Library, Networked LibraryVirtual Library - Introduction Virtual Library can be defined as a Library without walls that can exist anywhere todisseminate information to the people without using an intermediary. Virtual Library (VL) ispossible on the Internet. Virtual Libraries are valuable resources since they provide up-to-date, authoritative data on different areas. The concept of Virtual Library emergedsimultaneously with electronic library and digital library. This emergence if perhaps becauseall the information user are at present through networked libraries at the desktop. VirtualLibrary, Electronic Library, Digital Library, Online Library, Networked Library, etc., havebeen used to describe the library as it exists in the networked environment, which is quiteVirtual (i.e., Practical ) without the physical existence of books or journals on the shelves.Characteristics of a true Virtual Library • There is no corresponding physical collection. • Documents will be available in electronic format. • Documents are not stored in any one location. • Documents can be accessed from any workstation. • Documents are retrieved and delivered as and when required. • Effective search and browse facilities available.Virtual Reality Virtual Reality is generally Computer Generated (CG) Environment that makes theuser thinks that he / she is in the real environments. One may also experience a Virtual Realityby simply imagining it, but we will focus on computer generated virtual realities for thisdiscussion.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 27