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Elite 2011 conference proceedings


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  • 1. Emerging Library and Information Technologies (ELITE 2011)
  • 2. Emerging Library and Information Technologies Papers presented at the National Seminar on Emerging Library and Information Technologies (ELITE 2011) 9-10 December, 2011 Organised byTamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Chennai Editors Dr.G.Rathinasabapathy Dr.V.Chandrakumar Dr.K.Elavazhakan Department of Library Science Madras Veterinary College Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Chennai – 600 007 December 2011
  • 3. Emerging Library and Information Technologies 2011Edited by: G.Rathinasabapathy, V.Chandrakumar and K. Elavazhakan© TANUVAS, 2011Published byDepartment of Library ScienceMadras Veterinary CollegeTamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences UniversityChennai – 600 007ISBN: 978-81-922103-0-8All data, views, opinions, etc., being published are the sole responsibility of the authors. Neitherthe publishers nor the editors in anyway are responsible for them.All rights reserved. No part of this publication can be reproduced in any form includingphotocopying, microfilming, photo prints, storage in any retrieval system, transmission in anypermanent or temporary form by any means without the prior written permission of thepublisher.
  • 4. PREFACEInformation management environment has radically transformed in the past three decades due tothe technological advancements taken place in the field of ICT viz., electronic publishing,Internet, open access, interoperability, online services, online databases etc. These advancementshave brought about paradigm shift in library and information management, redefined end usersinteractions with libraries empowering them with new tools for local access to globalinformation resources. In the context of changing information scenario, there is an urgent need tocomprehensively review these advancements and to assess their impact on the Library andInformation Service (LIS) profession.Considering this perspective, the Department of Library Science, Madras Veterinary College,Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University has planned to organize a nationalseminar on ‘Emerging Library and Information Technologies (ELITE) 2011’ as a part of theWorld Veterinary Year 2011 celebrations of the University. It is very important that this is thefirst time this library is organizing such a national level event in the history of the library whichwas established in 1903 along with the Madras Veterinary College. Contributions fromprofessionals for presentation in the National Seminar scheduled for 9-10 December 2011 wereinvited. The response to the call for papers has been very encouraging and the papers receivedinclude research reports, survey reports, trend reports, research reviews and case studies. Thesepapers were reviewed for publication in the seminar volume. Based on recommendations of theeditorial committee, though hard at times, the content in the conference volume was limited to109 full length papers.The papers comprising this volume cover all important topics as are relevant to the theme of thenational seminar. In particular the focus is on topics such as Information and CommunicationTechnology (ICT), Emerging trends, Library and Information Services Management, LibraryServices, User studies, Consortia / Networking and Digital library.We sincerely hope the speakers and the participants in the national seminar will find the materialuseful and helpful in brainstorming issues and problems confronting library and informationcentres. Their discussions on research findings and case studies as reported in seminar paperswill certainly help identify challenges facing the information profession and professionals, andevolve, in this process, innovative ideas to help shape library and information centres and theirfuture direction of research.We extend our special thanks to Dr.R.Prabakaran, Hon’ble Vice-Chancellor, TANUVAS,Dr.C.Balachandran, Registrar, TANUVAS and Dr.B.Murali Manohar, Dean, Madras VeterinaryCollege and other authorities of the university for their encouragement and all support extendedto conduct the national seminar.
  • 5. We extend our special thanks to ELITE 2011 teams of organizing committees, associates andsponsors for their invaluable support. We thank all the invited speakers, contributors, andsession chairs.We are indebted to Prof.A.Amudhavalli, Head, DLIS, University of Madras and her team for alltheir kind support. Editors
  • 6. CONTENTSPrefaceI. Information and Communication Technology (ICT)Reaching Library 2.0 Services with Web 2.0 Technologies 1 Shahin Rahimi and V. ChandrakumarOpen Access repositories in India as reflected in ROAR 9 L.S Suguna. and A. GopikuttanOverview of Open Source Software for Libraries 16 M. PremaSocial Networking technologies: An Observation 20 Y.Ch.VenkateswarluVirtual Reality Technology as “Library” 27 S.M. Mohamed Lukman and M. ManthiramoorthiWeb tools and its implication in Libraries for an effective Information 31Dissemination M. Jannath Najeemunnisa BeegumThe applications of Web 2.0 in libraries: A study 39 R.PerumalsamyEmerging Technological Innovations in Library Management and Services 46 K. Murugan, S. Ravi, S.Surianarayanan and S.UnnamalaiManaging Technical Information Centre using NEWGENLIB open source 52software: A Case study of SAMEER-CEM P.RamamoorthiCyberspace with a Human Face: Social Software in Academic Libraries 59 Avineni Kishore and M. PandurangaswamyICT and Internet Literacy amongst the University Library users of north 66Eastern States of India for Accessing to Electronic / Web Resources : AnEmpirical Study Manoj Kumar SinhaOpen Source Software for Libraries : An Over view 84 D.Sankara Narayanan and M.Sithi JagannaraRole of Social Networking Sites 92 Sumuki Padmanabhan and N. ThilagavathyLibrary 2.0 - Transition in the Library Environment 102 B. SrilakshmiAn innovative Application of Information and Communication Technology for 107
  • 7. Veterinary and Animal Husbandry S.Senthilkumar, R.Ramprabhu and V.RanganathanApplication of RFID Technology in Automation of Libraries 113 Dhiraj KumarLibrary 2.0, Information and Digital Literacy in the Light of the 119Contradictory Nature of Web 2.0 Ramireddy PusapatiSocial Networks in N.P.R Library & Info center 129 M.Veerachamy, C.Martin Arokiasamy and P.BalasubramanianSave the Time of the Readers in Public Libraries: A Study of how ICT 133Coincide with the Fourth Law of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan R. Sivasankari and K. NithyanandamWeb 2.0 and Library Services 140 L.R. Divya and K.G. SudhierSocial Networking Sites and its Application in Libraries 146 V.Radha Krishnan, M.S. Premraj and L.RajendranTo e-publishing: a tribute to modern era 149 Ruchika KrishnaUse of social networking sites: a study among university library professionals 155in Coimbatore District K.Mahalakshmi, and S.Ally SornamApplication of RFID Technology in Libraries: An overview 159 Y.Ch.VenkateswarluII. Emerging TrendsKnowledge Mobilisation through e-learning / virtual learning 166 N. NatarajanIntellectual Property Rights in the Digital Environment 176 K.Vijayakumar, and T.PrabakaranRole of Intellectual Property Right in the age of Digital Environment 182 Prashant Kumar, and Anvita SrivastavaIndian Information Law and its Implementation Policy 189 Umesh Kumar Agarwal and Prakash Chandra VijayvargiyaAn overview of E-Learning Technology 197 Subhash ChandraA Study on Emerging Library and Information Technologies about Virtual 206Learning
  • 8. J.Thangam, S.SurianarayananAn Introduction to MARC 21 Bibliographical formats 214 Subarna Kr. DasNew Techniques of Information Technology 222 T.PrabakaranEmergence of Technological Trajectories in copyright landscape and its impact 227on Public Domain of knowledge – An analysis of intellectual property issues inlibrary and information centres. S. Jasimudeen , E.R.Jayaram , and M. Maghesh RajanE- Learning and Information Literacy in Higher Education Institutions and 236University Libraries: A Study Suresh Kumar T V, Maghesh Rajan M and Jasimudeen SE-learning among Postgraduate Students: A Comparative Study 242 Vahida Beegam, Mahjabeen Aydeed, V. JalajaInformation Literacy Models – An Overview 255 M.Sithi Jagannara, P.Sivaraman and Nagaraja .SIII. Library and Information Services ManagementImpact of E-Resources in the Modern Library 264 A. Seeran, and A.KavithaCustomer Relationship Management in the Perspective of Library Reader 268Service J.Arumugam, G.Rathinasabapathy and L.RajendranApplication of Six Sigma Tool in Library Management: A Bird’s Eye View 272 R. Sevukan, N Suresh, R. MadasamyN-list: A Boon For College Libraries: A case study of SCN Library 278 S. L Jadhav, and Anil N. ChikateGrowth of Engineering Institutions and their Libraries in Tamil Nadu 284 L. Rajendran, V. Radhakrishnan and M.S. PremrajImproving Workforce Capability among LIS Professionals using People CMM 290(Level 2) N. Geetha and S. BabusankarOpportunities and Challenges of Content Management in Digital Era 299 D. PrabhavathiThe Role of Human Resource Management System in Academic Library 303 L. Rajendran, G. Rathinasabapathy, J. ArumugamAgricultural ICT Resources Available to the Farming Community in India 306
  • 9. C.Prema, K. Chinnasamy and M.SankarKnowledge Management and the Role of Libraries 313 S. ManikandanIV. Library ServicesVirtual Reference Services 317 Yogita SharmaPrint and E-resources: A comparative discussion with special reference to 323Legal Resources Shiva PariharCommunity Information Service and Internet 327 R.PerumalMarketing of Information Sources and Services aimed to provide an Effective 331Access and use By the Research Scholars and Teachers in the MahatmaGandhi University Library: A Case Study Maghesh Rajan M, Jasimudeen S and Dr. Suresh KumarLibrary Marketing: an overview 342 S. Bala, P.Balasubramanian and P.BaalachandaranMarketing Library Services and Products 347 A. AsmaVirtual Reference Service and Marketing of Library Services and Products 354 K. IndumathiTraces of Prior Art Search in Patent and Non- Patent Technical Literature 360Resources J. Kasinathan, K.NithyanandamE-Mail Discussion Forum in Library and Information Services in India: A 369Study M. Tamizhchelvan, S. DhanvandanApplication of Marketing Techniques in Library Services and Products 376 M.Veerabasavaiah and S. PadmammaConservation of Library Materials 381 K.SaravananV. User StudiesAwareness and Ability to Use E-Resources by Faculty in Engineering Colleges 387in Andhra Pradesh: A Study S. LakshmiAwareness and use of Wi-Fi infrastructure in student’s community: A case 394
  • 10. study Pondicherry University on campus students Mangkhollen Singson and RajeshExpectations of Students and Teaching Faculty on Library Services and 411Resources: A case study of Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences Library,Mandya, Karnataka K. AnanthnagInformation literacy in university library user education 417 K. Chinnasamy and Rimai AtonringInformation Seeking Behavior of Faculty, Research Scholars and Postgraduate 423Students of the University of Mysore towards Electronic Based Resources andServices: A Study G. Kiran Kumar, Chikkamanju and Y. L. SomashekaraEffective Utilization of Electronic Resources in Agriculture Research Institutes 435of Tamilnadu T.Raja, J.Arumugam, A.Lawrence MaryAwareness of Knowledge Management among library professional in Dindigul 443district: A study M.Veerachamy, Martin Arokiasamy and P.BalasubramanianOnline Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) enhance the Professional College 448Students’ Information Retrieval: A study S.G. SundararajanLibrary Habits and Use of ICT among Distance Learning Students of the 452Annamalai University, India S. ThanuskodiPerception of Library staff on the use of Digital Resources by the Faculty 465members of Engineering colleges: An Empirical Study S.Gopalakrishnan and P.RamkumarRole of Electronic Information Resources for the Quality of Education and 469research among the Academic Community: A Study with a Special Referenceto University of Calicut B. Shaji and V. JalajaUse of Electronic Resources by the Faculty Members in Madha Group of 479Academic Institutions at Chennai Ramakrishna Reddy and V.ThangavelWeb-Based Information Retrieval Pattern of the Students and Faculty 494Members of Mysore Medical College, Mysore G. Kiran Kumar, Mallinath Kumbar and M.B ChandrashekarUser’s Satisfaction among Knowledge Resources Available at Regional 503
  • 11. Campus Library, KVAFS University, Bangalore : A study Shanta S, Betageri and D. KalaUse of Academic Library: A Case Study of Amirta Vishwa Vidyapeetham 508University, Coimbatore S. ThanuskodiEnriching the Teacher Education Student’s Information Literacy Skill 513 Kamatchi.S and Arumugam JUse of E-journals through CeRA (Consortium for e-Resources in Agriculture) 520by the Student in Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University S.V.Agricultural College, Regional Library, Tirupathi: A Study M. Prasantha KumariCera, the Boon and CPRA, the Inevitable Need: An Analytical Study Based on 526KVASU Veterinary Faculty Teachers, Research Scholars and PG Students K.S. Ambili and Adarsh N GokulVI. Consortia / NetworkingAutomation of Library System Using Barcode Reader & Networking 533 Anitesh, and Lavit RawtaniWorld Wide Open Access E-Resource Management Systems: A Case Study 539 R.S.S.Prabhu and V.ThangavelE-Journal Consortia: A Gift to Indian Libraries 545 M. RajaE-Journal Management in INDEST – AICTE Consortium in India 552 N.Arumuga Nainar, K.Chinnasamy, P.Peratchi SelvanE – Journal Consortia, Resource sharing in the Networked Digital Environment 558 P.BoopathiVII. Digital LibraryLibrary Human Resource Development in the Digital Era 561 K. VeeranjaneyuluLibrary Web Page or Library Portals: An Effective Tool for Library 570 Tupe Raju RamdasFuture of Digital Rights Management 573 M.Kavitha and J.ArumugamCollege Libraries in Digital Environment 578 Antonette Lobo and Madhuri TikamRole of Cataloguing and Metadata for Digital Libraries 584 R.Jayshankar, B.Sasikumar, R.Vijayalakshmi
  • 12. Institutional Repositories: Ownership of Copyright 591 P.Ramamoorthi, R.Jeyshankar and SameerOpen access repositories: The Indian Scenario in the Open DOAR 595 V.S. RakhiDevelopment of Digital Repository in Anna University 604 S. Bharanidharan, G. KrishnamoorthyDesign and Development of Digital Library at Academic Staff College, 608University of Mysore Using Greestone Digital Library Software: A Study G. Kiran Kumar, N. Naganna and B.L ArundathiComparative Study of (GSDL, D-Space, Fedora, E-Print, VUDL): An Open 617Source Software Shalini R. Lihitkar and Ramdas S. LihitkarOpen source ILS (Integrated library System): A 629comparative study Mallikarjuna CDigital Content Management System: A Conceptual Framework 638 N. Sivakumar, P. Sivaraman and N. TamilselvanTechnological Innovations in CCRA Library, Department of AYUSH 645 G. Gnana Sekari and Manorama SrinathCommon Service Centre (CSCs): Will citizens turn to netizens? 648 R. ThirumavalavanBlogs and its applications in Library Science 652 M.S. Premraj, V. Radhakrishnan, G. Rathinasabapathy and L. RajendranRemote Sensing: A Webometrics Study 657 Anand Rangattimath and Ramesh KuriVIII. Scientometrics, Webometrics, Informetrics and BibliometricsScientometrics, Webometrics, Informetrics and Cybermetics application in 668Veterinary Medicine A.VinithaIndian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (2001-201): A Bibliometric 672Analysis P. VijayakumarAn Impact of Research Database for Measuring the Scientometric Indicators 679 C.Baskaran and N. SivakamiA Bibliometric Study of the articles published in the Proceedings of the 685National seminar on Knowledge Management in Libraries A.Tamil Selvi
  • 13. Scholarly Open Access Journal publications in Medicine and Allied Sciences: 692A Bibliometric study M. Leeladharan and Shejina SreenivasAgriculture Research Publications in in India: A Scientometric Study 699 M. Sankar and S. SrinivasaraghavanLongevity and sustainability of citations by the Journals and suitability of 707Ranking Methodologies D. Gnana BharathiIndian Journal of Medical Research (2006-2010): A Scientometric Study 712 R. Jeyshankar, I. Maria Sujitha and V. ChitraR & D Status of Science and Technology in India 727 Fazlunnisa SyedAssessment of the Scientific Productivity of Middle East Countries 735 Haibat Mirzania and Shahin RahimiDeveloping an art Gallery of Raja Ravi Varma’s Painting using Greenstone 744 G. Kiran kumar , Arundathi B.L and Shivakrishna S.DA Scientometric Study of Swine Research Based on CAB Direct Online 752 Selvaraj, A. D and G. RathinasabapathyList of Contributors
  • 14. Reaching Library 2.0 Services with Web 2.0 Technologies Shahin Rahimi and V. Chandrakumar Abstract Web 2.0 tools are blogs, wikis, RSS feeds, social networking, podcasting, tagging, mashups and instant messaging. By using web 2.0, libraries are moving towards the next generation library services called Library 2.0. This paper examines the current technologies, tools and services on the web 2.0 and possibility of using them in libraries for effective and efficient library services in the networked digital environment. Keywords: Web 2.0, Library 2.0, RSS Feeds, Social Networking, Podcasting, Tagging, Mashups, Instant messagingIntroduction Since 1990s, web has become multimedia and effective tool in library activities andinformation services and has severely affected the world information system; so, many of theactivities and library services are now available through the web and/or online. Searchengines, like Google as the most important tools to search and retrieve information from theInternet, provide good facilities to retrieve information quickly and in most cases can beachieved in the shortest possible time to the desired information. On the other hand the adventof IT and other communication technologies changed all means of information services andsources. The Internet has given the world numerous easy-to-use and inexpensive researchtools. Internet is changing the way we view information sources. Now-a-days, web-based technologies provide opportunities to libraries to cater theinformation needs of users without time and geographical limitations. Not only are the generalinformation scholarly communications available through web-based technologies. The newweb-based services known as Web 2.0, offer new service models, methods, and technologiesthat can be adapted to improve library services. Also, these services affect library users’information seeking behaviors, communication styles, and expectations. The term Library 2.0has been introduced into the professional language of librarianship as a way to discuss thesechanges. Indeed the aim of Library 2.0 is to provide opportunities of collaborating and sharingexperiences between librarians and users by using web 2.0 technologies which will ultimatelyimprove library services. This paper examines current technologies on the web 2.0 andpossibility of using them in libraries.Web 2.0 Tim O’ Reilly was first used the label web 2.0 as a concept consists of seven centralcomponents: (1) the web as platform;( 2) harnessing collective intelligence; (3) data as nextIntel Inside; (4) the end of the software release cycle; (5) Lightweight programming models;(6) software above the level of a single device; and (7) rich user experiences. (Sauers, 2009) Wikipedia defines a more narrative way, web 2.0 generally refers to a secondgeneration of services available on the World Wide Web that lets people collaborate and shareinformation online. In contrast to the first generation, web 2.0 give users an experience closerto desktop applications than the traditional static web pages (Wikipedia, 2011a).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 1
  • 15. Web 2.0 is an attempt to make the web much more public (Nouruzi, 2008).Participation, trust, collaboration and experience are key principles of web 2.0. It is userfriendly and user-centered and it provides content with added value. Web 2.0 is a socialinteraction system and somewhat on the collective intelligent (Stephens & Collins, 2007). Web 2.0 affects librarians involve by three important considerations: convergence,remixability, and participation (Sauers, 2009). (View Figure 1). The use of convergence in this context implies that disparate sources are integratinginto one single source. Convergence can be as simple as Google Print Search’s search inside the book feature, In both of these cases the content of the moretraditional print medium is converging with the online environment, giving us the possibilityof moving beyond the library catalogue to online services that allow us to search the contentof the books on our shelves, not just titles, authors, and subject headings. The next important web 2.0 concepts for librarians and searchers is remixability. Dueto the more technical aspects of web 2.0, it is becoming relativity easy to take the data fromone source, add it to the data of a second source, and create a new source independent of theoriginating sources. Participation is another factor that as being the most important factor of web 2.0.Participation is so important to web 2.0 that the concept itself has also been labeled “the read/write Web” by some, including Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web.Blogs represent the single largest implementation of the participatory factor in web 2.0. Wikisare another form of participation in the web 2.0 environment. With wikis, anyone cancontribute and change any of the content within the wiki. Participation, however, is more thanjust contributing content; take social networking services, such as flicker, MySpace,Facebook, and for examples. They afford users the chance to interact, sharethemselves, and create content. They enabled massaging, blogging and tagging. MySpace andFacebook enable users to share themselves with one another. enables users toshare web resources and Flicker enables the sharing of pictures. One type of participation in particular has a large impact on searching: the concept oftagging, also known as “folksonomy”. According to Maness (2006), tagging is essentiallyWeb 2.0 because it allows users to add and change not only content (data), but contentdescribing content (metadata) (Maness, 2006) Figure 1National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 2
  • 16. Library 2.0 The term Library 2.0 was made by Michael Casey on his Library Crunch Blog(Curran, Murray & Christian, 2005). According to Stephens & Collins (2007), Library 2.0 isnot only an extension of the rebooting of the web; it is an application of the philosophiessurrounding what makes Web 2.0 work. Library 2.0 seeks to break down barriers such asservices, place and time, and inherent in what we do. Library 2.0 is a concept of a verydifferent library service, geared towards the needs and expectations of today’s library users.According to Maness (2006), technology features of Library 2.0 are: • User-centered: Users participate in the creation of the content and services they view within the librarys web-presence, OPAC, etc. The consumption and creation of content is dynamic, and thus the roles of librarian and user are not always clear but look like similar. • Multimedia experience: Both the collections and services of Library 2.0 contain video and audio components. While this is not often cited as a function of Library 2.0, it is here suggested that it should be. • Socially rich: The librarys web-presence includes users presences. There are both synchronous (e.g. IM) and asynchronous (e.g. wikis) ways for users to communicate with one another and with librarians. • Communally innovative. This is perhaps the single most important aspect of Library 2.0. It rests on the foundation of libraries as a community service, but understands that as communities change, libraries must not only change with them, and they must allow users to change the library. It seeks to continually change its services, to find new ways to allow communities, not just individuals to seek, find, and utilize information.Library 2.0 services • Instant Messaging (IM) According to Wikipedia, Instant Messaging is a form of real-time direct text- based chatting communication in push mode between two or more people using personal computers or other devices, along with shared clients. The users text is conveyed over a network, such as the Internet. More advanced instant messaging software clients also allow enhanced modes of communication, such as live voice or video calling and inclusion of links to media. (Wikipedia, 2011b). IM can be a cost-effective means for any library to have a virtual reference presence in virtual spaces where our users already live. The librarian can add IM to reference desk duties and it becomes part of the workflow. The reference interview is till the same, just a new medium. Its made it easier to communicate and to arrange meetings, carpools, etc. There are many programmers and services that can combine, or “aggregate” multiple IM accounts (Yahoo! Messenger, MSN Live Messenger, Google Talk, AOL Instant Messenger, and Messenger) into a single interface. For example the MeeboMe widget is a box that can be appears on the Ask-a-Librarian page of the Library’s website. Persons wanting to ask questions can type their question directlyNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 3
  • 17. into the box. The librarian at the reference desk receives the question and can have a conversation with the person to answer the question. There are another programmers and services: Digsby—another instant message aggregator, that also incorporates social networking and email capabilities.—another IM box you can put on your webpage. What is different is that will “travel” between webpages. It stays with the user as you continue the conversation, even if the user visits several webpages (even outside your site!). Trillian Astra—Trillian Astra promises compatibility with many IM protocols and social networking services, with a fresh new interface. Skype—Skype allows a user to make a phone call free of charge through a computer to other Skype users and also allows for file transfer and instant messaging among other things. Some libraries are using Skype for reference services. Libraryh3lp— Libraryh3lp is software designed for library reference that combines IM, a Meebo-like widget, the ability to queue and route users, and other features. Several academic libraries are using this software to replace other IM or web chat systems. • Wikis One of the prime technologies supporting the participatory nature of web 2.0 is the wiki. A wiki is “a type of website that allows users to add, remove or otherwise edit all content very quickly and easily (Sauers, 2009). A library wiki as a service can enable social interaction among librarians and patrons, essentially moving the study group room online. As users share information and ask questions, answer questions, and librarians do the same within a wiki, a record of these transactions is archived perhaps for perpetuity. And these transcripts are in turn resources for the library to provide as reference. Wikis could be used internally in libraries to create knowledge bases, to support work that moves quickly from discussion to collaborative writing, to create a place for writing, editing and storing meeting notes and reports, or it could even become the platform for the library intranet. Public wikis could be used to support courses, create subject pages, and to facilitate planning and delivering conferences and meetings. Wikis can also be used to start a conversation with our community of users. For example, they can be used to engage the community in library planning processes, to collaborate with members of the community in recording or documenting local histories and events. Wikis can be used to enhance collections by allowing our community to contribute stories and information about collections of historical photos or places. These are just a few of the ways that libraries can use wikis. The information architecture community established IAWiki ( as a place to create a collaborative knowledge base about information architecture. This particular wiki is a good place to learn about special wiki pages like RoadMaps, StartingPoints and Talk/Discussion pages. When it comes to choosing wiki software, there are several choices. There are wiki engines that run on almost any server platform. There are several open source wiki packages that you can download and install locally at no charge. There are vendors targeting the enterprise market, for example Jotspot, Socialtext, and Atlassian.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 4
  • 18. Some of the free and fee-based hosted wikis are XWiki, Seed Wiki, Jotspot, EditMe, and Socialtext Workspace. • Blogs Blogs are fundamentally web 2.0, and has enormous implications for libraries. According to Wikipedia, Blogs are usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order the following provides a few ideas for blogging in library. This is just a small selection – blogs are very versatile and there are many more practical applications. Library & Topical News, Announce New Services, Recent Acquisitions List, Book/Movie/Web Site Recommendations, Book Discussions, Local Events Calendar, Recommended Research Sources. There is some blogging software that libraries can create their blogs: Type Pad, Word Press and Movable Type. • Tagging and Folksonomies Taxonomy is the science of finding, describing, classifying, and naming organisms (Sauers, 2009). The Wikipedia define folksonomy “the freely chosen labels – called tags – help to improve a search engine’s effectiveness because content is categorized using a familiar, accessible, and shared vocabulary” (Wikipedia, 2011c). In Library 2.0, users could tag the librarys collection and thereby participate in the cataloging process. Of course, tags and standardized subjects are not mutually exclusive. According to Maness (2006), the catalog of Library 2.0 would enable users to follow both standardized and user-tagged subjects; whichever makes most sense to them even more specifically, implementations of user tagging that are designed to enhance the functionality of online public access catalogues ((OPACs) are the results of developers’ consideration of the potential of “OPAC 2.0”—a model for the redesign of catalogs as “social OPACs” that purposefully invite the users of catalogs to participate not only in the exploration and exploitation of catalogue records, but also in their creation. • RSS Feeds Really Simple Syndication (RSS) is a technology that enables publishers to syndicate news and other contents on the web. Users republish content from other sites or blogs on their sites or blogs, aggregate content on other sites in a single place, and ostensibly distill the web for their personal use. Such syndication of content is another Web 2.0 application that is already having an impact on libraries, and could continue to do so in remarkable ways. Libraries are keeping up to date by subscribing to news & information sources via RSS feeds. RSS can be applied to some of the following Library & Information Services: Selective Dissemination of Information, Current Awareness Service, Bibliographic Service, and Bulletin Board Service. To take advantage of the convenience of RSS,National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 5
  • 19. one needs a special piece of software (called a “newsreader” or “aggregator”) to collect, organize, and display all his feeds. A variety of free and commercial readers are available. Some (such as Bloglines, Google Reader, NetVibes, and My Yahoo) are web-based; others (such as FeedDemon, AmphetaDesk, or NetNewsWire for Macs) have to be downloaded to one’s computer. Some browsers, such as Firefox and Safari, offer integrated feed readers. • Podcasting A podcast (or non-streamed webcast) is a series of digital media files (either audio or video) that are released episodically and often downloaded through web syndication (Wikipedia, 2011d). With more and more audio content being presented via RSS, known as podcasting and then archived online, a need for being able to search the content of audio files has become necessary. Library tutorials, interviews, reports, news etc. might utilize podcasting. Podcasting has the potential to engage all library users in an innovative way. With podcasting the library user is afforded control over when and where the content will be reviewed. This control is important in today’s information saturated landscape. Within this format, there is a possibility that conversations can be created based on the structure and content of the podcasts. The desired outcome is that these conversations will lead to a deeper understanding of how to conduct research as well as what library services have to offer. An additional benefit for libraries is that podcasting enhances the visibility of library web pages and online presence. It engages rich media and creates interest because it demonstrates an exploration of new ways of delivering content to library users. Here are two samples of libraries that are already incorporating podcasting into their websites. The Arizona State University Library using podcasts to provide tours, subject related lectures, news, and library mission statements and planning. The Science and Engineering Library at the University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC) is using sound and video podcasting to record a faculty lecture series. The library is archiving the lectures as well, which adds to the goals of life-long learning and advancing the library as a center for scholarly exchange. In essence it showcases the library as an active participant in scholarly communications. • Social Networking Sites (SNS) As libraries are inherently social organizations, SNS technology enables them to interact more with their users. For example LibraryThing is a social network enables users to catalogue their books and view the books other users shared and cataloged. Social networks enable blogging and tagging, etc. (Maness, 2006). Users can create accounts with the library reference network, recommend reference resources to one another, and the network recommend reference resources to users, based on similar profiles. In the library context, social networking presents three interesting opportunities: marketing, professional development, and socially enhanced search. Social networking sites allow librarians to adopt a new role by placing themselves into a social realm with users. By reading blogs, group postings, andNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 6
  • 20. message boards, the librarian becomes an active participant, who is able to anticipate and advise patrons as needs arise. Linking to patron profiles also keeps the library within the consciousness of users, potentially increasing interaction. • Mashup: A set of functions, procedures or classes for accessing a web service that allow a computer program to access and manipulate data on a web service the same way that a website interface lets the human user surf and dive into its content. On the other hand Mashup is integration / combination / aggregation / visualization of data to produce enriched results, that causes libraries hold large amount of data Interface with users to provide services using their data. It is a hybrid of blogs, wikis, streaming media, content aggregators, instant messaging, and social networks. Conclusion Library 2.0 is fully democratic system and based on double correlation between librarian and library users. The heart of Library 2.0 is user-centered change. It is a model for library service that encourages constant and purposeful change, inviting user participation in the creation of both the physical and the virtual services they want, supported by consistently evaluating services. It also attempts to reach new users and better serve current ones through improved customer-driven offerings. Each component by itself is a step toward better serving our users; however, it is through the combined implementation of all of these that we can reach Library 2.0 While not required, technology can help libraries create a customer-driven, Library 2.0 environment. Web 2.0 technologies have played a significant role in our ability to keep up with the changing needs of library users. Technological advances in the past several years have enabled libraries to create new services that before were not possible, such as virtual reference, personalized OPAC interfaces, or downloadable media that library customers can use in the comfort of their own homes References Chandra Dey, Nabin; Sarkar, Pronab; RSS Feeds and its Application in Library Services. 7th International CALIBER, Pondicherry University, 2009. Curran, Kevin, Murray, Michelle and Christian, Martin; Taking the information to the public through library 2.0. Library Hi Tech. 25 (2), 2007. Kaushik, Anna; Podcasting in Library Environment. Annals of Librray and Information Science. vol. 57, 2010. Kumar Dhiman, Anil; Sharma, Hemant; Blogging and Uses of Blogs in Libraries. 6th International CALIBER, University of Allahabad, 2008. Habib, Michael C.; Toward Academic Library 2.0: Development and Application of a Library 2.0 Methodology. A Master’s Paper for the M.S. in L.S degree.University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2006. .National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 7
  • 21. Hanif, Mohmed N.; Need for Web 2.0 Technology for the Libraries. 7th International CALIBER, Pondicherry University, 2009. Maness, Jack M.; Library 2.0: The next generation of web-based library services. LOGOS: Journal of the World Book Community, vol. 17, no. 3, 2006. Maness, Jack M.; Library 2.0 theory: Web 2.0 and its implications for libraries. Webology. 3 (2), Available at http://www.webol /2006/v3n2/a25.html, 2006. Mukhopadhyay, Parthasarathi; Das, Subarna K ; Towards Library 2.0: Designing and Implementing the Modern Library Service. 6th Convention PLANNER , Nagaland University., 2008. Nouruzi, Alireza; Ketabkhaneye 2: khadamate ketabkhaneiee mobtani bar Web 2. Ketab- emah kolliat, 11 (131), 2008. O’Reilly, Tim; What is Web 2.0? Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software, 2005. Online: http:// tim/news/ 2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html, Sauers, Michael P.; Searching 2.0. London: Facet Publishing., 2009. Stephens, Michael and Collins, Maria; Web 2.0, library 2.0, and hyperlinked library. Serials Review, 33, 2007. Tajer, Pegah; Reference Services 2.0: A Proposal Model for Reference Services in Library 2.0. 7th International CALIBER, Pondicherry University, 2009. Wikipedia (2011a). ‘Web 2.0’. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. [online]. Available: http:// 2.0 (Accessed 14 Nov. 2011). Wikipedia (2011b). ‘Instant messaging’. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. [online]. Available: http:// 2.0 (Accessed 14 Nov. 2011). Wikipedia (2011c). ‘Tag’. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. [online]. Available: http:// 2.0 (Accessed 14 Nov. 2011). Wikipedia (2011d). ‘Podcast’. In Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. [online]. Available: http:// 2.0 (Accessed 14 Nov. 2011).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 8
  • 22. Open Access Repositories in India as Reflected in ROAR L.S. Suguna and A. Gopikuttan Abstract An open access repository is an online database that makes the full text of items it contains freely and immediately available without any access restrictions. The number of open access repositories available in internet is growing every day and here a special interest is taken in collecting its contribution from India. This paper describes the concept of open access and open access repositories from India. The analysis covers mainly the number of repositories, state wise, and year wise distribution etc. based on open access Indian repositories as reflected in ROAR. Keywords: Open Access Repositories, ROAR, India, JISCIntroduction Information Age can become a reality only with the help of Internet. It extendsinformation sharing, learning and networking. In the digital environment the academicians’interest are moving towards accessing and using electronic materials for their day to dayacademic activities. These are one of the main means used by researchers for scholarlycommunication. They play an important role in the creation and communication ofknowledge. There are thousands of open access titles available. The promising open accessmovement is opening alternate channels for the distribution of scholarly work1. The numberof open access repositories available in internet is growing every day and here a specialinterest is taken in collecting its contribution from India.Open Access The open access movement in India has gained considerable footing in the last tenyears. The open access movement is an attempt to scholarly communication free fromrestrictions on access, control, cost, and to enable benefits such as data mining and increasedcitations. Open access has gained significant momentum through mandates from researchfunders and universities. It has become the most successful scholarly publishing reformmovement in modern times, and it has begun to transform the scholarly communicationsystem1. It states that "open access" to literature, mean its free availability on the publicinternet, permitting any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to thefull texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use themfor any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than thoseinseparable from gaining access to the internet itself 2.Open Access Repositories An OA repository can be defined as, “an online database that makes the full text ofitems (or complete files) it contains freely and immediately available without any accessrestrictions” 3. There are nearly 3000 repositories around the world. Over the past three yearsthe number has been growing per day. Open Access repositories may be institutionally-based,enhancing the visibility and impact of the institution, or they may be centralised. Institutionalrepositories are digital collections of the outputs created within a university or researchinstitution. Whilst the purposes of repositories may vary (for example, some universities haveteaching/learning repositories for educational materials), in most cases they are established toprovide Open Access to the institution’s research output4. It gives the institution’s researchNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 9
  • 23. programme worldwide visibility and increases its impact. Institutional repositories containtheses, dissertations and other research-related outputs such as presentations, images, peerreviewed articles and books. In an open access model, the publication costs are paid from anauthors research budget, or by their supporting organization / institution, in the form ofProcessing Charges. Payment of a fee depends upon institution, journal, funding agency, etc.Fee also depends on the length of the material, institutional membership, reviews, etc.ROAR ROAR is Registry of Open Access Repositories. Now there are 2559 repositorieslisted in the registry. The aim of ROAR is to promote the development of open access byproviding timely information about the growth and status of repositories throughout theworld. Open access to research maximises research access and thereby also research impact,making research more productive and effective. ROAR is hosted at the University ofSouthampton, UK and is made possible by funding from the JISC. Joint Information SystemsCommittee continues to win the use of digital technology to ensure that UK remains world-class in research, teaching and learning.Need for the study Former studies show that open access literature receives twice as many citations andpossibly greater impact. People publish in the open access mode in order to get better impactand wider access 5. Universities, research institutions, government organisations, etc have alsodemonstrated support for open access by becoming a member of ROAR, and by hosting openaccess repositories. As the number of Open access repositories available in internet is growingevery day, India’s present position in the count should be known. A study on this basis hasnot been extensively studied so far. Keeping in view the above aspects, a study has been takenup to know the current state of contribution from India. These studies serve as an indicator toassess the research output of various institutions.Methodology To explore open access repositories from India, ROAR have been searched by thename of country, which listed all the nations that have joined the directory. The data coveredunder the study are gathered on 25 October 2011. The list shows country name, number ofrepositories added into ROAR, total number of records of each institutions, graphicalrepresentation of deposit activity, etc. The field ‘India’ have been selected to know the list ofopen access repositories from India. Details of each repository were recorded and analysedwith Microsoft office Excel 2007. Tables and graphs were used for analyzing the rest of thedata. The reference tool, Microsoft office word 2007 version was used to providebibliographic references, according to the American Psychological Association Style.Data Analysis and Interpretation In this study attention is drawn to the relative concentration of Indian research: byinstitution, by location, where there has been an increasing concentration of research activitydue to the presence of universities, research institutions and other organisations. There arealtogether 2559 repositories covered in ROAR as on 25th October 2011. They contain free,full text, quality controlled, scientific and scholarly materials covering various subjects. In all,there are institutional repositories, subject repositories, theses and dissertation repositories.The quality of these repositories varies widely as well as their maintenance.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 10
  • 24. India’s Rate When searched by country, ROAR shows the current spread of O A repositories ineach nation. There are altogether 94countries currently listed in the registry. America, Britainand Japan are in first, second and third positions. India occupies the seventh place. USA’soutput rose to more than five times larger than India. USA had a total of three hundred andninety five; Britain had two hundred and fifteen and Japan with one hundred and thirty eightrepositories. They are followed by Germany, Brazil, Spain and China. India is in the eighthposition with seventy five open access repositories. This can be represented in the followingfigure. Many of the high research active nations have low open access repository output. It ishigh time that their research contribution should be freely available to the public and moreOA initiative should be made. Of course, there is an increasing tendency of open accesspublishing irrespective of countries in each year. This year India has added thirteen morerepositories in ROAR. Figure1: Countries that tops in ROAR No. of repositories 395 215 138 133 109 94 78 75 USA UK Japan Germany Brazil Spain China InaiaYear wise growth OA Repositories in India Open access repositories are attracting readers’ attention in today’s digitalenvironment. They open up many opportunities. These are one of the main vehicles used byresearchers for scholarly communication. Various institutions such as Libraries, Associations,and Universities are taking initiative in publicizing their institutional repositories. It is seenthat there is an increase of open access repositories during the last few years. The year wisegrowth of open access journals from India is represented in the following figure. Each yearmore and more publishers are making their materials in to open access mode. This may be dueto the awareness created by the academic community.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 11
  • 25. Figure 2: year wise growth of OA Repositories in India No. of repositories 75 62 52 39 29 24 12 4 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Type of repository There are different types of repositories. Repositories that provide an online depositfor collecting, preserving, and disseminating the intellectual output of an institution comeunder research institutional repository. Individual departments should not sit and wait for theiruniversity to get its OA. Research Multi-Institutional Repository contains output of three ormore academic and research institutions. Cross institutional means the collaboration betweenvarious research institutions. Then there are open access repositories of e-journal/publications, e-thesis, learning & teaching objects and other kind of repositories. Thefollowing table shows the different kinds of repositories from India as listed in ROAR. Table 1: Type of repositories Type No. of repositories Research Institutional/Departmental 50 Multi-Institutional Repository 2 Research cross-Institutional 6 e journal/publication 4 e-thesis 6 Learning & Teaching objects 3 Other types 4 TOTAL 75National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 12
  • 26. Deposit activity in Indian institutions India can claim of having many top research institutions in the world. There is a greatrole and responsibility of promoting open access repositories by colleges, Universities,research institutions, professional bodies and other private organisations. For the entireperiod, output growth rates were greater in government of India and state funded researchinstitutions than in private institutions and universities. Universities offer a full range ofprograms that are committed to graduate education through the doctorate, and give highpriority to research. And they award at least fifty or more doctoral degrees each year. Theopen access repositories from universities are very low. Five institutions that tops withmaximum number of records in ROAR can be seen in this diagram. These institutionsrepresent a significant concentration of India’s research power. Figure 3: Record output by the most prolific groups in India. 29659 11260 No. of Records 8434 4132 3966 Indian Institute Online NISCAIR of SciencePeriodical E prints @ National Central Marine Reository Aeronautic Raman Research Fisheries Institute Digital Limited Research Repository Institutional Institute Repository Research is central to the overall mission of these institutions. And many of whichachieve or aspire to worldwide recognition as research leaders. Output trends for theseinstitutions basically mirror trends for the research sector as a whole.Software used in the OA repositories Software that supports data management, including books, theses, 3D digital scans ofobjects, photographs, film, video, research data sets and other forms of content are used inrepositories. Table 2 shows that most of the OA repositories in India are using Dspace forarchiving. Table 2: Software used in OA repositories Softwares No. of repositories Dspace 41 Eprints 23 Greenstone 2 Others 9 TOTAL 75National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 13
  • 27. DSpace is an open source software package that provides the tools for management ofdigital assets, and is commonly used as the basis for an institutional repository6. EPrints is yetDigital Repository free software that provides a web interface for managing, submitting,downloading and archiving documents. Greenstone is a suite of open-source software forbuilding and distributing digital library collections. Some repositories use various othersoftwares for data management.State wise distribution The current state of research in the India will remain strong, with significant funding,excellent academic institutions, collective research efforts, innovations, and results. Allpublicly-funded research should be available through OA channels. The figure below showsthat Karnataka has the maximum number of open access repositories from India. Delhi is inthe next place. Many states have taken only a less initiative in this direction. Figure 4: State wise distribution of open access repositories No. of repositories Kerala 11 Karnataka 14 West Bengal 1 Uttarakhand 2 Kashmir 3 Uttar Pradesh 4 Gujarat 7 Delhi 12 Maharashtra 8 Orissa 4 Tamil Nadu 5 Andra Pradesh 1 Jharkhand 1 Goa 2National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 14
  • 28. Conclusion Building up a repository is a tough task. It requires careful planning and resources. Itrequires sufficient hardware, software and competent human resources etc. Internetconnectivity should be of high bandwidth and available around the clock. Starting an openaccess repository is beneficial to all. Such bodies should come up in higher educational andresearch institutions in the country. Once the repository is established, winning trust ofcontent owners and end users for popularising repository is another major challenge. Itrequires spreading awareness among scientific community about various benefits of openaccess self-archiving7. The primary motivation for open access is providing fundamentalaccess to research. There has been a perceptible increase in the number of OA materialspublished in each discipline especially in science. Government have started promotionguidelines to encourage openness mandating article archiving at the university, college, ordepartment level and publishing in open access journals. More and more people preferpublishing their research activities in open access mode because of the high visibility andincreased rate of citation. Researchers must also be able to easily access and utilize otherscholar’s work and to ensure that their own work is equally available for use by otherscholars. Though we have several universities and research laboratories in the government,corporate and the non-government sectors, our open access repository output is not up to theexpectation level.ReferencesVishala, B. K. & Bhandi. (n.d.).Web Resource Service: Usage of Open Access Journals bytheAcademicians of Autonomous Colleges in Dakshina Kannada-A Survey. RetrievedOctober 17, 2011, from, S. (n.d.). Timeline of the Open Access Movement. Retrieved November 3, 2011, fromhttp:// www. earlham. edu/~peters/ fos/timeline.htm.Pinfield, S. (2005). A mandate to self archive? The role of open access institutionalrepositories. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from http:// access repositories. (n.d.). Retrieved November 7, 2011, from, M. (n.d.). Equity for Open-Access Journal Publishing. Retrieved June 7, 2011, from info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal. pbio.1000165.Dspace. (n.d.). Retrieved November 5, 2011, from the Open Access Self-Archiving repository for the Bio Medical Sciences at NationalInformatics Centre. (n.d.). Retrieved October 28, 2011, from Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 15
  • 29. Overview of Open Source Software for Libraries M. Prema Abstract Open source software tools have been gaining increased attention in the field of librarianship. This paper attempts to introduce open source software with definition. Further, characteristics, features, advantages and disadvantages of OSS are also discussed. This paper also attempts to profile some of the open source software viz., KOHA, DSpace, GSDL, EAS, Archimede, ACS, etc., useful for library and information science professionals. Keywords: Open Source Software, KOHA, Dspace, Green Stone, EAS, Archimede, ACSIntroduction Due to tremendous growth in the field of information and communication technologyopen source came into existence. The term “Open Source” refers to software that is free andthat includes the original source code used to create it. So that user can modify if to make itwork better for them. It is created by programmers who want to share their source codewhich is part of a program that is readable by anyone who might find the program or avariation of the program useful which they can view, amend and adopt. It is maintained by ateam of developers cutting across the institutional and national boundaries. In general the source code of open source software is widely accessible freelyavailable and reusable. The most popular open source license, the general public license(GPL) allows most full use and reuse of source code.Definition of Open Source Software According to the clearing house for information on open sourcedevelopment within the library community. OSS means many things. • It is typically created and maintained by developers crossing institutional and national boundaries, collaborating by using internet based communications and development tools. • Products are typically a certain kind of “free” of ten through a license that specifies that applications and source code are free to use, modify and redistribute as long as all uses modifications & redistribution are similarly licensed. • Successful applications tend to be developed more quickly and with better responsiveness to the needs of users who can readily use and evaluate open source applications because they are free. • Quality, not profit, drives open source developers who take personal pride in seeing their working solutions adopted. • IPR rights to OSS belong to everyone who help to build it, simply use it, not just the vendor or institution that created or sold the software.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 16
  • 30. A more succinct definition from claims that OSS promotessoftware reliability, quality of supporting independent peer review and rapid evolution ofsource code. To be certified as open source, the license of a program must be guarantee theright to read, redistribute, modify and use it freely.Characteristics of OSS • Manufacturer or developer has no right to claim royalties on the distribution of these OSS. • OSS can be acquired freely or at minimal cost. • Source code of open source software is accessible to the user and distributed with the software. • OSS has provision of modifications and derivations of the work under the programmers original name. • No denial to an individual or to a group to access source code of the software. • Rights or facilities attached to the programmes being part of a particular software distribution. • Licensed software cannot place restrictions on other software that is distributed with it. In simple word, the OSS are those software that are available to the user with sourcecode. A user can make modification or edit the software’s source code as per specificrequirements. The OSS is different from free software (FS). In case of FS the user has notfreedom to edit or modify source code as per their requirements. It can be downloaded orprocured without paying any cost to the manufacturers like OSS.Features of OSS According to Bruce Perens & Debian having Open Access (OA) were mentionedbelow: • Free Distribution • Source Code • Derived works • Integrity of the author’s source code • No discrimination against person or group • Distribution of License • License must not restrict other software • License must not be specific to a product • License must be technology – neutralNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 17
  • 31. Advantages of OSS • Lower cost or Initial cost • Greater accessibility • Easier evaluation • Allows for more support options • Vendor lock-in is dramatically reduced with OSS.Disadvantages of Oss • Compatibility • Lack of control & responsibility • Technical SupportOverview of OSS in Library Automation & DigitizationLet us see some of the OSS in the field of Library & Information Science.KOHA – Koha Open source library system ( koha is the first opensource integrated library system. (ILS) It is used in worldwide. Koha’s impressive featureset continues to evolve and expand to meet the needs of its user base. Some of the importantfeatures of Koha system are • Library Catalogue front end / OPAC • Library system intranet. • Circulation tracking system. • Acquisition / budgeting system.D Space Durable Digital Depository ( D space is one of the first open source software platforms to store, mange anddistribute its collection in digital format. Developed by Massachusctts Institute ofTechnology (MIT) Libraries & Hewlett Packard (HP) can support a wide variety of artifacts,including books, theses, 3D digital scans of objects, photographs, film, research data sets andother forms of content.Green Stone POPULAR (http;// Green stone is a suite of software for building and distributing digital librarycollections. It provides new way of organizing information and publishing it on the Internetor on CD-ROM. It is produced by Newzealand Digital Library Project at the Univerisity ofWaikato, and developed and distributed in co-operation with UNESCO and Human InfoNGO. It is open source, multi lingual software, issued under the terms of General PublicLicense.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 18
  • 32. E Prints Archive Software (EAS) ( E-prints is generic archive software under development by the University ofSouthampton. Its primary goal is to set up an open for research papers, but it could be easilyused for other things such as images, research data, audio archives anything that can be storeddigitally by making changes in configuration.Archimede http://www/ It is developed by Laval University Library. Archimede is open source software forbuilding institutional repositories. It has been developed with a multilingual perspective. Itincludes English, French & Spanish interfaces. The user can switch from language tolanguage anywhere & anytime for searching & retrieving content comes under general publiclicense.Avanti Circulation System (http://www/ The Avanti circulation system is a simple, scalable net workable, client / servercirculation system can be deployed in small to medium scale libraries. This can beimplemented for circulative module, minimal OPAC & net work user interfaces.Conclusion OSS is a vital tool for the management of a computerized in an organization. Libraryand Information science professionals can automate library activities and services byapplication of this kind of software even with the decreasing library budgets. With thefeature of open source one can add or modify software features as per its own requirements. In house skill can be developed to address future requirements. Life long learningprocess and competitiveness can be inculcated among the workers. This type of software isalso suited for the organizations and persons those who are unable to afford costlycommercial software.References J.L., Library vision Indian libraries & librarianship : in retrospect and prospect. Pg185 – 188, 2010.Jaswal D.S. etal., Recent trends in library & information science. Pg. 285 to 291, 315 to 320.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 19
  • 33. Social Networking Technologies: An Observation Y.Ch.Venkateswarlu Abstract The paper covers the social networking when it comes to online social networking. It describes the need of social networking, their common features and emerging trends in the social networking use. It further comprehensively covers the issues in the social networking and elaborates the top 10 ranked social networking sites of the world. It concludes with the opinion that even though the social networking has its benefits in the virtual world, the real world is greatly impeded by the increasing use of online social networking. It is therefore felt that socializing and having real friends in the real world is much better than living in a virtual world. Keywords: Social Networking Site, Face Book, Twitter, Orkut, Bebo, Zorpia, Hi5Introduction Social networking is the way the 21st century communicates today. Social networkingis the grouping of individuals into specific groups. Although online community services aresometimes considered as a social network service but in a broader sense, social networkservice usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services aregroup-centered. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, andinterest within their individual networks. The main types of social networking services are those which contain category placessuch as former school-year or classmates mean to connect with friends usually with self-description pages and a recommendation system linked to trust.Why Social Networking? Through social networking, people can use networks of online friends and groupmemberships t keep in touch with current friends, reconnect with old friends or create real-lifefriendships through similar interests or groups. Besides establishing important socialrelationships, social networking members can share their interests with other like-mindedmembers by joining groups and forums. Some networking can also help members find a jobor establish business contacts. Most social networking websites also offer additional features. In addition to blogsand forums, member’s can express themselves by designing their profile page to reflect theirpersonality. The most popular extra features include music and video sections.Some Common Features of Social Networking Sites Most social networking sites present freedom of expression by offering the ability toupload photos, music and videos. Each site also offers customized profile pages using varyingthemes making homepage design a quick and simple process. Another shared quality is theability to search for new friends with common interests or the option to search for existingfriends by simply entering their name or e-mail address.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 20
  • 34. Trends in Social Networking Use As the increase in popularity of social networking is on a constant rise, new uses forthe technology are constantly being observed. At the forefront of emerging trends in socialnetworking sites is the concept of “real time” and “location based” real time allows users tocontribute contents, which is then broadcasted as it is being uploaded the concept is similar tolive television broadcasts. Twitter set the trend for “real time” services, where users canbroadcast to the world what they are doing, or what is on their minds within a character limit.Face book followed suit which their “Live feed “where user’s activities are streamed as soonas it happen. While twitter focuses on words, Clixtr, another real time service, focuses ongroup photo sharing where users can update their photo streams with photos while at an event.In the location based social networking space, foursquare gained popularity as it is allowedfor users to “check –in” to places that they are frequenting at the movement. Gowalla isanother search service which functions in much the same way that the foursquare does,leveraging the GPS in phones to create a location based user experience. Clixtr, though in thereal time space, is also a location based social networking site since events created by usersautomatically retagged, and users can view events occurring nearby through the Clixtr iphoneapp. One popular use for this new technology is social networking between businesses.Companies have found that social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are grateways to build their brand image. These companies are able to drive traffic to their own onlinesites while encouraging their consumers and clients to have discussions on how to improve orchange products or services. Social networks are also being used by teachers and students as a communication tool.Because many students are already using a wide-range of social networking sites, teachershave begun to familiarize themselves with this trend and are now using it to their advantage.Teachers and professors are doing everything from creating chat-room forums and groups toextend class room discussion to posting assignments, tests and quizzes to assisting withhomework outside of the class room setting. Social network are also being used to fosterteacher-parent communication. These sites make it possible and more convenient for parentsto ask questions and voice concerns without having to meet face –to- face. Social networksare also being used by activists as a means of low-cost grassroots organizing. The use of online social networks by libraries is also an increasingly prevalent andgrowing tool that is being used to communicate with more potential library users, as well asextending the services provided by individual libraries. A final rise in social network use isbeing driven by college students using the services to network with professionals forinternship and job opportunities.Issues in social networking:Privacy On large social networking, services, there have been growing concerns about usersgiving out too much personal information and the threat of sexual predators. Users of theseservices also need to be aware of data theft or viruses. However, large services, such asMyspace and Nelog, often work with law enforcement to try to prevent such incidents. Every day teens go on social networking sites and reveal their most inner thoughts for the whole world to see. Information such as street address, phone number, named isNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 21
  • 35. disclosed to an unknown population in cyberspace. What’s more, the creation of a Facebook, Myspace,Twitter, etc account is a fairly is process to do and no identification is required, which can lead to identity theft or impersonation. Privacy on the net is a rare thing these days and ultimately it is left to the user to be responsible and improve his or her privacy online. Potential for misuse The relative freedom afforded by social networking services has caused regarding the potential of its misuse by individual patrons. In October 2006, a fake Myspace profile created in the name of Josh Evans by Lori Janine Drew led to the suicide of Megan Meier ( The event incited global concern regarding the use of social networking services for bullying purposes. At the same time, genuine use of social networking services has been treated with suspicion on the ground of the services’ misuse. In September 2008, the profile of Australian Facebook users Elmo Keep was banned by the site’s administrators on the grounds that it violated the site’s terms of use. Keep is one of several users of Facebook who were banned from the site on the presumption that their names aren’t real, as they bear resemblance the name of characters like Sesame Street’s Elmo. Social network services are increasingly being used in legal and criminal investigations. Information posted on sites such as Myspace and Facebook has been used by police (forensic profiling) probation and university officials to prosecute users of said sites. in some situations, contents posted on Myspace have been used in court. network service-cite note-57 Facebook is increasingly being used by school administrations and law enforcement agencies as a source of evidence against student users. The site the number one online destination for college student, allows users to create profile pages with personal details. These pages can be viewed by other registered users from the same school which often include resident assistance and campus police who have signed-up for the service. Notifications on websites There has been a trend for social networking sites to send out only positive notifications to users. For example sites such as Bebo, Facebook and Myspace will not send notifications to users when they are removed from a person’s friends list. Similarly Bebo will send out a notification if a user is moved to the top of another user’s friends list but no notification is sent if they are moved down the list. This allows users to purge undesirables from their list extremely easily and often without conformation since a user will rarely notice if one person disappears from their friends list. It also enforces the general positive atmosphere of the website without drawing attention to unpleasant happenings such as friends falling out, rejection and failed relationships.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 22
  • 36. Access to information Many social networking services, such as Facebook, provide the user with a choice of who can view their profile. This prevents unauthorized user (s) form accessing their information. Parents have become a big problem to teens who want to avoid their parents to access their Myspace or Facebook accounts. By choosing to make their profile private, teens are able to select who can see their page and this prevents unwanted parents from lurking. This will also mean that only people who are added as “friends” will be able to view the profile. Teens are constantly trying to create a structural barrier between their private life and their parents. To edit information and a certain social networking service account, the social networking sites require you to login or provide an access code. This prevents unauthorized user(s) form adding, changing, or removing personal information, pictures, and /or other data. Trolling A common misuse of social networking sites such as Face book is that it is occasionally used to emotionally abuse individuals. Such actions are often referred to as trolling. It is not rare for confrontations in the real world to be translated online. Online bullying (Cyber-bullying) is a relatively common occurrence and it can often result in emotional trauma for the victim. The teenager expresses frustration towards networking sites like Myspace because it causes drama and too much emotional stress. There are not many limitations as to what individuals can post when online. Inherently individuals are given the power to post offensive remarks or pictures that could potentially cause a great amount of emotional pain for another individual. Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal communication has been a growing issue as more and more people have turned to social networking as a means of communication. Further, social networking sites have become popular sites for youth culture to explore them, relationship and share cultural artifacts. Many teens and social networking users may be harming their interpersonal communication by using sites such as Facebook and Myspace. Risk for Child Safety Citizens and Government have been concerned by misuse by child and teenagers of social network services, particularly in relation to online sexual predators.Top 10 Social Networking Sites 2011 According to a latest study b y Digital ( 2011/01/top-11-social-networking-websites-of-2011), the top 10 world social networking sites of 2011 with their features in the hierarchy are below. Twitter Twitter is a free social networking and micro-blogging service that enables its users to send and read messages known as tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 23
  • 37. characters displayed on the author’s profile page and delivered to the author’s subscribers who are known as followers. Senders can restrict delivery to those in their circle of friends or, by default, allow open access. Users can send and receive tweets via the Twitter website, short message service (SMS) or external applications. While the service itself costs nothing to use, accessing it through SMS may incur phone service provider fees. Link: Myspace.Com Myspace is a social networking website with its headquarters in Beverly Hills, California. Myspace became the most popular social networking site in the United States in the June 2006 and was over taken internationally by its main competitor, Facebook, in April 2008, based on monthly unique visitors. It offers all the important features available in the social networking sites. Link Facebook Facebook users can add friends and send them messages, and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. Additionally, users can join networks organized by city, workplace, school and region. The websites name stems from the colloquial name of books given at the start of the academic year by university administrations with the intention of helping students to get to know each other better. Link Bebo Bebo is a popular social networking site which connects you to everyone and everything you care about. It is your life online a social experience that helps you discover what’s going on with your world and helps the world discover what’s going on with you. Bebo combines community, self-expression and entertainment, enabling you to consume, create, discover, curate and share digital contents in entirely new ways. Link Friendster The service allows users to contact other members maintain those contacts and share online contacts. The web site is also used for dating and discovering new events, bands and hobbies. Users may share videos, photos, messages and comments with other member via their profile and their network. Link Hi5 The Hi5, users create an online profile in order to show information such as interests, age and hometown and upload user pictures where users can post comments. Hi5 also allows the users create personal photo albums and set up a music player in the profile. Users can also send friend requests via e-mail to other users. Link http://www.Hi5.comNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 24
  • 38. Orkut Orkut is a social networking service owned and operated by Google. The service is designed to help users meet new friends and maintain existing relationships. The website is named after its creator, Google employee Orkut BuyUkkokten. Although orkut is less popular in the United States than competitors Facebook and Myspace, it one of the most visited websites in India and Brazil. Link Zorpia Zorpia was founded in 2003 with a goal of bringing people together form all over the world and allowing them to share their ideas and interests. Since then the Zorpia Team has worked ceaselessly to reach people’s heart and provide the best features in order to maximize user’s satisfaction. Primary features are photo album, online journal, social networking, customized homepage, comment system and discussion forum. Link Netlog Netlog (formerly known as Facebox and Bingbox) is a Belgian social networking website specifically targeted at the European youth demographic. On Netlog, members can create their own web page, extend their social network, publish their music play lists, share videos post blogs and join groups. Link Propeller Propeller is a social news portal, meaning that it is programmed by you- the audience. The members post links to stories from all over the web. Many of these stories originate from the websites of traditional media, including newspapers and magazines. But you will also find many stories that seldom pop up in the mainstream. Perhaps it does take a village –or at least a large community of news-hungry citizens- to nudge certain stories into the limelight. Link http://www.propeller.comConclusion Online social networking offers people grate convenience for social networking. Itallows people to keep in touch with friends reconnect with old friends or acquaintances, meetnew people, and even conduct business, with the click of a few buttons. You can find peoplewith similar interests and get to know them better, even if are in a different country withouthaving to worry about an enormous phone bill or going over the restricted minutes on a phonecard. However, like all things, nothing can be too good to be true. With an increased amountof time spent on the internet comes with consequences. As studies have shown, the more timespent on the internet browsing through online communities and chatting through instantmessenger means less time spent socializing with real people. People slowly becomedisembodied with real life and believe they live in a virtual world with virtual friends. As theyNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 25
  • 39. begin to lose tough with other people, they increasingly isolate themselves. Though suicide isquite drastic in this sense, it explains how people can become depressed. Therefore, even though it has its benefits in the virtual world, the real world is greatlyimpeded by the increasing use of online social networking. It is therefore felt that socializingand having real friends in the real world is much better than living in a virtual world.References Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 26
  • 40. Virtual Reality Technology as “Library” S.M. Mohamed Lukman and M. Manthiramoorthi Abstract Change has become a way of life for most organizations in the 21st century. In Order to withstand profound change, an organization must be flexible and incorporate the ability to adapts and respond to its external environment. At the same times, in an era of increasing fiscal constraints, new technologies and an explosion of information, informatics plays an increasingly important and prominent role in society in knowledge exchange in communication and commerce between organizations. Accordingly, the most remarkable opportunities and challenges have emerged within libraries with regard to the incorporation of technology into daily functioning. Libraries only achieve real change when every person from staff to administer, is willing to examine functions, strategies and goals. This paper explains the Virtual libraries implementations and its reality with incorporated with the advancement in technologies and also explains the applications and its advantages of virtual libraries and its technical aspects. Keywords: Virtual Reality, Virtual Library, Online Library, Networked LibraryVirtual Library - Introduction Virtual Library can be defined as a Library without walls that can exist anywhere todisseminate information to the people without using an intermediary. Virtual Library (VL) ispossible on the Internet. Virtual Libraries are valuable resources since they provide up-to-date, authoritative data on different areas. The concept of Virtual Library emergedsimultaneously with electronic library and digital library. This emergence if perhaps becauseall the information user are at present through networked libraries at the desktop. VirtualLibrary, Electronic Library, Digital Library, Online Library, Networked Library, etc., havebeen used to describe the library as it exists in the networked environment, which is quiteVirtual (i.e., Practical ) without the physical existence of books or journals on the shelves.Characteristics of a true Virtual Library • There is no corresponding physical collection. • Documents will be available in electronic format. • Documents are not stored in any one location. • Documents can be accessed from any workstation. • Documents are retrieved and delivered as and when required. • Effective search and browse facilities available.Virtual Reality Virtual Reality is generally Computer Generated (CG) Environment that makes theuser thinks that he / she is in the real environments. One may also experience a Virtual Realityby simply imagining it, but we will focus on computer generated virtual realities for thisdiscussion.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 27
  • 41. Virtual Reality, a technology that began in military and university laboratories morethan 20 years ago, may be called Artificial Reality, cyberspace, or Synthetic Reality. VirtualReality is a computer-created sensory experience that allows a participant to believe andbarely distinguished a “virtual” experience from a real one. Virtual Reality uses computergraphics, sounds, and images to reproduce electronic version of real-life situations. Anotheremerging way of interacting with computers is Virtual Reality. Virtual Reality uses hardwareand software to given an impression that a computer-created environment exists. VirtualReality is a step beyond animation. The most highly published type of Virtual Reality isimmersive Virtual Reality, sometimes referred to as goggles and gloves Virtual Reality.Immersive Virtual Reality attempts to give the user a sense of inhabiting a computer-createdspace with the ability to manipulate objects in that space.The Virtual Reality Headset Today, most Virtual Environment systems are powered by normal personal computers.PCs are sophisticated enough to develop and run the software necessary to create VirtualEnvironments. Graphics are usually handled by powerful graphics cards originally designedwith the video gaming community in mind. Virtual Environment systems need a way todisplay images to a user. Many systems use HMDs, which are headset that contain twomonitors, one for each eye. The images create a stereoscopic effect, giving the illusion of thedepth. Early HMDs used Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) monitors, which were bulky but providedgood resolution and quality, or Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors, which were muchcheaper but were unable to compete with the quality of CRT displays. Today, LCD displaysare much more advanced, with improved resolution and color saturation, and have becomemore common than CRT monitors. Input devices are also important in Virtual Reality systems. Currently, input devicesrange from controllers with two or three buttons to electronic gloves and voice recognitionsoftware. There is no standards control system across the discipline. Some of the morecommon forms of input devices are Joysticks, Force balls / tracking balls, Controller wands,Data gloves, Voice recognition, Motion trackers / body suits, TreadmillsVirtual Reality Application In the construction industry, recent attempts to use Virtual Reality concentrated on theprocess of design and construction. The first use of Virtual Reality in the construction sectorwas the development of walkthrough systems. Other possible applications have beenidentified although at different stages of trials and developments are in design ,SpaceModeling, Interior design, Lightning Design, Healthy Ventilation and Air Conditioningdesign, Ergonomics and functional requirements, Space Selling, Fire risk assessment,Landscaping, In Construction site layout and planning, Planning and monitoring ofconstruction processes, Evaluation of construction scenarios.Advantages and uses of Virtual Reality Researchers in the field have generally agreed that Virtual Reality technology isexciting and can provide a unique and effective way for students to learn when it isappropriately designed and applied, and that Virtual Reality projects are highly motivating tolearners. From the research, several specific situations have emerged in which Virtual RealityNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 28
  • 42. has strong benefits or advantages. For example, Virtual Reality has great value in situationwhere exploration of environments or interactions with objects or people is impossible orinconvenient, or where an environment can only exist in computer-generated form. VirtualReality is also valuable when the experience of actually creating a simulated environment isimportant to learning. Creating their own virtual worlds has been shown to enable somestudents to master content and to project their understanding of what they have learned.Disadvantage and Limitation of Virtual Reality While Virtual Reality has advantages as an instructional technology, researchers havealso pointed out its limitations. One important issue is the high level of skill and cost requiredto develop and implement Virtual Reality, particularly immersive systems. Very high levelsof programming and graphics expertise and very expensive hardware and software arenecessary to develop immersive Virtual Reality, and considerable skill is needed to use iteffectively in instruction. While the new desktop Virtual Reality technology has dramaticallyreduced the skill and cost requirement of Virtual Environments, it still demands someinvestment of money and time. Another set of limitations of Virtual Reality environments stems from the nature of theequipment they require. A long-standing problem with immersive Virtual Reality has beenhealthy and safety concerns for its users. The early literature was top-heavy with studies ofheadaches, nausea, balance upset and other physical effects of HMD systems. While theseproblems have largely disappeared from current Virtual Reality research as the equipment hasimproved and appear to be completely absent in the new desktop systems, little is knownabout long-term physical or psychological effects of Virtual Reality usage. A secondequipment limitation of Virtual Reality arises from the fact that it is computer-based andrequires high-end hardware for successful presentation. Inadequate computing gear candramatically limit the response time for navigation and interaction in a virtual environment,possibly destroying its sense of presence for users and damaging or destroying its usefulnessas a simulation of reality. This response situation sometimes referred to as the “latencyproblem” of Virtual Reality, can also arise from bandwidth limitations when Virtual Reality isdistributed over a network or the Internet.Desktop Virtual Reality as Library for Education PC based Virtual Reality systems are usually classed as Desktop systems. DesktopVirtual Reality has emerged from animated computer aided design. With these systems theuser views and interact with the computer represented image on a traditional computergraphics screen Educating primary school children is the most difficult job due to their age and thelevel of understandings. The black-board method of teaching was lacking so many factors likethe level of presentation, level of understanding and the difficulty in presenting complexcontent. After the invention of computers, the methodology of bringing knowledge to childrendrastically changed. The learners are kept in an educational environment in which they couldvisualize the content and sometime they could interact with the systems. This type of teachinghas innumerable numbers of merit over the black-board method of teaching. Some importantmerits are • On sight demo is visualized • The presentation methods boost the understandability components of the childrenNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 29
  • 43. • The cost of the presentation or teaching is drastically reduced because the same content may be repeatedly presented on different occasion and to different group of learners • The storing factor of the delivery is more simple and the decay factor is more or less null • As the content being delivered is combined with audio and video the learners are concentrating more on the topic than the method of block-board Even though the desk-top computers system increased the understandability factor to agreat level it lacked the following. • There is only visualized and no immersion • The presentation are one-directional is Teachers to student. Or system to learners. Is the learner has to follow the predefined sequence of learning methods. • New inventions or the concepts which are Virtual could not be presented to the learner using this method.Conclusion To overcome all these above mentioned factors, we could move into a new conceptcalled “Desktop Virtual Reality Libraries” which are • Presenting 3D visualizations • Provides Hap tic Sense • Over rides the contemporary point& click method with “explore & chat” method • Increases the understandability component with factor like 3D visualization 3D sound • The learner has full control over the presentation and could interact with real time hap tic sense in this topic could clearly pave a way of new concept on “ Library “ one make the learner “ Virtually and Really” satisfied.ReferenceBricken, W; Learning in Virtual Reality. Report No. HITL-M-90-5. Univ. of Washington,1990.Burdea Grigore; and Carffet Philippe “Virtual Reality Technology”: Wiless-IntenationalPublication, 2003.,mit,edu/groups/casr/pentland.html Vince; “Virtual Reality Systems”: Addission-Wesley Publication, England, (1993).William R. Sherman and Alan B. Craig; “Understanding Virtual Reality: interface,application and design”: Margam Kaufmann Publishers, 2003.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 30
  • 44. Web tools and its implication in Libraries for an effective Information Dissemination M. Jannath Najeemunnisa Beegum Abstract This paper discusses about the Web tools, which are good to the Librarian to cope up towards the latest and modernized technology for the improvement of library to fulfill the users needs and to satisfy the fourth and fifth law of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan, the father of library science. The objective of this paper is to bring the usage and implication of web tools in libraries for effective information dissemination in the Emerging Library and Information Technologies to provide the right information to the right user in the right quantity at the right rime in the right form. Keywords: Web 2.0, Library 2.0, Information, Implication & DisseminationIntroduction Website is a collection of web pages which contains images, videos, and digitalinformation. Web page is nothing but a digital document with the formation of HypertextMarkup Language (HTML). Website can be accessed through a network such as Internet.Website helps to browse and surf the available information. Web tools contain online shared information on a specific subject or a topic whichhelps to serve, share and disseminate the information. Library is a place, where the information is getting through the webtools like Blog,Podcasts, RSS, WIKIS, Instant Message, Spaces and places of the Read / Write Web,Streaming media, Social network, Tagging, Mashup to the users apart from the stored printedmaterials like books, etc..Relevance of the Ranganathan’s Law In 1992, James R. Rettig posited a Sixth Law, an extension of Ranganathans laws. Heconceived that Sixth Law "Every reader his freedom" as applicable only to the type of service(i.e., instruction or provision of information). Gormans laws are the most famous. He has reinterpreted Ranganathans laws in thecontext of todays library and its likely future. Michael Gorman has given us his five new lawsof librarianship: • Libraries serve humanity. • Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated. • Use technology intelligently to enhance service. • Protect free access to knowledge; and • Honor the past and create the future (Crawford & Gorman, 1995).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 31
  • 45. The Five Laws of the Web • Web resources are for use. • Every user his or her web resource. • Every web resource its user. • Save the time of the user. • The Web is a growing organism. The Web consists of contributions from anyone who wishes to contribute, and thequality of information or the value of knowledge is opaque, due to the lack of any kind of peerreviewing. Moreover, the Web is an unstructured and highly complex conglomerate of alltypes of information carriers produced by all kinds of people and searched by all kinds ofusers (Björneborn & Ingwersen, 2001). Yes. Nowadays, like UGC-INFLIBNET, UGC- INFONET, etc. are providingindividual user name and passwords for the usage of e-books and e-journals to enrich theknowledge about the on-line information and dissemination.WEB 2.0 Web 2.0 is a development of online services to communicate easily and quickly withinthe group of community. Web 2.0 is the social Web, where people can share information witheach other. The Web 2.0 is a tool to share and disseminate the information from one end toanother. This is associated with website application of WWW (World Wide Web). The term Web 2.0 is associated with web applications that facilitateparticipatory information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design and collaboration onthe World Wide Web. A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with each otherin a social media dialogue as creators (producers) of user-generated content in a virtualcommunity, in contrast to websites where users (consumers) are limited to the passiveviewing of content that was created for them. Examples of Web 2.0 include social networkingsites, blogs, wikis, video sharing sites, hosted services, web 2applications, mashups and folksonomies . List of web tools and its importance in libraries Blogs/Weblo gs Wikis/Wikip Web edia Podcasting Streaming RSS Feeds Media Web 2.0 Instant Messaging Library Services Open Source (IMS) Software Virtual Learning Environment s (VLEs) A diagram on Web 2.0National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 32
  • 46. Blogs / Weblogs "Blog" is an abbreviated version of "weblog. In general blog is a website written byone person to promote her/his thoughts, products to the end users. Blogs can be considered asa tool to spread the information to the required community. Blog is a website Blogs are contained information. Few may share their hobbies,favorites, and etc., but in Library aspect these are meant for disseminate the libraryinformation to its users. It’s a prime duty of the Librarian to update information of the blogfrequently to attract the users to make them to know the latest arrival and improvement of thelibrary. Librarian can make use her / his Blog as Current Awareness Services (CAS). Blogsare helpful to increase the audience and traffic of the website.Wikis / Wikipedia Wikipedia is the tool where the user community can upload the latest information on aparticular topic and can be shared to others. This tool helps to criticize any specified topic andalso helps to edit the information. Librarian can create Wikipedia for her / his library to bring the awareness of thelibrary, to market her/his library sources and services to the user community. Librarian shouldgive a privilege to the users’ community to give their opinion discussions, and commentsabout the library sources and services. Moreover, this tool will help the librarian onimprovement of library particularly on collection development. Librarian can keep / store allthe discussion, opinion and comments of the users in archived manner for future reference.Streaming Media One of the primary duties of the Librarian is to develop and improve the multimediafacility in library. Streaming Media helps the Librarian to develop and promote librarymultimedia sources and services to the end users. Multimedia can be considered as non-bookmaterial such as CDs, Video Cassettes, and online videos of any particular subject or a field.Librarian can have a separate cell, in which radio, television, and modern equipment shouldbe available with good condition to make use the non-book materials by the end users. Librarian can conduct on line training sessions, library orientation program and otherlibrary events through Streaming media.Social Networking Websites Social Networks are meant to connect, communicate in the form of virtual via Internet.Social networks helps to allow the user to send e-mails, share audio and video files, and postcomments. There are popular social network sites such as Facebook, Orkut, Flickr, etc., Librarian can have a separate Facebook for her./his library to interact andcommunicate with the library users. Librarian can disseminate her/his multimedia libraryfeatures and facilities in Facebook by uploading few highlighted and important audio andvideo. This will induce the library users to utilize the multimedia library in an efficientmanner.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 33
  • 47. Library Open Source Software Library open sources software is boon to the modern librarian to make the onlinelibrary in an efficient way. Library open source software is meant to disseminate the libraryinformation to its end users. Few popular Open source software is listed below • Dspace • Eprint • Kete • Greenstone • Etc., Library open source software is meant for repositories and archiving. Librarian canupload Theses, Dissertations, Question Bank, and notes in Library open source software. Thistool will help the researchers and faculties for their research work and further studies.Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) has a great impact in educational institutionsespecially in libraries to promote its sources and services. Through VLEs, the Librarian canconnect the users to make them to aware of the library sources, resources, regulations, andupcoming events of the library. E-library concept can be fulfilled with the help of VLEs byreaching the end users by sitting in her/his place.Instant Messaging Services (IMS) Instant Messaging (IM) is a form of real-time direct text-based chatting communication in push mode between two or more people using personalcomputers or other devices, along with shared clients. The users text is conveyed overa network, such as the Internet. More advanced instant messaging software clients also allowenhanced modes of communication, such as live voice or video calling and inclusionof links to media3 . It allows real time text communication between individuals. With the help of IMS, aLibrarian can solve the queries of the users immediately. Ready reference service can beperformed by the help of this tool.IMS will help to satisfy the users need then and there.RSS Feeds RSS (originally RDF Site Summary, often dubbed Really Simple Syndication) is afamily of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works—such as blog entries,news headlines, audio, and video—in a standardized format.[2] An RSS document (which iscalled a "feed", "web feed",[3] or "channel") includes full or summarized text,plus metadata such as publishing dates and authorship 4. RSS allows users to receive any new content added by a website. RSS is simplifyingthe search of the blogs and websites for the users / reader. The Library News & Events can bepublished in library blogs and websites and stored in RSS feeds. This will help the users tominimize the time effort on searching the updated events and news of the library.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 34
  • 48. Web Podcasting The term podcasting was first mentioned by Ben Hammersley in the Guardiannewspaper in a February 2004 article, along with other proposed names for the new mediumand formally came into existence in the year 2005, when "podcast" was named word of theyear by the New Oxford American Dictionary. A podcast (or non-streamed webcast) is aseries of digital media files (either audio or video) that are released episodically and oftendownloaded through RSS feed 5. Librarians can make use of the benefits with Podcast as this is highly useful forchildren for their learning. In general, children read loudly and they like to hear and see thestories, rhymes and poems. Podcast does all the children acts and can be the best learningpartner to the children. Moreover, Podcast is the one of the best tool for partially deaf, blindchildren. So, Librarians can publicize their audio/video collections such as classroom lectures,multimedia presentations and valuable educational collections to the end user.Library 2.0 Library 2.0 is a loosely defined model for a modernized form of library service thatreflects a transition within the library world in the way that services are delivered to users.The focus is on user-centered change and participation in the creation of content andcommunity. The concept of Library 2.0 borrows from that of Business 2.0 and Web 2.0 andfollows some of the same underlying philosophies. This includes online services like the useof OPAC systems and an increased flow of information from the user back to the library6.Elements of Library 2.0There are four essential elements of Library 2.0 as enumerated belowNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 35
  • 49. Users Participation and feedback ActiveSocial Network empowerment Design & User Oriented Implementation Ideas & productsPrinciples of Library 2.0 Different authorities have identified the key principles of Library 2.0 in differentparameters as enumerated below: According to Ken Chand and Paul Miller “The library is every one, no barrier andinvites participation and it uses flexible, best of breed systems. According to Michael Stephens, “The library encourages the heart, is the human &recognizes that its users are human too.Applications of Web 2.0 tools in Library 2.0Tools and Services Areas of Application An increasingly quick and popular way (weblog) to share thoughts withBlogs the world. Interactive news sites where users can submit and decide what storiesDigg are shown. A photo sharing service allowing users to upload, share, comment on,Flickr and categorize photographs.Instant Messaging It allows real time text communication between individuals.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 36
  • 50. It enables users’ access to free editing tools that allow them upload,Jumpcut edit, remix and publish video footage.Library thing It allows users to catalogue their books and share lists with each other. This application takes data from more than one online source andMashups combines it to create new hybrid services.Myspace and It allows users to set up interactive and personalised web profilesFacebook detailing personal information.Paper Back Swap It operates as a lending library It enables to make audio files available online so that users canPodcasts download them to their desktop media player. Really Simple Syndication allows users to receive any new contentRSS feeds added by a website. It is a subscription based virtual world where registered users interactSecond life by building, playing, working, and flying alongside other virtual charactersSocial Allows users to store their book marks online.Bookmarking Folksonomy is the name given in a collection of tags, effectively aTags and “bottom up” user generated taxonomy as supposed to an authoritativeFolksonomies top down hierarchical taxonomy. A site that provides searching facility and clearinghouse for all thingsTechnocrait blog. Allows collaborative creating, editing and storage contents by a groupWikis of users. A free online word processor through which users can create, format, spell check, change fonts and also place images in documents. It allows users to upload, tag, watch rate, review, view and blog, videoYou Tube footings, and even creates play firm.Conclusion Library is a growing organism, to fulfill this law, it is mandatory to the librarian toapply the latest technologies in her/his library to cater the needs of the library users.Moreover, it is mandatory to the librarian to improve her/his efficiency by upgrading latesttechnology in her/his field.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 37
  • 51. Eventually, librarian should make easy of all library functions such as circulation,cataloguing, classification, automation, collection development, current awareness servicesand on and on to cater the needs of the library users. In western countries, most of the librariesimplemented Web tools and keep on improving the library and satisfying the user community. Web tools are indispensable to modernize the libraries in order to cater the needs ofthe users. This paper has highlighted maximum importance of the web tools to the present andfuture libraries. The latest technology tells every librarian to abreast themselves towards themost recent technologies to meet the challenges in information world.ReferencesA Google search for the latest on Library 2.0.<>Google search on Instant Messaging search on relevance of Ranganathan’s law towards library 2.0Google search on RSS search on Web 2.0 Podcasting - DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, Vol. 31, No. 5,September 2011, pp.395-400 © 2011, DESIDOC Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 38
  • 52. The applications of Web 2.0 in libraries: A study R.Perumalsamy Abstract New technologies are changing the infrastructure of the Web, turning fragmented data sources into searchable wholes. Computers will gain the intelligence to understand, organize, and draw conclusions from online data. This paper explains the tools of web 2.0 how it furnished with the other tools in the advanced technology. It gives a clear picture about the tools used in web 2.0 tools in libraries. In the context of library, how far the tools are reliable and applicable with the recent techniques in the field of library and information science. Keywords Web 2.0, Library 2.0, Social Book Marking, Podcasting, Social NetworkingIntroduction The Web, version 1.0, and the forgo-profit-for-market share companies that inflated itpast the bursting point are now distant memories. Today, a newish set of internet technologiesand fresh philosophies on how to harness the interconnected nature of the network are gainingsignificant attention from consumers and venture capitalists. It’s the web, version 2.0, or Web2.0 as it has been dubbed by many. Online companies and services are harnessing thenetwork effect of the web combined with syndication, micro-content, social networks,collective intelligence and open standards to change the face of interactivity both online, andoffline. There will be serious implications for businesses focused on information and people.So what is the Web 2.0? Will it make as big a splash on the future of business as its hypespredicts? What companies are poised to take advantage of the trend? And who are mostvulnerable to the new upstart Web 2.0 companies and the business models of the new webworld?The Definition of Web 2.0 When asked the question, “What is Web 2.0?” perhaps you can offer more insight tothe term other than “It’s the word with 580 million listings in Google*”. Any knowledgeabout the phrase may place you above the norm, as most internet users are still perplexed atits mention. The actual origin and definition of Web 2.0 is an issue that has received muchdebate, enough so to have its own Criticism section on its Wikipedia page. The term has beencalled everything from “overly complicated” to a “social phenomenon” to simply a“marketing buzzword”. Amongst the hype and criticism, however, are some validexplanations that may help to reach the heart of what Web 2.0 truly means. “Web 2.0 is a term often applied to a perceived ongoing transition of the World WideWeb from a collection of websites to a full-fledged computing platform serving webapplications to end users. Ultimately Web 2.0 services are expected to replace desktopcomputing applications for many purposes.” a perceived second-generation of web-basedcommunities and hosted services, such as social-networking sites (wikis and folksonomies)which aim to facilitate collaboration and sharing between users.”National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 39
  • 53. Web 2.0 Originally in 2004, Web 2.0 was referred to as this idea of the "Web as a platform".The concept was such that instead of thinking of the Web as a place where browsers vieweddata through small windows on the readers screens, the Web was actually the platform thatallowed people to get things done. But this really didnt catch on. In fact, its fairly hard tograsp what that really means. Later people started thinking of Web 2.0 as the programming tools used to create theWeb pages that were considered "cutting edge Web 2.0". This included AJAX and SOAP andother XML andJavaScript applications that allowed the readers to actually interact with theWeb pages more like you would with an application on your desktop. Now Web 2.0 is reallystarting to mean a combination of the technology (like AJAX) allowing the customers toactually interact with the information. Web 2.0 is starting to mean the situation where amateurwriters and developers are able to create applications and Web sites that get more credibilitythan traditional news sources and software vendors. This combination of powerful JavaScripttools like AJAX enabling nearly anyone to contribute to and interact with the data that we areall working with is really what Web 2.0 is. Web 1.0 Web 2.0 DoubleClick --> Google AdSense Ofoto --> Flickr Akamai --> BitTorrent --> Napster Britannica Online --> Wikipedia personal websites --> blogging evite --> and EVDB domain name speculation --> search engine optimization page views --> cost per click screen scraping --> web services publishing --> participation content management systems --> wikis directories (taxonomy) --> tagging ("folksonomy") stickiness --> syndicationNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 40
  • 54. Library 2.0 “Library 2.0 is a loosely defined model for a modernized form of library service thatreflects a transition within the library world in the way that services are delivered to users.The focus is on user centered change and participation in the creation of content andcommunity .This includes online services such as the use of OPAC systems and an increasedflow of information from the user back to the library.A theory for Library 2.0 could be understood to have these four essential elements: • It is user-centered. Users participate in the creation of the content and services they view within the librarys web-presence, OPAC, etc. The consumption and creation of content is dynamic, and thus the roles of librarian and user are not always clear. • It provides a multi-media experience. Both the collections and services of Library 2.0 contain video and audio components. While this is not often cited as a function of Library 2.0, it is here suggested that it should be. • It is socially rich. The librarys web-presence includes users presences. There are both synchronous (e.g. IM) and asynchronous (e.g. wikis) ways for users to communicate with one another and with librarians. • It is communally innovative. This is perhaps the single most important aspect of Library 2.0. It rests on the foundation of libraries as a community service, but understands that as communities change, libraries must not only change with them, and they must allow users to change the library. It seeks to continually change its services, to find new ways to allow communities, not just individuals to seek, find, and utilize information. Library 2.0 is a user-centered virtual community. It is a socially rich, often egalitarianelectronic space. While Librarian 2.0 might act as a facilitator and provide support, he or sheis not necessarily primarily responsible for the creation of the content. Users interact with andcreate resources with one another and with librarians. In some ways, it is a virtual reality forlibraries, a Web manifestation of the library as place. A librarys presence on the Web inLibrary 2.0 includes the presence of that librarys constituency and utilizes the sameapplications and technologies as its community, a concept Habib (2006) recognizes in a veryuseful model for Library 2.0 in regards to academic libraries. While these conceptual tenets ofLibrary 2.0 might be rather dependable, envisioning the technological specifics of the nextgeneration of electronic library services is at once both fraught with inevitable error andabsolutely necessary. The details of how the applications so common to Web 2.0 willcontinue to evolve, and how libraries might utilize and leverage them for their patrons, areinherently hidden.Tools of web 2.0 Technologies Web 2.0 technologies are changing the way messages spread across the Web. Anumber of online tools and platforms are now defining how people share their perspectives,opinions, thoughts and experiences. Web 2.0 tools such as weblogs, RSS, video casting,social bookmarking, social networking, podcasts and picture sharing sites are becoming moreand more popular. One major advantage of Web 2.0 tools is that the majority of them are free.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 41
  • 55. There is a large number of Web 2.0 tools, some of the more popular ones are: • Blogger • Wordpress • Myspace • Youtube • Metacafe • • Digg • Furl • Twitter • FlickrUsing web 2.0 tools Many people will have already used some of these Web 2.0 tools, and a good way toexplain the concept of Web 2.0 tools is to consider an example of how they can be used.Podcasting If an individual was interested in video games, they might search a podcast submissionWeb site (like and download an audio review of a game to listen to on theircomputer. A Podcast is syndicated audio, or video produced by traditional media such asradio and television or by individuals passionate about a particular subject.Blogs They may then decide to comment about this audio review on their Blogger or Wordpress blog. A blog or Weblog is a chronological, online diary. Individuals can subscribe to apersons blog, which allows them to read it and to write comments in response to blog posts.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 42
  • 56. RSS If this weblog has an RSS feed in place, subscribers to the blog can choose to beautomatically notified of this new blog post. RSS (or Really Simple Syndication), is a methodfor delivering regularly changing Web content. Many blogs and Internet publishers syndicatetheir content as an RSS Feed to allow people to subscribe to it easily. The term used to describe the evolution of the Web as an extension of Web 2.0. Thisdefinition of Web 3.0 is the popular view held by Tim OReilly. In contrast, Nova Spivackdefines Web 3.0 as connective intelligence; connecting data, concepts, applications andultimately people. While some call the The Semantic Web Web 3.0, Spivacks opinion is thatThe Semantic Web is just one of several converging technologies and trends that will defineWeb 3.0.Social book marking People who visit the bookmark site for this games review tag are likely to see yourbookmark. As more people find your bookmark and comment on it, youll find yourself partof a collection of people who have a shared interest in video games - You are now socialnetworking and this is why some social bookmark sites like Digg are also classed as socialnetworking sites. Diagrams of web2.0National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 43
  • 57. Social networks Social networks are perhaps the most promising and embracing technology discussed here. They enable messaging, blogging, streaming media, and tagging, discussed later. MySpace, FaceBook,, Frappr, and Flickr are networks that have enjoyed massive popularity in Web 2.0. While MySpace and Face Book enable users to share themselves with one another (detailed profiles of users lives and personalities), enables users to share Web resources and Flickr enables the sharing of pictures. Frappr is a bit of a blended network, using maps, chat rooms, and pictures to connect individuals. Other social networks are noteworthy as well. LibraryThing enables users to catalog their books and view what other users share those books. The implications of this site on how librarians recommend reading to users are apparent. LibraryThing enables users, thousands of them potentially, to recommend books to one another simply by viewing one anothers collections. It also enables them to communicate asynchronously, blog, and "tag" their books. It does not require much imagination to begin seeing a library as a social network itself. In fact, much of libraries role throughout history has been as a communal gathering place, one of shared identity, communication, and action. Social networking could enable librarians and patrons not only to interact, but to share and change resources dynamically in an electronic medium. Users can create accounts with the library network, see what other users have in common to their information needs, recommend resources to one another, and the network recommends resources to users, based on similar profiles, demographics, previously-accessed sources, and a host of data that users provide. And, of course, these networks would enable users to choose what is public and what is not, a notion that could help circumvent the privacy issues Library 2.0 raises and which Litwin (2006) well enumerates.Mashups Mashups are perhaps the single conceptual underpinning to all the technologies discussed in this article. They are ostensibly hybrid applications, where two or more technologies or services are conflated into a completely new, novel service. Retrivr, for example, conflates Flickrs image database and an experimental information architecture algorithm to enable users to search images not by metadata, but by the data itself. Users search for images by sketching images. In some ways, many of the technologies discussed above are mashups in their very nature. Another example is WikiBios, a site where users create online biographies of one another, essentially blending blogs with social networks. Library 2.0 is a mashup. It is a hybrid of blogs, wikis, streaming media, content aggregators, instant messaging, and social networks. Library 2.0 remembers a user when they log in. It allows the user to edit OPAC data and metadata, saves the users tags, IM conversations with librarians, wiki entries with other users (and catalogs all of these for others to use), and the user is able to make all or part of their profile public; users can see what other users have similar items checked-out, borrow and lend tags, and a giant user-driven catalog is created and mashed with the traditional catalog. Library 2.0 is completely user-centered and user-driven. It is a mashup of traditional library services and innovative Web 2.0 services. It is a library for the 21st century, rich in content, interactivity, and social activity. The advantages and disadvantages of web 2.0 While Web 2.0 has become a popular term these days, few people have taken the time to weigh the pros and cons of these evolutionary change. While the advantages are heavily touted by those who are proponents of Web 2.0, there are also those who feel that this technology will do more harm than good. In this article, I wish to go over the key National Seminar on ELITE 2011 9-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 44
  • 58. advantages and disadvantages of Web 2.0, and this will give readers the ability to decide whatthey think. However, to understand the pros and cons of Web 2.0, it is first important to knowwhat it is. Web 2.0 is an enhancement of the existing Internet. To break it down into a singledefinition that is relatively simple, Web 2.0 is a system in which online users becomeparticipants rather than mere viewers. With Web 2.0, information can be pulled from a number of different places, and it canbe personalized to meet the needs of a single user. Applications can be built on the existingapplications that comprise the Web 2.0 interface. It could be said that Web 2.0 will allow themass population to communicate with each other and spread ideas rather than receiving theirinformation from a single authority. Based on the descriptions above, it should be easy to seethe advantages of this system. Information will flow freely, and people can express their ideaswithout fear of repression. Web 2.0 would make the Internet a true democratic system, adigital democracy. The population as a whole would become more informed. Instead ofgetting information from once source that could have an agenda, they can receive theirinformation from multiple sources, and this will allow them to make better decisions about theworld around them. A good example of this is the ability to read newspapers from variouscountries other than the one you reside in. You can view events from more than oneperspective, and this allows you to be a more well informed person. Another powerfuladvantage of Web 2.0 is communication. It has become obvious that the Internet is one of thegreatest communication mediums in the world.Conclusion Web 2.0 is much more than just pasting a new user interface onto an old application.It’s a way of thinking, a new perspective on the entire business of software— from conceptthrough delivery, from marketing through support. Web 2.0 thrives on network effects:databases that get richer the more people interact with them, applications that are smarter themore people use them, marketing that is driven by user stories and experiences, andapplications that interact with each other to form a broader computing platform. Nowadays thetools of web 2.0 are shifted to web 3.0. With the advancement in the Information technologythe level of tools usage is getting significant.ReferencesChris Loosely, Rich Internet Applications: Design, Measurement, and ManagementChallenges (San Mateo, Calif.: Keynote Systems, 2006). covers desktop computeroperating systems.Richard Monson-Haefel,“Web 2.0: A Simple Definition,” O’Reilly, “What Is Web 2.0:Design Patterns and Business Models for the NextGeneration of Software,” DeMarco, Controlling Software Projects: Management, Measurement and Estimation(Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1986).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 45
  • 59. Emerging Technological Innovations in Library Management and Services K.Murugan, S.Ravi, S.Surianarayanan and S.Unnamalai Abstract This paper aims to discuss the emerging technological innovations in library management and services. Librarians need to be careful about how terminology such as emerging technology is used as emerging technology in one sector is not new in others and to have credibility, librarians must understand how those differences may play out within their overall organizations. When libraries are situated in parent organizations that value experimentation and innovation, libraries must be willing to experiment and innovate with services and processes. Furthermore, because technology changes quickly, libraries need to be agile in evaluating and implementing technology. Keywords : Emerging Technology, Innovation, Digital library, Radio frequency identification (RFID,) Really Simple Syndication (RSS.Introduction Today computers in every place are both a focus of study in them (technologyeducation) and a support for learning and teaching (educational technology).Initiallycomputers were used to teach computer programming but the development of themicroprocessor in the early 1970s saw the introduction of affordable microcomputers intoschools at a rapid rate. Computers and applications of technology became more pervasive insociety which led to a concern about the need for computing skills in everyday life. As publicawareness grew, this need for computer literacy became extremely influential and manyacademic Institutions purchased computers based on this rationale. The 1990s was the decadeof computer communications and information access, particularly with the popularity andaccessibility of internet-based services such as electronic mail and the World Wide Web. Atthe same time the CD-ROM became the standard for distributing packaged software(replacing the floppy disk). This allowed large information-based software packages such asencyclopedias to be cheaply and easily distributed. As a result educators became morefocused on the use of the technology to improve student learning as a rationale for investment.Emerging Technology An emerging technologies librarian (ETL) is a position that has become increasinglynecessary in libraries of all kinds because of social media, although it is a more common jobtitle in the United States than Canada. A number of difficulties arise with the ETL title: theposition itself still, being so new, lacks a concrete definition and continues to be refined anddeveloped as it becomes more widely applied. At a recent ALA conference, LITA devoted anentire session to the issue of emerging technologies in libraries and attempted to define anETL as a professional librarian whose “main role is to explore, evaluate, promote, andimplement various emerging technologies”. “Emerging technologies: Identify, evaluate, and implement the application of currentand emerging technologies for use in the Librarys reference and instruction services, such asinstant messaging, social networking, content management systems, mobile computing, opensource, open content, and other digital capabilities. Working with the Systems Librarian,National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 46
  • 60. support the Librarys web initiatives using the most up-to-date web design and webapplications technology. Collaborate with other librarians to develop and test new instructionand information support tools. Share with Library colleagues strategies, techniques, and bestpractices for using emerging technologies to support teaching and learning. Promote andsupport usability testing and assessment of new and existing services.”Innovation Innovation encompasses both the development and application of a new product,process, or service. It assumes novelty in the device, the application, or both. Thus, innovationcan include the use of an existing type of product in a new application or the development of anew device for an existing application. Innovation encompasses many activities, includingscientific, technical, and market research; product, process, or service development; andmanufacturing and marketing to the extent they support dissemination and application of theinvention.Academic Libraries in India India is well known as the largest democracy in the world. Today there are a total of237 universities, including 116 general universities, 12 science and technology universities, 7open universities, 33 agricultural universities, five women’s universities, one languageuniversities and 11 medical universities along with 12,600 colleges that provide education inall disciplines. The number of teachers is 3.1 million, and 7.8 million students are enrolled inhigher education. Schools of library and information sciences are also established all over thecountry with a view to create trained information workforce in the country. Indian academiclibraries are managed on the basis of tested, tried and trusted principles of management.Digital library We understand a digital library to be an electronic collection of real or virtualresources, which may also be available elsewhere. These resources must be whole works,with which humans can have a complete cognitive or affective engagement. A digital librarymay allow either online or offline access to the elements it organizes and houses, and mayinclude multimedia as well as Multilingual data. Although accessible online, a digital library is not identical to awebsite or a portal. However, while portals, specialized websites and search engines cover awide range of subject areas, digital libraries are more narrowly focused around one or aspecific group of disciplines. Digital libraries, moreover, attach content specific and highlydescriptive metadata such as, descriptors or keywords to describe each item in the collection.Therefore, searches in a digital library can produce more useful results, save time and effort insearching, and in the best of cases browsers may directly access the text or multimediacontent for which they executed their search.Information and Communication Technology (ICT) The term, information and communication technologies (ICT), refers to forms oftechnology that are used to transmit, store, create, share or exchange information. This broaddefinition of ICT includes such technologies as: radio, television, video, DVD, telephone(both fixed line and mobile phones), satellite systems, computer and network hardware andNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 47
  • 61. software; as well as the equipment and services associated with these technologies, such asvideoconferencing and electronic mail.Radio frequency identification (RFID) Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a generic term that is used to describe asystem that transmits the identity (in the form of a unique serial number) of an object orperson wirelessly, using radio waves. Its grouped under the broad category of automaticidentification technologies. RFID is in use all around us. If you have ever chipped your pet with an ID tag, usedEZPass through a toll booth, or paid for gas using Speed Pass, youve used RFID. In addition,RFID is increasingly used with biometric technologies for security.Unlike ubiquitous UPC bar-code technology, RFID technology does not require contact orline of sight for communication. RFID data can be read through the human body, clothing andnon-metallic materials.Really Simple Syndication (RSS) Really Simple Syndication (RSS) RSS is an XML-based format that allows thesyndication of lists of hyperlinks, along with other information, or metadata, that helpsviewers decide whether they want to follow the link. This allows peoples’ computers to fetch and understand the information, so that all ofthe lists they’re interested in can be tracked and personalized for them. It is a format that’sintended for use by computers on behalf of people, rather than being directly presented tothem (like HTML). To enable this, a Web site will make a feed, or channel, available, just like any otherfile or resource on the server. Once a feed is available, computers can regularly fetch the fileto get the most recent items on the list. Most often, people will do this with an aggregator, aprogram that manages a number of lists and presents them in a single interface. Feeds can also be used for other kinds of list-oriented information, such as syndicatingthe content itself (often weblogs) along with the links. However, this tutorial focuses on theuse of RSS for syndication of links.E-Resource Management E-Resource Management Electronic resources, particularly electronic journals andebooks, can be viewed as an integral part of library collections. Recent studies have shownthat not only are libraries acquiring significant amounts of digital content, but also that thiscontent is both replacing and eclipsing traditional media. Scholarly communication, particularly how libraries deliver and consume information,has changed as a result of the Web. With the majority of library catalogs and electroniccollections now accessible online either remotely or via public library terminals, patronpreference also tends toward electronic journal usage. Among the most-cited reasons forpreferring electronic journals included ease of access, ease of printing, and ease of searching. It is common for libraries to seek solutions, to address the new issues broached byelectronic resources and electronic access to the library. These solutions are typically software(and hardware) to help librarians track and serve information digitally, thereby maintainingNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 48
  • 62. the library’s relevance as a research partner when competing with freely available informationon the Web.Web 2.0 The term Web 2.0 is associated with web applications that facilitate participatoryinformation sharing, interoperability, user-centered design, and collaboration on the WorldWide Web. A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with each other in a socialmedia dialogue as creators (prosumers) of user-generated content in a virtual community, incontrast to websites where users (consumers) are limited to the passive viewing of contentthat was created for them. Examples of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, blogs, wikis,video sharing sites, hosted services, web applications, mashups and folksonomies. The term is closely associated with Tim OReilly because of the OReilly Media Web2.0 conference in late 2004. Although the term suggests a new version of the World WideWeb, it does not refer to an update to any technical specification, but rather to cumulativechanges in the ways software developers and end-users use the Web. Whether Web 2.0 isqualitatively different from prior web technologies has been challenged by World Wide Webinventor Tim Berners-Lee, who called the term a "piece of jargon”, precisely because heintended the Web in his vision as "a collaborative medium, a place where we [could] all meetand read and write". He called it the "Read/Write Web".Library 2.0 Library 2.0 is a loosely defined model for a modernized form of library service thatreflects a transition within the library world in the way that services are delivered to users.The focus is on user-centered change and participation in the creation of content andcommunity. The concept of Library 2.0 borrows from that of Business 2.0 and Web 2.0 andfollows some of the same underlying philosophies. This includes online services like the useof OPAC systems and an increased flow of information from the user back to the library. With Library 2.0, library services are constantly updated and reevaluated to best servelibrary users. Library 2.0 also attempts to harness the library user in the design andimplementation of library services by encouraging feedback and participation. Proponents ofthis concept, sometimes referred to as Radical Trust expect that the Library 2.0 model forservice will ultimately replace traditional, one-directional service offerings that havecharacterized libraries for centuries. Library 2.0 is a new way of providing library service through new Internettechnologies, with emphasis on “user-centered” change and interaction. Like Web 2.0, a full-featured Library 2.0 OPAC gets better the more that users are involved in the process ofinteracting with the catalog and sharing content. Librarians have been working to retool library catalogs in order to make them moreuseful for patrons to find, organize, and interact with information in a way that has infinitepotential for user customization. These new types of catalogs are a shift from "isolatedinformation silos" to "interlinked computing platforms." In the past the information flow wasmostly one way, from library to user. With new web tools information can be released to flowin every direction (library to user, user to library, library to library, and user to user).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 49
  • 63. Emerging Technology based Library Services Most of the libraries provide computerized service to users, while most of the librariesare not yet able to do so. One of two special libraries provides ICT-based service, while theother is not as advanced. The following the different services provided by libraries: • CD-ROM Searching • Online Searching • Photocopying • Online Information Service • News Clipping Scanning Service • Online Reservation Service • Database Searching Service • Web ServicesLibrary professionals and the Emerging Technologies In the changing perception of educational process worldwide librarians, are no longerconsidered as dispensers of knowledge but rather proactive facilitators who promotecollaborative knowledge building and guide students to learn in a variety of environments, tonavigate within and process a multitude of information sources, and to use these resources insolving variety of problems (of men especially students, materials, methods and management)and making decisions( about students and themselves, teaching – learning processes andprocedures) on their own. When the issue of integration of ICT into the educational system is looked into from alarger perspective, the factors that have been identified as problem areas in our country in thepresent situation include:• Accessibility and affordability• Integration of ICT in the curriculum• Shortage of trained manpower• Librarians fear of the technology and lack motivation• Closed mindset of the school and college administration and lack of appreciation for ICT in education• Budgetary constraints – most investment being in the area of hardware, rather than for improving skills, competencies and production of librarians.• Maintenance of ICT resources and lack of technical staff• Sustainability• Limited availability of educational software and coursewareNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 50
  • 64. Conclusion: The changes that librarians are living through now are only the beginning. We are stillat the start of this information revolution and it may take a century (or more) for society to beable to fully deal with all the consequences that this new information environment hascreated. More change is coming. As such, librarians need to plan for it in the onlineenvironment.Reference:Akeroyd, John; The Future of Academic Libraries. Aslib Proceedings. 53(3), 79, 2001.Coyle, K; “Change, change, change: libraries and the future.” The Australian Library 49(1), pp.27 – 30, 2000.Singh, Praveen; Library Automation in modern age. New Delhi, Alfa Publication, 2008.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 51
  • 65. Managing Technical Information Centre Using NEWGENLIB Open Source Software: A Case Study of SAMEER-CEM P.Ramamoorthi Abstract The paper will focus on practical experience of SAMEER-CEM, Technical Information Centre as a result of the implementation of the NEWGENLIB open source ILMS.The paper while giving the introduction of the concept, describes about the Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and explains the functioning modules, the terms used to explain it and also elaborates some of the important issues with reference to the explanation of the software. It also discusses the reasons why we have chosen NEWGENLIB. The paper enumerates the important features of the NEWGENLIB used in our Technical information Centre, also discussed. Keywords: NEWGENLIB, Open Source Software, SAMEER-CEM, ILMSIntroduction Integrated library Management Software (ILMS) products are multifunction, adaptablesoftware applications that allow libraries to manage, catalog and circulate their materials topatrons. In choosing ILS software, libraries must base their decision not only on theperformance and efficiency of the system, but also on its fundamental flexibility to readilyadapt to the future demands and needs of their patrons. With the advent of the Internet, theopen source technologies, developers, contributors and open source software users haveturned more and more to free and open source software (FOSS) for library solutions and manyof them could even be compared against their commercial counterparts in terms of theirstrength, efficiency, power and the ever increasing user base. Libraries are a lot about the collection, storage, organization, dissemination ofinformation and knowledge. Library automation is believed to be the foundation to all steps inthe modernization of the library and information systems. A well planned and executedlibrary automation process can make a great deal of difference in the efficiency of the systemsas well as image among the users as well as the management.Why Open source ILM Software The open source model offers librarians the capability to create the software that wealways wanted standards, compliant, interoperable, extensible and scalable software to helppatrons to find information quickly, conveniently. Vendor lock-in or just lock-in, is the situation in which customers are dependent on asingle manufacturer or supplier for some product (i.e., a good or service), or products, andcannot move to another vendor without substantial costs and/or inconvenience. Thisdependency is typically a result of standards that are controlled by the vendor (i.e.,manufacturer or supplier). It can grant the vendor some extent of monopoly power and canthus be much more profitable than would be the absence of such dependency. The term iscommonly used in the computer industry to refer to the situation that can occur due to a lackNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 52
  • 66. of compatibility between different hardware, operating systems or file Standards. Suchincompatibility can be intentional or unintentional(Policy on Open Standards for e-Governance, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Department ofInformation Technology, Government of India) (• The availability of the source code and the right to modify it• The freedom to redistribute modifications and improvements.• The freedom to use the software in any way.• There is no one with the power to restrict in a unilateral way how the software is used• There is no single entity on which the future of the software depends• No per-copy fees can be asked for modified versions• It provides a new forum for democratic actionAbout SAMEER-CEM Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering & Research (SAMEER) is anautonomous R&D Institution under Department of Information Technology, Ministry ofCommunications & Information Technology (MC&IT), Govt.of Inda. The headquarters ofSAMEER is located at Powai,Mumbai. SAMEER has two other centers namely centre forElectromagnetics located at Chennai and Millimeter wave centre at Kolkata. Mumbai Centrespecializes in the area of Opto-electronics, Microwave and Radio frequency. SAMEERChennai centre specializes in the areas of Antennas, Communication and ElectromagneticInterference and Compatibility (EMI/EMC), R&D in RF communication, RF & Microwaveantennas and Electronic Packaging. SAMEER Kolkata specializes in the areas of Antenna andMiilimeter wave technology. It is involved in the development of RF, Microwave andMillimeter-wave (MMW).About Technical Information Centre The Technical Information centre(TIC) with its state-of-the-art expertise,infrastructure and services caters to the information requirements of the SAMEER scientists.Technical information centre (TIC) has fully automated using NEWGENLIB open sourceIntegrated library Management Software. The Technical Information Centre (TIC) is wellequipped with modern facilities and resources in the form of CD-ROMs, DVDs e-journalsand e-standards. TIC presently has a collection of more than 3750 books mainly covering thesubjects as Electromagnetics, Electronics Communications, Antennas, RF& Microwave andThermal Engineering and all the books have been bar-coded. TIC subscribes to around 1200IEEE/IET e-journals, conference proceeding and standards through MCIT library consortium.It also has a collection of bound volumes of journals, some dating back to 1957. In addition to books, journals and electronic resources, TIC has a collection of IEEEDVD Digital Archive in the area of Electromagnetic, Antennas, Communications,Microwave theory & techniques since 1956. TIC has also maintaining collection of IEC, BSI,CISPR, ISI and ISO standards.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 53
  • 67. NEWGENLIB @ SAMEER-CEM NewGenlib is an Integrated Library Automation and Networking Solution Developedby Verus Solutions Pvt Ltd and The Kesavan Institute of Information and KnowledgeManagement India in March 2005. NewGenLib version 1.0 was released on 9th January 2008and has been declared as an Open Source Software under GNU GPL Licence by the VerusSolutions Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad, India. NewGenlib was chosen because it concerns reasonably large applications targeted atinstitution wide use at educational and R&D institutions. When evaluating software in theOpen Source market, NewGenlib unique characteristics have taken into account in order tofind the software that is mature enough and has a good chance of survival. In some ways thechances of a Open Source software’s existence in the future are more predictable than ofproprietary software vendors.Salient Feature of NEWGENLIB • Functional modules are completely web based. Uses Java Web Start™ Technology • Compatibility - Complies with international metadata and interoperability standards: MARC-21, MARC-XML, z39.50, SRU/W, OAI-PMH • Uses chiefly open source components • Scalable, manageable and efficient • OS independent - Windows and Linux flavours available • Z39.50 Client for federated searching • Internationalized application (I18N) • Unicode 4.0 complaint • Easily extensible to support other languages • Data entry, storage, retrieval in any (Unicode 3.0) language • RFID integration • Networking – Hierarchical and Distributed networks • Automated email/instant messaging integrated into different functions of the software • Form letters are configurable and use XML-based Open Office templates • Extensive use of set up parameters enabling easy configuration of the software to suit specific needs, e.g., in defining patron privileges • Supports multi-user and multiple security levels • Allows digital attachments to metadata Functional Modules of NewgenlibAcquisitions Request process (suggestions from users),Process On-approvals from Vendors,Purchase Orders, Receive orders (Invoice and Item processing),Accession received items,National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 54
  • 68. Process payments ,Budget management, Record payment details, Claims for items notsupplied, Solicited and Unsolicited gift processing, Quotation process (Request for quotations,Generate comparative statements). Figure 1. Acquisition ModuleTechnical Processing (Cataloging) Import Bibliographic data, Primary or Original Cataloging Provides 3 differenttemplates for Cataloging: Simple, General and MARC21 Templates, Compliant to MARC21for Bibliographic, Authority and Holdings Data, Supports all material types (ByMARC21),Open Archive support (OAI-PMH protocol compliant),Attach digital contentalong with catalog record, Customizable MARC21 templates and Search indexes, Searchcatalog, Search catalog through various system defined Indexes. Figure 2. Technical Processing ModuleNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 55
  • 69. Circulation Check out (Issues), Check in (Returns), Reserve items, Recall items on loan, Renewitems on loan, Inter Library Loans management, Process items lost, Weed out process andBinding management. Figure 3. Circulation ModuleSerials management Process subscription list, Raise firm order, Receive Invoice, Register (Check-in) serialissues (manages even Combined issues, Supplement issues, Special issues, out-of-turnreceipts, Indexes, Delayed issues, No longer available issues),Binding Management,Preparation of Logical lists and Physical lists, Raising binding orders, Accessioning BoundVolumes, Auto-claim (Reminder) generation for Not received issues.Web OPAC Various types of searches, Free text (Google like search), Basic, Advanced, Expert,Reserve items on line and Cancel reservations on line, Renew items on line, View circulationtransactions transacted and user privileges by the user on line, Top stories (View headlinesthrough RSS feeds configured), Define SDI profile, List of new arrivals, Suggest new booksto be acquired on line. Figure 4. OPAC ModuleNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 56
  • 70. Reports Accession register, budget expenditure, vendor performance, Technical Processing,Customized list of titles, List of new arrivals Documentation list,Circulation,Stockverification, Checked out material details, Current reservations, Detailed CirculationTransaction, Overdue material, Patron List (Users List),Items reported lost, Daily CirculationTransaction, Items under binding ,Serials management, Current subscriptions, Duplicateissues, Missing issues, Unfulfilled subscriptions, Current arrivals, Budget expenditure. Figure 5.Reports ModuleAdvantage of NewGenlib • NewGenlib is an Integrated Management Software Systems works in Standalone as in Network. • It has all Open source Components like Postgresql as RDBMS,JBOSS-Tomcat as Application Server • It is completely Web based solution with the help menu in every module • User friendly OPAC is one of the good aspect • International Metadata and Interoperability standards like, MARC-21,MARC- XML and Z39.50 • Integrated SMS/email system • Dashboard to Monitor the unfinished work of the day • Excellent support from the developer of NewGenlib in terms of service and up gradation.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 57
  • 71. • Verus Solution has introduced a program called “NewGenlib Adaptation Program” This program is for libraries which are planning to automate their libraries in just 4 days. Libraries will be visually observing our users (and management) satisfaction and praise for library services.Downside of NEWGENLIB • Some of the services are cost based like, AMC and training. However, their training videos are uploaded in YouTube and that will train on NEWGENLIB. • Installation is little difficult, librarians should have some basic knowledge about computers and support from the Computer Science Department may be required. • There is no provision to generate subject wise list of book in report moduleConclusion The use of open source software in libraries enables libraries to have greater controlover their computing environments. If librarians want to be leaders in the fields of informationand knowledge, then libraries need to know how to exploit the current technology that makesthis happen. Open source principles, practices, and results can assist librarians in their fulfilment ofday-to-day tasks as well as the goals of the profession. Open source software represents a wayfor librarians to retain control over their computing environments instead of having theircomputer environments control them. It is clear that the spirit of free and open sourcesoftware development is very similar to the principles of librarianship, as noted by Eric LeaseMorgan, a staunch proponent of FOSS in libraries, he explained that libraries encourageintellectual freedom and free access to library resources while FOSS encourages respect forintellectual property and the free distribution of its source code and documents. The twomovements maintain a mission of open access and the sharing of knowledge to enrich andadvance society. When a library selects free software, it chooses not only a powerful means ofreducing its spending, but also opportunities to become more independent in terms of itschoices of business and software vendors, more importantly, it reinforces its primary missionof disseminating information while further justifying its choice of technology in a context ofpublic service.ReferencesMorgan, Eric Lease; “Open source software in libraries”,2004.,Tristan; How to Choose an Free and Open Source Integrated Library System OCLCSystems & Services, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 57- 78, 2011, DOI 10.1108/10650751111106573http://www.verussolutions.bizNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 58
  • 72. Cyberspace with a Human Face: Social Software in Academic Libraries Avineni Kishore and M. Pandurangaswamy Abstract This paper explores the growth of social software and how these technologies can be applied in libraries in the modern cyberspace era. Social software lets libraries show a human face online, helping to communicate, educate, and interact with their communities. This paper guides librarians with the information and skills necessary to implement the most popular and effective social software technologies: blogs, RSS, wikis, social networking software, screen casting, photo-sharing, pod casting, instant messaging, gaming, and more. Success stories mentioned in the article highlight these tools for their ease-of-use and tremendous impact. Keywords: Social software, social networking software, Human face, online collaborationIntroduction Social software, software that enables people to connect with one another online, is awell-established phenomenon that has continued to grow and develop since the inception ofthe Internet. While Face book and MySpace are relatively new types of communicationvenues, computer users have been chatting in online forums such as IRC or the WELL andcommuning in virtual worlds and using wikis since the 1980s. Social software has, however,become much more accessible to the casual computer user since the development of theWorld Wide Web in 1994. The Web enabled online communication to transition from astrictly textual format to the visual, facilitating the development of the user friendly mediasharing sites, wikis, blogs and other types of social software that we are familiar with today.Related to social software is the idea of “Library 2.0,” or enhancing library resources andservices using social software, to reach users outside the walls of the traditional library.While many libraries had been experimenting with social software prior to 2005, thisphilosophy of extending services and communication beyond traditional models became veryprominent in the literature and practice after this date.What is Social Software? Social software has played a major role in changing the ways people interact online. Ithas led to the birth of the read/write Web, where users are both consumers and producers ofonline content. The term “social software” is difficult to define because it can include somany different tools. Some people argue that social software includes the tools that allowpeople to connect more easily to each other online, such as wireless Internet access andmobile devices. A more narrow definition may only include software that lets people have atwo-way conversation, excluding technologies such as podcasting and screen casting. TomCoates, a blogger and Yahoo! employee, created one of the most concise definitions: “Socialsoftware can be loosely defined as software which supports, extends, or derives added valuefrom human social behavior—message boards, music taste-sharing, photo-sharing, instantmessaging, mailing lists, social networking.” For the purposes of this paper, social software isdefined as a tool that must meet at least two of the three following conditions: • It allows people to communicate, collaborate, and build community online. • It can be syndicated, shared, reused, or remixed, or it facilitates syndication.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 59
  • 73. While some tools (including electronic mailing lists and forum software) have beenaround for more than two decades, the majority of social software tools have been developedwithin the past 10 years. These newer tools both help create and benefit from modern ideasabout the read/write Web, which promotes collaboration, sharing, and community buildingfrom the bottom up.Characteristics of Social Software While social software can include a variety of tools, certain characteristics distinguishit from other technologies.Easy Content Creation and Content Sharing Years ago, putting content on the Web was a job for tech-savvy individuals who werefamiliar with HTML and Web programming languages. With today’s social software, anyonecan add online content, including photos, text, audio, and video. Blogging software letsanyone create a Web page easily—using the software to write whatever they want and postingit to the Web a moment later. Blogs also allow organizations to develop a Web presencewithout a Webmaster. Essentially, if you can type, you can produce a blog. Wikis make iteasy for groups of people to add content to a single space without needing to know anyHTML. Essentially, a group of people can use a wiki to build a Web site together,democratizing the process of content creation. Photo-sharing software lets people easily upload their digital photos to the Web toshare them with family and friends or with the world. Audio recording software made it easyfor users to create a digital audio file, but services that can host and syndicate these audio filesnow make podcasting accessible to everyone. Screen casting software lets people create Flashmovies without knowing anything about Flash animation. Video-editing software has becomeaffordable and easier to use. Even people without a server of their own can create a blog or awiki, develop podcasts and screen casts, and put content online using one of many freestorage services. Online directories of blogs, photos, podcasts, and videos let others find this contentmore easily. In fact, social software has made it easy for everyone to express themselvesonline, share content with family and friends, and become active developers of the WorldWide Web.Online Collaboration While e-mail made it easy to communicate virtually, it wasn’t easy to workcollaboratively online until the wiki was born. Before wikis, collaborative Web developmenttranslated to a group of people telling their Web developer what they wanted on their site.With wikis, anyone can add or edit content, letting people create a Web site together andasynchronously. Wikis can be used collaboratively to develop guides and knowledge bases,plan conferences, and edit text. They also offer a terrific space for collecting knowledge froma diverse group of people for everyone’s benefit.Conversations in Distributed and Real Time Scenarios Social software allows conversations to occur in many different forms. Blogs thatallow comments enable conversation between the author and his or her readers. A moreNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 60
  • 74. distributed conversation (a conversation held in more than one place), however, can occurwhen a blogger uses his or her own blog to comment on another person’s writing. Permalinks,or permanent links to specific blog posts, let people easily refer their readers to the blog poston which they are commenting. Track Backs and applications that follow the thread of aconversation across blogs let us know who said what about us, so we can respond to them onour own blog. People can even subscribe to “ego searches” to receive an update every timeanother blogger refers to them. Conversations can take place online in real time through theuse of instant messaging (IM) or Voice over IP (VoIP). With IM, two or more individuals cantype messages to each other in real time, letting them have a synchronous conversation onlinethrough the use of text. Voice over IP is an Internet protocol that allows two or more people totalk with each other through their computers. Using VoIP is much the same as talking on thephone, only the signal is transmitted over the Internet rather than a phone line, usually with nocost involved.Communities Developed from the Bottom Up People usually think of online communities as groups that are created from above andconsciously joined. This type of online community has clear boundaries—you are either amember of a community or you are not. However, many social software tools allowcommunities to be created from the bottom up, where people are connected in a network bytheir affiliations to one another, and where boundaries are more permeable and changeable.Bloggers offer an excellent example of a community developed from the bottom up.Hundreds of individuals start their own blogs and write about a certain topic. Somehow, asthey link to each other and comment on each other’s blogs, a community begins to form.These bloggers begin to feel that they have become part of a community that they did notconsciously join, but their connection is based only on their linking behavior and theircomments. These bottom-up online communities are similar to networks, in which people canbe connected to each other by third parties, and connections can be either strong or weak.Bloggers may not all know each other, but they are connected by their connections to otherbloggers. I may read a blog, and someone else may read the same blog, but we don’t readeach other’s blogs. Yet we are still part of the same community based on our sharedconnection as readers. Social networking software works in a similar way. One person createsa profile about himself and adds a list of his friends with links to their profiles. He can thensee his friends’ friends, visualizing how they are connected to others through people healready knows. This lets people connect with friends of friends for dating, friendships, orbusiness in an interconnected web of relationships that somehow forms a community. Social software helps us build different types of communities. Online communitydoesn’t require a forum, a bulletin board, or an electronic mailing list. Conversations can takeplace in a wiki, in the comments section of a blog, through photo-sharing software, throughlinking behavior, or through common tagging of materials. Communities such as this requireno maintenance and no central authority. They exist only because people are using the samesocial tools or taking part in similar activities.Capitalizing on the Wisdom of Crowds Not only can we converse, collaborate, and build a community online, but we canlearn a lot from the aggregate knowledge and behavior of others. Many social software toolslet us learn more as more people participate. Wikis, for example, let tens, hundreds,thousands, or even hundreds of thousands of people add their knowledge to a single Web site,creating a tremendous knowledgebase about a given subject. If your library colleaguesNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 61
  • 75. recorded everything they know about reference materials and Web sites in an internal wiki,each member of the library staff would essentially have their colleagues’ knowledge withthem daily at the reference desk. The more people add their knowledge to a wiki, the moreuseful it becomes. The wisdom of crowds also shines through in recommendation systems. Peoplealways want to know that they are buying the best product or getting the best deal. Before theWeb, we used magazines such as Consumer Reports or asked friends; now, we all can benefitfrom the knowledge of millions of other consumers. People write up their impressions ofhotels, restaurants, and products and put them online for everyone to see. People can easilyassign ratings to the movies they rent and the books they buy. Sites also makerecommendations passively based on individuals’ purchasing behavior. With this kind ofpeople-driven system, a substandard product will not stay on the market for long. Withtagging, people can make sense of the Web. A tag is basically a keyword, and users aretagging their blog posts, their photos, and the Web sites they bookmark so that people canfind them easily. People can search for a single tag and find everything others have taggedunder that term. With social bookmarking, people bookmark Web pages that are meaningfulto them and tag them with descriptive terms. If someone is interested in wikis, they can callup everything others have tagged with the term “wiki.” Ostensibly, the documents that peopletag “wiki” are going to be more relevant—and perhaps of higher quality—than those thatGoogle indexes under that term. Tagging helps people make sense of their own resources and,by extension, makes it easier for others to discover the same things.Transparency The wisdom of crowds produces transparency. If the quality of a product is poor, acompany does something controversial, or a congressman breaks the law, you can be certainthat people will find out about it. The reputation of any organization can be ruined by a stringof bad reviews online or by a group of bloggers posting negative comments. The crowd canbring a gadget, a book, or a piece of software great fame, or ensure that no one buys it just aseasily. While this may be startling to corporations that are used to letting their public relationsexecutives deal with the traditional media, this transparency also presents a uniqueopportunity. Social software lets organizations connect with customers in a more personalway. In addition to its flashy impersonal Web site, General Motors has a blog( where company executives write about what’s happening behind thescenes. Rather than writing as GM, these people write under their own names, with their ownvoice, and connect with their customers as human beings. Putting a human face on a large,impersonal company can be difficult, but social software can offer companies— andlibraries—the chance to connect with their customers on a personal level.Personalization Some people read the newspaper from cover to cover, but many people only readarticles on particular topics of interest. However, they still have to go through the entire paperto pick out what they want to read. What if you could tell your newspaper the topics you wereinterested in and have only articles on those topics delivered to your doorstep every day? RSSessentially lets you roll your own daily news online. RSS is a social software tool that allowsusers to syndicate content from various sites onto a single Web page or into an RSSaggregator. So if you’re interested in technology news, you can subscribe to technology RSSfeeds from various sources, including mainstream media like the New York Times, blogs, andscholarly journals. Some Web sites even let you subscribe to a search term and receive all theNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 62
  • 76. news or blog posts related to that term; you could subscribe to the term “wiki” to have everyblog post written about wikis sent to you daily. This leaves you with an online newspaper youwould enjoy reading from cover to cover. RSS is also the technology behind podcasts, audiofiles that are syndicated on the Web. Many podcasts are designed much the same as radioshows, with music, commentary, and humor. You can subscribe to the podcasts you like best,download them to your MP3 player, and essentially create your own radio station that playsonly what you want to hear. RSS enables people to choose what information is pushed tothem. They no longer have to hunt for materials on their topics of interest or wade throughirrelevant material.Portability To use the Internet, we used to be tied to our desks at work or at home. As accessbecame more ubiquitous, people started to take their work with them wherever they went.Unfortunately, most traditional computer applications aren’t portable: Desktop applicationsare installed on one computer and then can be accessed only on that computer. Even if anothercomputer has the same application, you have to bring all of your personal files with you on aportable storage device. Fortunately, most social software applications are Web applications.If you’re sitting at an Internet café in Fiji, you can still access your blog to write about yourvacation, upload photos to your photo-sharing application, and read all of your favorite blogsand news sources in your RSS aggregator. As long as you remember your username andpassword for each application, your social software applications can follow you wherever youfind an Internet connection. Beyond using portable Web applications, more people nowaccess the Web through mobile devices such as PDAs and cellphones. These tools can beused to search Google, check movie times, network with friends, send e-mails, take photos ormovies and upload them to the Web, and send text messages. More and more Web sites andapplications are designed to be accessed by both desktops and handheld devices, making itpossible for people to use their handhelds to do many of the same things on their desktopcomputer. SMS, or mobile text messaging, has become a particularly popular way for youngpeople to communicate with one another, and companies are taking advantage of this byoffering services that push information to users via SMS. Web applications, mobile devices,and text messaging provides access to people online 24/7, no matter where they are.Overcoming Barriers of Distance and Time Social software does an excellent job of overcoming the barriers of distance and time,giving people a chance to communicate and work together wherever they are. Through IMand VoIP, people can communicate with each other in real time. Libraries with IM referenceservices can provide the same level of service whether a patron is on the other side of thelibrary or the other side of the world. Using wikis, people can collaborate on a project onlinewithout having to be in the same room together or work on it at the same time. These toolsmake in-person meetings much less necessary.Why Should Librarians Care for Social Software? Social software is obviously an important trend, but why should librarians beconcerned? First, and most importantly, our patrons are using these tools. No matter what typeof library you work in, your patrons will be using some type of social software, whether theyIM, blog, or listen to podcasts. It’s important to be aware of the tools your patrons use to seeif you can provide services using the same tools. If the vast majority of your patrons use IM, itmay make sense to offer virtual reference services via IM. If your patrons are avid blogNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 63
  • 77. readers, your library might want to start a blog to disseminate information about programs,services, or resources. While social software tools can improve the ways in which librariescommunicate with patrons, they can also improve internal communication and knowledgesharing. Blogs, wikis, and social bookmarking each can play a role. A library wikiknowledgebase can decrease people’s dependence on their colleagues’ in-person expertise.Blogs are a great way to disseminate news about broken printers or new databases. Socialbookmarking can help colleagues share useful Web links. Libraries not only should examinehow social software can improve services to their patrons, but they should also consider howthese tools can improve internal communication and collaboration. Finally, librarians often talk about providing outreach to their patrons. Whatever yourpatrons’ third place, consider how you can provide services there. Librarians can do marketresearch, build presence, market services, provide reference services, and develop portals tolibrary resources in these online worlds. If patrons spend more time online than they do at thelibrary, it makes sense for libraries to provide outreach online. Libraries need to look at socialsoftware applications as valuable tools for communicating with and serving their currentpatrons, as well as attracting new library patrons. Social software can provide libraries with ahuman face beyond their walls. It can provide them with ways to communicate, collaborate,educate, and market services to their patrons and other community members. Social softwarecan also help libraries position themselves as the online hub of their communities.Technology can make libraries more relevant to people who think they can get all theirinformation from the Web, while attracting a brand new population to the library.Social Software in Libraries: Success Stories We may found many examples of libraries which are experimenting with socialsoftware to enhance their services. Libraries in the United States have been exploring socialsoftware for a few years now and lessons can be learnt from their early experimentation.Librarians in other countries outside the US are also starting to explore social software. Wehighlighted below some examples of libraries using social software.University of Pennsylvania Social Bookmarking Tool: PennTags is a social bookmarking tool developed by librarians at the University ofPennsylvania for locating, organizing and sharing online resources. Users can collect andmaintain URLs, links to journal articles and records in the library catalogue. They candevelop bibliographies and reading lists which can be shared with the community. Usersdownload a specialised toolbar or use a something called a ‘bookmarklet’ which allowscontent to be added to PennTags.User generated content in the catalogue: University of Huddersfield http:// webcat. Increasing numbers of libraries are experimenting with allowing user content to beadded to the library catalogue, including users’ book reviews or other comments. TheUniversity of Hudders field have used social software to enhance their catalogue, addingfunctions such as user reviews, ratings and pulling content from Amazon into the catalogue.They have also added features such as making recommendations based on borrower records,providing users with a link saying ‘people who borrowed this book also borrowed…’National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 64
  • 78. User generated content in the catalogue: University of Bath The University of Bath has recently undertaken a small scale to add user generatedcontent to their library catalogue. Rather than add this type of content to academic texts, anew collection of books was purchased for the project. Known as ‘Around the World in 80+books’ it was based on suggestions from international students of books to provide a ‘taster’of their home country. Comments are added to the catalogue on a wiki, rather than directlyinto the catalogue.RSS feeds at MIT Libraries: MIT Libraries are using RSS feeds to highlight new books on the library catalogue.Select a feed according to subject interest and this can be added to any web page. Thisfunctionality could be particularly useful for adding feeds to subject web pages or directlyinto courses in the VLE. MIT Libraries also have a Library News feed and a feed for newtheses added to their repository. They also maintain a useful link of RSS feeds for researchwhich includes information about whichConclusion Obviously, the use of social software in libraries has rapidly increased—from twoinstitutions in 1996 to 63 institutions in early 2008. The range of social software applicationshas also diversified in that time span—from chat and instant messaging in 1996 to ten, ormore, types in 2008. Accompanying this diversification, social software has also beenstreamlined to some extent. A decade ago libraries implemented one, or perhaps two,applications. Today, libraries implement multiple applications as part of larger integratedtools, e.g., subject guides that are part wiki, part blog, part instant messaging, part socialtagging, etc., and social networking sites that are part widget, part media sharing applications,part instant messaging, etc. It is clear that libraries and their services have always changedand evolved in response to technological developments. Social software may be regarded bysome as a passing fad, but the tools are proving enormously popular and potentially changethe way people communicate with each other and interact with information.ReferencesCoates, T., Quotation Retrieved September 7, 2011 from, M., Social Software in Libraries: Building Collaboration, Communication, andCommunity Online. Information Today Inc, 35, 28-31. 2007.Matthew, B& Jana, R., Social Software in Libraries, Article Retrieved September 5, 2011,from 2011.Mike, R& Christian, G., Online Social Networks, Virtual Communities, Enterprises, andInformation Professionals Senior Account Executive, Safari Books Online, LLC, Searcher 15no. 7, 38. 2007.Sauers, M.P., Blogging and RSS: A Librarians Guide. Information Today, Inc., 36, 15-18.2006.Secker, J & Price, G., Libraries, social software and distance learners: blog it, tag it, share it!New review of information networking, 37, 39-52. 2007.What Is Social Software? Article Retrieved September 3, 2011, fromwww.sociallibraries.comNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 65
  • 79. ICT and Internet Literacy amongst the University Library Users of North Eastern States of India for Accessing to Electronic / Web Resources: An Empirical Study Manoj Kumar Sinha Abstract The present study was undertaken with a view to know the extent of Internet Literacy amongst the University Library Users Community of North Eastern region which comprises of faculty members, research scholars, UG/PG Students, Officers and Staff. The self designed questionnaire comprising of 18 questions has been distributed amongst the randomly selected samples .The samples comprises of faculty members, research scholars, UG/PG Students Officers and Staff. The paper highlights the important survey findings in respect of ICT and Internet Literacy, Internet usage pattern , status of ICT Infrastructure available in Assam University, Training etc. Besides this, some problems faced by the respondents have also been discussed and few suggestions and recommendations have also been enumerated in brief. Key Words: Information Communication Technology (ICT), ICT Literacy, Internet, University Library, Assam University-Silchar, North Eastern RegionIntroduction Information Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the important buzzwords oftoday’s IT world. It has changed the society into information society and our way of life. Ithas been integrated in every walk of our life. Its impact has been evident in railway, airreservations, banking and insurance sectors, postal services, biotechnology, bioinformatics,biomedical sciences, health care sector, telemedicine, media and communications, teaching –learning, library and information services, printing technology, e-resources, digitization ofdocuments, digital library, library networking, e-commerce, & trade, entertainment, and whatnot? It has penetrated in everywhere and its makes our life comfortable and easy.Objectives of the Study • To examine the status of ICT awareness and Internet Literacy among the Assam University Community ; • To find out period from which the respondents are using computers; • To know the view of the respondents for using computer and applying ICT skills for their academic and administrative work; • To evaluate the facilities of ICT available in the various Departments / Sections • To know about availability of computers at their home for academic purposes • To examine the various suggestions put forwarded by the respondents for the improvement of Internet Services in University Library, Department Library and Computer Centre.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 66
  • 80. Hypotheses Framed • All the respondents may not be ICT/ Internet Literate and Comfortable using Computer.Scope and Delimitation of the Study The present work is delimited to the respondents from Assam University Community.The study highlights the extent of ICT awareness, availability of ICT in the UniversityDepartments, Computer Centre and University Library and the suggestions put forwarded bythe respondents for the improvement of the existing ICT infrastructure in the colleges anduniversities of North Eastern States of India.Review of Literature For the present study the primary as well as the secondary source of literatures hasbeen consulted. Some journal articles and theses have also been consulted. From the review ofliterature on the use of Internet, awareness of ICT and Internet, Usage of off-line and on-linee-resources (CD-ROM Databases and E-Journals ) , it has been found that most of the studyhave been carried out in Northern India (Rajiv Kumar and Amritpal Kaur 2004; Singh,Bhupesh Kumar and Kulvir Kaur , 2006; Mahajan, 2005; Madhusudan , 2007 ; Sharma ,Singh and Mishra, 2008 ; Rahman and Ali , 2010; and Southern India (Birader, Rajashekhar,and Sampat Kumar , 2004; Khumbar and Vasuntha Raju (2007) Rao, 2010 and Singson andLeeladharan 2010). But no substantial studies have been made in this regards in North Eastern Region ofIndia except few study conducted by Sinha, 2004 on Internet Use pattern of the academiccommunity and local population of Barak Valley ; another study on InformationCommunication Technology (ICT) and Internet Awareness Amongst the College andUniversity Teachers (Sinha 2008 ) ; ICT and Interne Awareness amongst the participants ofWorkshop on Basic Science Research (Sinha 2009) and Internet Usage (Borthakur, Das andGohain ,2010), no comprehensive and substantial studies have been carried out on the ICTand Internet literacy for access to E-Resources available under UGC-INFONET DigitalLibrary Consortium in North Eastern Region of India. Therefore, in present studies an attempthas been taken to study the ICT and Internet Literacy amongst the Assam UniversityCommunity.Research Methodology AdoptedSampling The researcher has used the stratified random sampling technique. The present studyincludes 319 respondents using Internet drawn from 29 departments of Assam University,Silchar.Design of Questionnaire The Questionnaire developed by Sinha, 2008 has been followed with few modificationsfor conducting the present study. To elicit the opinion of the respondents for ICT and InternetLiteracy, E-resources usage the questionnaire comprising of 18 questions was designed. Thequestionnaire was distributed as per the requirement of the objectives of the present study.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 67
  • 81. Administration and Collection of Questionnaire The questionnaire has been distributed to the various categories of Assam UniversityCommunity and requested them to fill the questionnaire as per their convenience and returnedthe questionnaire to the investigators as early as possible. The filled up questionnaire has beencollected from the respondents for the data analysis and interpretation.Data Analysis and Interpretations On the basis of filled up Questionnaire the data has been analyzed and tabulated. Allthe results have been shows in tabular and/ or graphical representation. For the data analysisonly percentage technique has been adopted. The present paper addresses only ICT andInternet Usage pattern for accessing to the E-Resources/ Web Resources by the Post-GraduateStudents, Research Scholars, Teachers and Staff of Assam University, Silchar and otherlibrary users of other universities of North eastern States who have responded to thequestionnaire through e-mail.Data Analysis and Interpretation / Discussion The data collected were carefully analyzed and processed. The analysis of collecteddata has been tabulated and in the present report results have been shown in the tabular andgraphical format. Due to paucity of space, only Tables have been shown in the present paper.As the investigator approached the library users personally, response rate is significantly high. • Classification and General Characteristics of Respondents • Distribution of Questionnaire and Responses received from the Respondents Out of 350 questionnaires distributed 319 filled up questionnaires were received. Theresponse rate is about 91%. Out of 88 faculty members, 72 (82%) responded, out of 58 Ph.D.scholars 56 (97%) responded, out of 35 M. Phil. Students 33 (94%) responded, out of 87 P.G.Students 58 (94%) responded, out of 20 Non-teaching staff 16 (80%) responded. (Table –1). Table-1: Distribution of Questionnaire and Responses Received (N=319) Category of E-Resources & No. of Filled questionnaire Internet Users questionnaire received distributed Numbers % Faculty members 88 72 82 Ph. D Scholars 58 56 97 M. Phil Students 35 33 94 P.G. Students 87 84 97 Under graduate students 62 58 94 Non-teaching Staff 20 16 80 TOTAL 350 319 91National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 68
  • 82. Category Wise Distribution of Respondents Table-2 : Distribution of Respondents According to Category(N=319) Category of E-Resources and Filled Questionnaires Received Internet Users No. % Faculty Members 72 23 Ph. D Scholars 56 18 M. Phil. Students 33 10 P. G. Students 84 26 Undergraduate student 58 18 Non-teaching staff 16 05 Total 319 100 Table - 2 shows that out of 319 respondents, 72 (23%) belongs to faculty members, 56(18%) belongs to Ph. D Scholars, 33 (10%) belongs to M. Phil. students, 84 (26%) belongs toP.G. Students, 58 (18%) belongs to Undergraduate student, where as 16 (05%) respondentsbelongs to Non-teaching staff. A survey finding reveals that a maximum of about 36%respondents belong to Ph. D/ M. Phil research scholar’s category which is followed by P. G.Students (26%), faculty members (23%).Age-Wise Distribution of Respondents Survey result as indicated in Table 3 shows the age-wise distribution of 319respondents of E-resources and Internet users. Which reveals that 137 respondents (43%) arebelongs to (15-25) years age group which is followed by 75 respondents (23%) who belongsto (26-35) years age group, 70 respondents (22%) belongs to (36-45) years age group, whereas 28 respondents (9%) belongs to (55-onwards) years age group. Table-3: Age-Wise Distribution of E-Resources (N-319) AGE Frequency Percent (% ) 15-25 137 43 26-35 75 23 36-45 70 22 46-55 28 9 55-onwards 9 3 Total 319 100Sex-Wise Distribution of Respondents Table -4 presents the sex-wise distribution of 319 respondents, which reveals that outof 319 respodents, 122 respondents (38%) are male members and 197 respondents (62%) arefemale members. This is a unique example of male-female imbalance in the case of E-resources and Internet users in Assam University Library.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 69
  • 83. Table-4: Sex-Wise Distribution of E-Resources Users (N=319) Sex No. of Respondents Percentage Male 122 38.00 Female 197 62.00 Total 319 100.00 The survey finding shows that the inclinations of female library users are more towardsthe usage of e-resources and internet access in Assam University Library.Qualification-Wise Distribution of Respondents Table-5 :Qualification-Wise Distribution of Respondents (N=319) Qualification No. of Respondents Percentage Undergraduate 63 20.00 Graduate 89 28.00 Post-Graduate 92 29.00 M. Phil. 5 1.50 Ph. D. 62 19.00 JRF/SRF/AR/Research 8 2.50 Scholars/Others Total 319 100 Table- 5 shows the qualification–wise distribution of respondents which reveals thatout of 319 respondents, about 92 respondents (29%) are Post-Graduate which is followed byGraduate ( 89=28 %) , undergraduate (63=20%) , Ph.D. Scholars (62 = 19%) , 8 respondentsJRF/SRF/AR/Research Scholars/Others (8= 2.50 % ) whereas 5 ( 1.50 % ) are M. PhilScholars.Income Group/Family Income Group Wise Distribution of Respondents Most of the respondents (229=72%) fall under 20,001/- and above income group whichis followed by 49 (15%) respondents for 15,001 to 20,000/ income group, 34(11%)respondents are between 10,001 to 15,000 income group where as only 1% respondentsbelong to income group between Rs. 5001 to 10,000. The finding reveals that as most ofrespondents belong to the higher income group. Table-6: Income /Family Income group wise Distribution of Respondents (N=319) Income Group No. of Respondents Percentage (%) (Monthly)Rs. Below Rs.5000/ 2 0.62 5001/-10,000/ 5 1.56 10,001/-15,000/ 34 10.65 15,001/-20,000/ 49 15.36 20,001/-above 229 71.78 Total 319 99.97= 100.00National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 70
  • 84. ICT and Internet Literacy Now-a-days Internet service has become a faster communication tool for libraryservices. It is the most important instant means of communication interactions for theacademicians all over the world. The survey result shows that out of 319 respondents 257respondents (81%) are aware of Internet services, as they are internet literate where as only 62respondents (19%) are not having much knowledge of internet access / usage. Table-7: ICT and Internet Literacy (N=319) Are you ICT and No. of Respondents Percentage (%) INTERNET Literates YES 257 81.0 NO 62 19.0 TOTAL 319 100.0Category of Users for ICT and Internet Literacy From the Table- 7 it has been observed that 257 (81.0 %) respondents are ICT andInternet literate, whereas the Table-8 reveals that out of 257 respondents, 57 Respondents(22%) are novice groups, 143 respondents (56%) are intermediate and 57 respondents (22%)are expert groups. Table-8: Category of User for ICT and Internet Literacy (N=257) Category of Internet literacy No. of Respondents Percentage (%) Novice 57 22.0 Intermediate 143 56.0 Expert 57 22.0 TOTAL 257 100.0Ranking of Internet Services / Web Resources Table-9 shows ranking of Internet services and tools available on internet viz; e-mail,www, search from in house database, INFLIBNET Database Search, E-Journal access. Out of257 respondents, 126 (49%) respondents have ranked E-journal Access at first place which isfollowed by Internet search from in-house database (113,44%) and 2nd place, e-mail services(112,44%) at 3rd place, INFLIBNET database search (99,39%) at 4th place and WWW/Internet services (97,38%) at 5th place. The rank of WWW, Internet service at 5th because thisservice can be accessed in any internet service centre at any time.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 71
  • 85. Table-9: Ranking of Internet Services and Web Resources (N=257) Internet Services Rank Order and Web Resources 1 2 3 4 5 E-Journal 126(49%) 59(23%) 37(14%) 25(10%) 10(4%) Search from In-house 69(27%) 113(44%) 35(13%) 23(9%) 17(7%) Database E-mail Services 32(12%) 71(28%) 112(44%) 26(10%) 16(6%) INFLIBNET 13(5%) 21(8%) 77(30%) 99(39%) 47(18%) Database Search Web Page Search 20(8%) 25(10%) 78(30%) 37(14%) 97(38%) (WWW )Preference of E-Mail/Internet Service Providers (ISPs) E-mail is provided by the many Internet Service Providers companies like BSNL,VSNL, NICNET, ERNET etc. There are commercial e-mail services like Yahoo mail,Indiatimes mail, Rediffmail, Google mail etc. which provide free email services. Out of 257respondents , E-mail Services provided by BSNL ( 85= 33.0 %) is more popular amongst thelibrary users which is followed by Rediffmail ( 53= 21.00%) , Gmail Service ( 47= 18.00 %) ,Yahoo mail (35= 14.00 %) , Indiatimes Mail Service ( 10= 6.00 %) whereas Mail Servicesprovided by NICNET ( 10= 4.0 %), ERNET ( 8= 3.00 %) and other Mail Services ( 4=1 .00%) are comparatively very less number of respondents (Table-10). Table-10 Preference of E-Mail Providers/Internet Service Providers (N=257) E-mail Service Provider No. of Respondent Percentage (%) BSNL/VSNL 85 33.00 Yahoo.Com 35 14.00 15 6.00 53 21.00 NICNET Mail Service 10 4.00 ERNET Mail Service 8 3.00 Gmail Service 47 18.00 Any other mail service 4 1.00 Total 257 100.00National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 72
  • 86. Preference of Time to Access to Internet / Web Resources The survey finding shows that out of 257 respondents, maximum number ofrespondents (120=47.00 %) prefer morning time to access Internet , which is followed byafternoon (78=30%), evening ( 42=16%), night (15=6%) whereas only few (2=1%)respondents prefer late night access to Internet The survey result reveals the maximum usageof Internet during morning and afternoon time in comparison to evening, night and late night(Table-11). Table-11: Preference of Time to Access Internet/ Web Resources (N=257) Preferred time No. of Respondents Percentage Morning 120 47.00 Afternoon 78 30.00 Evening 42 16.00 Night 15 6.00 Late night 2 1.00 Total 257 100.00Purpose of Using Internet / Web Resources Survey result as shown in Table- 11 shows that a majority of the respondents (115 =45.00 %) are using electronic resources for study purpose which is followed by therespondents who are using electronic resources for publishing journals (65= 25.00 %) ,Research and Development (39=15%) and Project works (27=11.00 %) where as only veryfew respondents (11=4.00 %) are using e-resources to exchange ideas. Table-11: Purpose of Using Internet/ Web Resources (N=257) Purpose No. of Respondents Percentage (%) Studying 115 45.00 Publishing journal article 65 25.00 Research and Development 39 15.00 Project 27 11.00 To exchange ideas 11 4.00 Total 257 100.00National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 73
  • 87. Frequency of Usage of Internet / Web Resources Table- 12 shows that out of 257 respondents most of the respondents (127= 50 %) areusing e-resources on weekly basis which is followed by 98 (38.00%) respondents who uses e-resources on daily basis , 23 (9.00%) respondents access e-resources on fortnightly basiswhereas only 9 (3.00 %) respondents access e-resources on monthly basis. The present studyfinding reveals that more than half of the respondents use electronic resources on weeklybasis. Table-12- Frequency of Using Internet / Web Resources (N=257) Frequency No. of Respondent Percentage Daily 98 38.00 Weekly 127 50.00 Forth nightly 23 9.00 Monthly 9 3.00 Total 257 100.00Rate of Usefulness of Internet and Web ResourcesMany of the respondents affirmed the importance to access Internet for on-line access to E-consortium like UGC-INFONET, INDEST etc. The study shows that use of the Internet hascreated a great impact on the respondents out of 172 respondents,117 (68.02 %) respondentsthat Internet is highly useful where as 55 (31.97 %) found it useful for study purpose andresearch activities (Table-13). Table-13- Rating of Usefulness of Internet For On-Line Access to E-Resources / Web Resources (N=172) Usefulness No. of Respondents Percentage (%) Highly useful 117 68.02 Useful 55 31.97 Less useful 0 0.00 Not useful 0 0.00 172 99.99 = 100.00Use of Search Engines for Accessing to Internet /Web Resources A search engine is a searchable database of Internet for information search. Almost allthe search engine provides information to the users at no cost. The Table -14 gives us thedetails about the most commonly used search engines by the users.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 74
  • 88. Table- 14: Use of Search Engines for Accessing to Internet/ Web Resources (N=257)Search Engines Rank Order 1 2 3 4 5 None 145(57%) 75(29%) 0.0 21(8%) 6(2%) 32(12%) 71(28%) 121(47%) 8(3%) 12(5%) 4(2%) 41(13%) 12(5%) 52(20%) 99(39%) 6(2%) 3(1%) 85(33%) 7(3%) 36(14%) 45(17%) 53(20%) 0.0 116(45%) 5(2%) 26(10%) 37(14%) 15(6%) 45(18%) 129(%)) 2(1%) 4(2%) 17(6%) 30(11%) 29(11%) 175(68%) 257 The survey result as shown in Table- 14 reveals that the majority of the respondents (145=57.00 %) placed Google Search Engine at the 1st Rank which is followed by Yahoo (121=47.00 %) at 2nd Rank, Alta-Vista (99=39.0 %) at 3rd Rank, MSN (53=20.0 %) at 4th Rank , Indiatimes (45=18.0 %) at 5th Rank whereas Rediffmail (175=68.00 %) has been kept at 6th rank which has been used by very less number of users for searching information. The survey finding reveals that the Google Search Engine is most popular amongst the Assam University users community. Time Spent for On-Line Searching of Information / Web Resources per Week The survey result as shown in Table -15 indicates that out of 257 respondents about 179 (70.00 %) respondents spent 1-3 hours time for online searching per week which is followed by 53 (20.00 %) respondents who spent 4-6 hours per week whereas only few respondents 25 (10%) spent more than 7-10 hours per week for searching desired information from the Internet. The survey finding shows that very few Assam University Library users search on-line information for maximum hours but most of the users visit library regularly to search and access to the electronic resources frequently for their academic and research purposes. Table-15: Time Spent On Online Searching of Information / Web Resources per Week (N=257) Time Spent No. of Respondent Percentage (%) 1-3hours 179 70.00 4-6 hours 53 20.00 7-10 hours 25 10.00 Total 257 100.00 National Seminar on ELITE 2011 9-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 75
  • 89. Usage of Internet to Access Electronics / Web Resources Table-16: Usage of Internet to Access Electronics / Web Resources (N=257) Types of Rank- Rank- Rank- Rank- Rank- Rank- Rank-1 None TotalResources / 2 3 4 5 6 7 Rank (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) 56 36 23 257 E-Journals 117(45%) (22%) (14%) (9%) 20(8%) 5(2%) 0.0 0.0 (100) 111 31 20 257 E-Books 60(24%) (43%) (12%) (8%) 18(7%) 11(4%) 3(1%) 3(1%) (100) Online 70 101 18 10 257 41(16%) 11(4%) 4(2%) 0 Databases (27%) (39%) (7%) (4%) (100) CD-ROM 29 51 99 26 257 33(13%) 16(6%) 2(1%) 3(1%) Databases (11%) (20%) (39%) (10%) (100) Theses / 49 43 23 89 13 257 28(10%) 10(4%) 0.0Dissertations (19%) (17%) (9%) (35%) (5%) (100) Index/ 68 26 37 79 257 21(8%) 20(8%) 2(1%) 6(2%) Abstract (26%) (10%) (15%) (31%) (100) 19(7%) 58 15 46 29 30 55 257 OPAC (23%) (6%) (18%) (11%) (12%) (21%) 5(2%) (100) The study shows that the majority of the respondent (117=45%) access to E-journals,which is placed at 1st rank which is followed by E-book (111=43%) and placed at the 2nd rankorder, online databases (101=39%) is placed at the 3rd rank order, CDROM (99=39%) isplaced at the 4th rank order, Theses /Dissertation (89=35%) is placed at the 5th rank order,whereas Index/ abstract (79=31%) has been placed at the 6th rank order and OPAC (55=21%)has been placed at the 7th rank order. Hence from the Table- 19 it has been observed that E-journals and E-books are the most popular E-resources used by the Assam University LibraryUsers and these are also frequently used electronic resources in comparison to other offlineresources available in Library (Table-16).Problem faced by the Respondents to Access Internet / Web Resources Table- 17 shows that out of 257 e-resource users, 175 (68.00 %) respondents facedproblem while accessing to e-resources whereas 82 (32.00 %) respondents are not facing anyproblem to access e-journal / e-resources. Table-17:Problem Faced by the University Library Users for Accessing to E-Resources /Web Resources (N=257) Users faced problems Yes No Total Do Internet Users face 175 (68%) 82(32%) 257 problemsNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 76
  • 90. Types of Problems faced by the Internet Users Table- 18 presents the problems faced by the E-resource/ Web Resource users, amongthe 257 respondents,the prboblems faced by the users are viz: limited working hours, lack ofadequate number of computers, less speed, lack of infrastructure facilities, frequently powerfailure, problem on downloading article and problem over searching. The 1st priority problemis limited working hours, 2nd priority problem is lack ofadequate number of computers, 3rd priority problems is less speed of the connectivity, 4thpriority problem is lack of infrastructure facilities , 5th priority problem is frequently powerfailure ,6th priority problem on down loading article and 7th priority problem is problem oversearching. Table- 18 :Problems faced by the Internet Users ( N=257 )Problems Encountered RANK ORDER While Accessing to Internet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 175Limited working hours 53(21%) 15(6%) 6(2%) 4(2%) 3(1%) ----------- (68%) Lack of adequate 156 75(29%) 21(8%) 3(1%) 2(1%) --------- ----------- number of computer (61%) 149 Less Speed 53(21%) 26(10%) 12(4%) 9(3%) 4(2%) 4(2%) (58%) Lack of infrastructure 68(27%) 39(15%) 10(4%) 125(49%) 8(3%) 5(2%) 2(1%) facility 101Frequently power failure 45(18%) 47(18%) 50(19%) 11(4%) 3(1%) --------- (39%) Problems on 15(6%) 27(11%) 29(11%) 39(15%) 43(17%) 99(39%) 5(2%) downloading articlesProblems over Searching 19(7%) 18(7%) 7(3%) 41(16%) 27(11%) 63(26%) 82(32%)Suggestions as Received from the Respondents The findings of the study revealed majority of the respondents use Internet to accesselectronic resources and e-journals for their benefits, the respondents suggested the followingto encourage users in the use of Electronic resources, E-journals and Internet users : • Library working hours should be increased at least 12 hours (8 A.M. to8 A.M.); • to increase the number of computers with Internet access; • to provide on-line facilities for students in their hostels and their departments; • to develop infrastructure facilities; • to controlled different unsocial activity to the Internet laboratory ; • subscribe to more e-books ,e-journals and other Web Resources ;National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 77
  • 91. • systems and computer must be modern; • speed of search should be increased; • More provision for database search; • Creation of awareness among users about different on-line resources and • INFLIBNET E-journal Consortium; • Adequate proper power facilities; and • Give users a orientation programme about the e-resources / e-journals / web resources which are available in the university library.Important FindingsCharacteristic of Respondents • The sample selected represent faculty members, Ph.D.Scholars, M.Phill students, P.G.Students,Undergraduate student , Officers and Non-teaching staff of various users in Assam University Central Library ( Rabindra Library) and other university library user of North Eastern States who responded through mail. • Majority of the users constituted of 43% belong to lower age group ie 15-25 years, where as only 3% users of higher age group (55-onwards). • Majority of the respondents (62%) consisted of female population whereas the male population (38%) is lesser in compare to female respondents which might be due to easy approach of the investigator or tendency of male users not to respond to the request of the investigator.Category-Wise Distribution of Respondents• Among the 319 respondents 29% of respondents belong to post graduate category students which is followed by graduate students 30%, undergraduate 28% Ph.D Schoolars 19% and 2% of M.Phill and JRF each.Income –Wise Distribution of Respondents• Out of 319 respondents 72% of population belong to the income group in between Rs.20,000/ to above per month, 15% respondents belong to income group Rs.15,001 to Rs.20,000 per month, 11% respondents belong to income group Rs.10,001 to 15,000 per month whereas only 1% belongs to income group Rs.5,001/ to 10,000 per month. The survey result indicate that most of the respondents are from moderate income group.ICT and Internet Literacy The survey shows that most of 319 respondents(81%) are aware of Internet services, asthey belong to Internet literate group whereas only (19%)respondents are not having muchknowledge of internet access. Among the 257 internet literate respondents 22% are expert,56% are intermediate and 22% are novice. About (49%) respondents have ranked E-journalaccess at first place which followed by Internet search from inhouse database (44%) at 2ndplace and e-mail service (44%) at 3rd place, INFLIBNET database search 39% at 4th placeand WWW internet services 38% at 5th place. The percentage has been calculated eachcategorywise.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 78
  • 92. Preference of E-Mail Srvice Provider Among 257 respondents , 33% Internet literate users preferes VSNL/BSNL which isfollowed by (23%), by (18%), (14%), (6%), NICNET (4%), EARNET (3%) and others (1%) as e-mail provider/Internet service providers.Purpose of Internet / Web Resources Use Most of internet literate respondents 45% are using electronic resources for studypurpose which is followed by 25% respondents for publishing journals,15% for research anddevelopment ,11% of project work and 4% respondents are using Internet for exchange ofideas.Frequency of Use of Internet/ Web Resources Only 38% respondents are accessing to e-resources on daily basis 50% use once in aweek, 9% access forthnightly whereas only 3% access monthly basis.Usefullness of Internet to Access E-Resources/ Web –Resosurces While accessing to e-resources under consortia 68% uses are saying that available e-resources are highly useful whereas 32% agrees that these resources are useful for theirresearch activities.Preference of time to access Internet for E-Resources/ Web Resources The most of the Internet literate respondents (47%) prefered morning hours, which isfollowed by (30%) afternoon, (16%) respondents at evening time,whereas only fewrespondents 6% in night time and 1% latenight prefer to access Internet to access Internet / E-Resources.Favourite Search Enginesfor Accessing to E-Resources/ Web Resources Google topped the list with 57% and Yahoo stands for 47% whereas Altavista, MSN,Indiatime search engines etc are negligible in comparision to Googleand Yahoo searchengines , which might be due to ignorance of users .Time Spent on searching on-line resources/ Web Resources perweek Among the 257 Internet users 70% respondents search 1-3 hours, 20% spent 4-6 hoursand 10% spent 7-10 hours in a week for searching online e-resources/ Web –Resources .Preference place for accessing to Internet / Web Resources The university library is most suitable place for Internet to access E-journals resourcesand other Internet resources. Because in the university library the facility for access to e-journals and other electronic databases are available under UGC-INFONET Digital Libraryconsortium.Problem faced by the accessing E-resources / E-journals / Web Resources users Among the 257 respondents , 68% faced problem while accessing to Internet / e-resources whereas 32% do not faced any problem. On the other hand, out of 224 respondentsNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 79
  • 93. 72% are faced problem when access e-journals and 28% are not faced problem in e-journal /web resources access.Problem faced by the Internet / E-Resource/ Web Resources Users Among the 257 Internet literate respondents different types of problem faced by them,68% respondents pointed out limited working hours as a problem, which is followed by lackof adequate numbers of computers (61%), less speed (58%), lack infrastructure facilities(49%), frequently power failure (39%), problem on downloading articles (39%) and problemover searching (32%).Suggestions and Recommendations for Internet Literacy for Access to Web ResourcesThe followings are few suggestions and recommendations for the awareness of access toInternet, e-journals and e-resources usage:• The Authority should conduct trainning programme for Information Communication Technology (ICT application) / Internet awareness, access of E-resources, E-Books, E- journals for the users of Assam University Central Library and they should be encouraged to take part in these activities;• More computers/Terminals should be installed in the library with latest specifications and multimedia so that the users can use Internet, e-resources and e-journals and other usefull services of the Internet effectively;• To utilise the facilities of e-journals access provided through VSAT under UGC INFONET E-journal / Digital Library Consortium of INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad, the campus wide local area network should be available in campus, hostel and the different departments of the university;• As the user communities have expressed their dissatisfation towards the speed of Internet connectivity due to low bandwidth, it is recommended to establish campus wide Internet facilities with dedicated leased line facility for speedy access to Internet facility and number of nodes to the users should be increased as per requirements;• Training in electronic resources management should be offered to library staff . So that they can guide the Scholars;• The study indicates the need of orientation/workshop of e-resources for faculty members and research scholars also• The frequently power failure is one of the major problem in the University Library. So the users are facing lots of problem in E-resources access. To maitain their interest towards e- resources the University must ensure adequate and continuous uninterrupted power supply.• To prevent misuse of Internet facilities, proper monitoring of services should be ensured as restricted sites should be blocked;• More fund should be given to acquire electronic resources;• The E-resources like e-books, e-journals subscribes to increased in their optimum utilization.• The infrastructure facilities should be well for the comfortable service;• Library working hours should be increased for 12 hours from 8a.m. to 8p.m.;• Proper vigilance in the computer laboratory should be ensured;• Library should be opened during holidays also. It should be 24x7;• More provision for database search. OPAC should be made operational and search inhouse databases;• Printing, scaning facilities must be available ;National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 80
  • 94. • Intranet facilities should be given at hostels and departments to access e-resources;• Creation of awareness among students about the different on-line resources; and• Library staffs who are not aware of using Internet and e-resourses should be given training from grass root level for extending proper and effective Internet/ Web Resources service to the users.Conclusion The study showed that the use of the Internet has created a great impact upon usersof Assam University Central Library in their research and development works. The rapiddevelopments in information communication technology have faciliated the convergence ofnew electronic devices and formats. Information has been embedded in a variety of ways andforms in various kinds of electronic resources. So far the systematic research hasnot beendone in this area particularly in the use of on-line electronic resources among the users ofAssam University Central Library. It is clear from the study that the younger generation hasaccepted the Internet as a means for accessing to the relevant information for academic andresearch works , whereas the elderly people are still conversent with traditional resources whoare using printed resources available in library, but the volume of frequent usage of e-resources among the users have been found to be optimum level. Many of the respondents are not aware of using ICT and Internet for their day to dayactivities , so the library can take initiatives to organise Orientation Programmes and userawareness programme in collaboration with Computer Centre of the University orINFLIBNET / DELNET/ other agencies for improving ICT and Internet Literacy in this area. As the Central Library has the facilities to access Internet for on-line access to the e-resources available under various consortia, the library authority should take some steps toincrease the number of systems with higher configuration and speed of access to use of e-resources, also the library service hours should be increased so that prolonged stay and study,in the library is possible. A rapid change in information seeking behaviour and use of Internet for On-lineaccess of E-resources have become the vital part of various information needs.The usersdevelop the skills and knowledge to use the e-resources / Web resources and Internet basedservices. The On-line journals ie e-journals are the most important for the researchcommunity. It is proved that the on-line journals / web resources save the times of the users.Many users are suggesting to subscribe more on-line journals and e-resources of variouspublishers. Lack of training among users and proper infrastructure in the university librariesof North Eastern Region is one of the vital factors in the usage of Internet, e-resouces and e-journals in Assam University Library in particular and other University / College Libraries ofNorth Eastern Regions of India in general. This study helps to improve the facilities and services related to facility of providingICT and Internet Literacy Programme for access to various Internet resources/ On-line access/ Web-Resources. If proper training is imparted to the faculty members, research scholars,students , officers and staff members , the performance of the post-graduate students, researchscholars and teachers of the academic community of universities will be incresed to make theAssam University Campus in particular and other University Campus of North Eastern StatesNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 81
  • 95. in general a ICT and Internet Literate campus for effectively accessing to Internet/ WebResources for their academic and reseach work.Acknowledgements The authors are thankful to Prof. Tapodhir Bhattacharjee, Hon’ble Vice-Chancellor forhis constant encouragement and support. The authors are also thankful to all the respondentsfor returning filled –in questionniare instantly .ReferencesBiradar , B.S. , Rajashekhar, G.R. and Sampath Kumar 2004. A Study of Internet Usage byStudents and faculties in Kuvempu University. Library Herald, 44 (4),: 283-294.Borthakur, Jyothika, Das, Rumi and Gohain, Anjan. 2010. UGC-INFONET : It’sAvailabilityand Use in Universities of Assam . In: Re-engineering of Library andInformation Services at Digital Era: Proceedings of 7th Convention PLANNER-2010, 18-20 February 2010, (Eds: Jagdish Arora et. al., ) INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmadabad , pp 102-108.Chnadran , D. 2000. Use of Internet Resources Services in S.V. University(Tripathi),CALIBER-2000. pp2.124 – 3.127.Das, A. and Basu. D. 2009. Use of Internet by the Students of Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya (West Bengal): A Survey . In: Library/ Information Users in Digital Era(Eds: Amitabha Chatterjee et al., ).XXVII All India IASLIC Conference/ 26-29 December,2009/ KIIT Bhubaneswar/ N0.48/ pp39-47.Devender Kumar and Shukla, Sanjay Kumar. 2009. Use of Internet among the ResearchScholars of the Faculty of Science, University of Allahabad: A Case Study . In: Library/Information Users in Digital Era (Eds: Amitabha Chatterjee et al., ).XXVII All IndiaIASLIC Conference/ 26-29 December, 2009/ KIIT Bhubaneswar/ N0.48/ pp 246-253.Gireesh and Rajashekara. 2009. Use of E-Resources by IT Professionals: A Case Study ofCognizant Technology Solutions Pvt. Ltd. In: Library/ Information Users in Digital Era(Eds: Amitabha Chatterjee et al., ).XXVII All India IASLIC Conference/ 26-29 December,2009/ KIIT Bhubaneswar/ N0.48/ pp 287-295.Mathew, Sini and Sornam, S.Ally. 2007. Use of E-resources among P.G.Students ofKerala Agricultural University. Kelpro Bulletin, 1 (2) Dec.2007, 13 -24.Mendhe, Ravindra , Taksande, Pratibah and Taksande, Gautam. 2009. Use and Impact ofDigital Resources at G.H.Raisoni College of Engineering , Nagpur , India: A Case Study. In:Library/ Information Users in Digital Era (Eds: Amitabha Chatterjee et al., ).XXVII AllIndia IASLIC Conference/ 26-29 December, 2009/ KIIT Bhubaneswar/ N0.48/ pp 239-245.Mishra, Jyothi and Satayanarayana , N.R. 2001. Use of Internet in University Library: AStudy. ILA Bulletin, 37 (4): 132-134.Mishra, R.N. and Gohain , Rashmi Rekha. 2010. Use and Usage Statistics of ElectronicResources at Central Library , Tezpur University: A Case Study. In: Re-engineering ofNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 82
  • 96. Library and Information Services at Digital Era: Proceedings of 7th ConventionPLANNER-2010, 18-20 February 2010, (Eds: Jagdish Arora et. al., ) INFLIBNET Centre,Ahmadabad , pp 183-205.Monohar,R. “An investigation in to the use of the electronic resources by AgriculturalScientists in the College of Agriculture,Vellayani. Kelpro Bulletin, 11(2) December 2007, 25- 34.Parekh, Harsha. 1999. Information Resources on the Internet for Higher Education andResearch. Library Herald, 37 (2), 21-21.Rahman Wahidur and Ali , Amjad. 2010. Utilisation of Internet –Based Library andInformation Services by the Faculty Members of Engineering Colleges of Aligarh MuslimUniversity, Aligarh: A Case Study. In:Re-engineering of Library and Information Servicesat Digital Era: Proceedings of 7th Convention PLANNER-2010, 18-20 February 2010 (Eds:Jagdish Arora et. al., ), INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad pp 36-44.Rajeev Kumar and Ampritpal Kaur. 2004. Use of Internet by Teachers and Students inShaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engineering and Technology: A Case Study. Journal ofLibrary and Information Science. 29 (1&2), 81-94.Rao, K. Tata. 2010. Internet Use in Academic Libraries : A Case Study of Sri Sathya SaiUniversity. In: Re-engineering of Library and Information Services at Digital Era:Proceedings of 7th Convention PLANNER-2010, 18-20 February 2010, (Eds: Jagdish Aroraet. al., ) INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmadabad , pp50-55.Sharma, Sanjeev, Singh, Harjeet and Mishra , Manish Kumar . 2008. Use of Internet byTeachers and Research Scholars in Kurukshetra University. Library Progress (International) ,28 (2) : 155-160.Singh, Pankaj Kumar. 2009. User awareness and use of On-line journals at the Jamia MilliaIslamia Library: a survey , IASLIC Bulletin 54 (4), 2009, 210-218.Sinha, Manoj Kumar. 2008. Information Communication Technology (ICT) and InternetAwareness amongst the College and University Teachers. In: From Automation toTransformation. 6th International CALIBER-2008, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, Feb28, 29 & March 1, 2008, INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad, Pp165- 175.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 83
  • 97. Open Source Software for Libraries: An Overview D. Sankara Narayanan and M. Sithi Jagannara Abstract The concept of open source software has established a new paradigm in Library administration and services. Open source software is software that users have the ability to run, copy, distribute, study, change, share and improve for any purpose. Various OSS solutions are available under public licensing for download and use for Libraries. This paper attempts to profile some of the important OSS available for LIS professionals. Keywords: Open Source Software, Library technology, Information technologyIntroduction Programmers write software source code using programming languages. The sourcecodes are compiled and saved in an executable file, which cannot be “Read” by human whohas no access to the source code.Open source software is computer software whose sourcecode is available under a license that permits users to study, change and improve the softwareand to redistribute it in modified firm. It is often developed in a public, collaborative manner.It is most prominent example of open source development and often compared to usergenerated content. Open source is “an approach to software development and intellectualproperty in which code is available to all participants and can be modified by any of them(Warger ,2002) The OSI maintains that for any software to satisfy as open source under thefollowing three criteria: • The source code must be distributed with software or otherwise made available for no more than the cost of distribution. • The software is allowed for re distribution without any royalty payment to the creator • The user can modify the source code under the same terms. Sometimes, the software released under open source is also called “free and open source software”Definition According to Free software foundation (FSF) IN OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE (OSS),the users’ should have freedom to run copy, distribute, study, change and improve thesoftware. According to Open Source Initiative ( "Open source promotes software reliability and quality by supporting independent peerreview and rapid evolution of d as open source, the license of a program must guarantee theright to read, redistribute, modify, and use it freely."National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 84
  • 98. The Ten Commandments The Open Source Initiative (OSI) identified ten criteria for a software product to be calledopen source. The OSI certifies a software license as an ‘OSI Certified License’ on the basis ofthe following ‘Ten Commandments.’Free Redistribution The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as acomponent of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several differentsources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale.Source Code The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as wellas compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, theremust be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonablereproduction cost–preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge.Derived Works The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to bedistributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.Integrity of the Author’s Source Code The license may restrict source code from being distributed in modified form only if thelicense allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose ofmodifying the program at build time. The license must explicitly permit distribution ofsoftware built from modified source code.No Discrimination against Persons or Groups The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.No Discrimination against Fields of Endeavor The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field ofendeavor.Distribution of License The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program isredistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.License Must not be Specific to a Product The rights attached to the program must not depend on the programs being part of aparticular software distribution.The License Must not Restrict Other Software The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along withthe licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programsdistributed on the same medium must be open-source software.The License must be Technology-Neutral No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or styleof interface.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 85
  • 99. Advantages of OSSLower software costs Open source solutions generally require no licensing fees. The logical extension isno maintenance fees. The only expenditures are for media, documentation, and support, ifrequiredSimplified license management Obtain the software once and install it as many times and in as many locations as youneed. There’s no need to count, track, or monitor for license complianceLower hardware costs In general, Linux and open source solutions are elegantly compact and portable, andas a result require less hardware power to accomplish the same tasks as onconventional servers (Windows, Solaris) or workstations. The result is you can get by withless expensive or older hardwareScaling/consolidation potential Again, Linux and open source applications and services can often scaleconsiderably. Multiple options for load balancing, clustering, and open sourceapplications, such as database and email, give organizations the ability to scale up fornew growth or consolidate to do more with less.Scaling/consolidation potential Again, Linux and open source applications and services can often scaleconsiderably. Multiple options for load balancing, clustering, and open sourceapplications, such as database and email, give organizations the ability to scale up fornew growth or consolidate to do more with less.Escape vendor lock-in Frustration with vendor lock-in is a reality for all IT managers. In addition toongoing license fees, there is lack of portability and the inability to customize softwareto meet specific needs. Open source exists as a declaration of freedom of choiceUnified management Specific open source technologies such as CIM (Common Information Model) andWBEM (Web Based Enterprise Management) provide the capability to integrate orconsolidate server, service, application and workstation management for powerfuladministrationQuality software Evidence and research indicate that open source software is good stuff. The peerreview process and community standards, plus the fact that source code is out there for theworld to see, tend to drive excellence in design and efficiency in coding.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 86
  • 100. Disadvantages of OSSPerceived disadvantages of open source models Of course, open source development models lead also to the perception of somedisadvantages. However, some of them are only disadvantages if we stick to classical(proprietary) development models, which is of course not the case with open source.Limited or no accountability Limited domain of solutions, Limited hard real-time supportPatented Proprietary File formats Some file formats have been patented, or for other reasons, cannot be read by OpenSource products. Software patents are often given out loosely.Resistance to Migration Most of the world’s offices and desktops are currently using proprietary software. Themigration to open source costs money and takes efforts in the short term, before long termbenefits can be obtained.The Total Cost of Ownership Argument For a long time, it was argued that although OSS was initially cheaper, the long term‘total cost of ownership’ was higher. Increasingly, OSS is winning this argument.Lack of Advertising There are only a few major proprietary software companies, and they’ve made a lot ofmoney, which they can then spend on advertising.Fear, uncertainty and doubt The majority of the commercial software industry finds it easier to criticize or scarepeople away from OSS, than embrace it, and change their business models.Proprietary software offering ‘open’ source code Proprietary software sometimes tries to blur the line between proprietary and free or opensoftware. This is an attempt to show that proprietary software has the same openness as OSS.Lack of an ‘ecosystem’A problem often cited is the lack of an open source ‘ecosystem’, comprising lots ofcompanies both large and small, willing to offer support etc. Major organizations need thisbefore they are willing to use any product.Piracy Piracy is common in the proprietary software world, since the legally purchasedsoftware is so expensive. Piracy makes proprietary software seem cheaper than it really is. Itis sometimes alleged that proprietary software vendors ‘look the other way’ in developingcountries when they know piracy is happening, until the country is heavily locked into theproprietary software.Restricted choice In virtually every area of software there are dozens if not hundreds or even thousandsof choices for different commercial packages, but rarely are there more than one or two, ifany, open source options.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 87
  • 101. Poor integration Open source products tend to be created by people, so as a result their products arepoorly integrated.Poor interactive capabilities OSS with an interactive user interface as good as “average good” interactive packages inWindows.Difficult to use A subset of the above that should be enumerated explicitly. OSS tend to be written byengineers for other engineers and for many of them it is accepted that ordinary function willinvolve creation of configuration files, writing scripts, or actually editing the source code andrecompiling.Higher cost of installation Commercial vendors are forced by intense competition to configure their products foreasy installation. Open source tends to have much higher installation costs because a muchgreater degree of expertise usually is required for installation.Higher cost of operation Open source products tend to require a much higher degree of technical expertise tooperate and maintain, so they end up costing more.Higher cost of technical support Open source costs more to support because the software is typically self-supporting.Lack of capabilities/features Open software packages tend to have far fewer features and capabilities thancommercial equivalents.Poor customer response A well-run commercial software company will immediately turn around customerrequests for enhancements. With open source, if you don’t do it yourself you are at the mercyof a disjoint community of developers.Lack of innovation/codification of obsolete architectures The glacially slow pace of development within open source movements and the designby committee, consensus process tends to assure that obsolete architectures get implementedwithin open sourceNo warranty There is no single company backing the productOpen Source Software for Libraries Some important OSS products which are very much useful for library and informationprofessionals are profiled below.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 88
  • 102. Library AutomationKOHA: Integrated Library System Koha is a promising full featured open source ILS (integrated library system) currently being used by libraries all over the world. For those of you out there unfamiliar of what an ILS is, well, it is a system of keeping track of the operations of a library - payroll, expenses, purchases, and most importantly, keeping track of the various media being checked out by the librarians patrons. Many smaller libraries cannot afford to purchase, install, and maintain an ILS, and Koha is a perfect alternative. Koha is built using library ILS standards and uses the OPAC (open public access catalog) interface. In addition, Koha has no vendor-lock in, so libraries can receive tech support from any party they choose.New Gen Lib: NewGenLib ( New Generation Li br ary) i s an I nte gr ate d Li b rar y A u t o m a t i o n a nd Networking Solution Developed by Verus Solutions Pvt Ltd and The Kesavan Institute of Information and Knowledge Management, India. In March 2005, NewGenLib version was released and versions 2.0 and 2.1 have come up later. On 9th January 2008, NewGenLib has been declared Open Source Software under GNU GPL Licence by the Verus Solutions Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad, India. Digital Library and Institutional Repositories Greenstone Digital Library Software The Greenstone digital library software is an open-source system for the construction and presentation of information collections. It builds collections with effective full-text searching and metadata-based browsing facilities that are attractive and easy to use. Moreover, they are easily maintained and can be augmented and rebuilt entirely automatically. The system is extensible: software “plugins” accommodate different document and metadata types. The aim of the Greenstone software is to empower users, particularly in universities, libraries, and other public service institutions, to build their own digital libraries. D SPACE Dspace is a groundbreaking digital institutional repository that captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and redistributes the intellectual output of a university’s research faculty in digital formats. It manages and distributes digital items, made up of digital files and allows for the creation, indexing, and searching of associated metadata to locate and retrieve the items. DSpace design and developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Libraries and Hewlett-Packard (HP). DSpace was designed as an open source application that institutions and organizations could run with relatively few resources. It is to support the long-term preservation of the digital material stored in the repository. It isNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 89
  • 103. also designed to make submission easy. DSpace supports submission, management, and access of digital content .D space current user interface is web based. E PRINTS Eprints is an open source software package for building open access repositories that are compliant with the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting. It shares many of the features commonly seen in Document Management systems, but is primarily used for institutional repositories and scientific journals. EPrints has been developed at the University of Southampton School of Electronics and Computer Science and released under a GPL license FEDORA Fedora open source software gives organizations a flexible service-oriented architecture for managing and delivering their digital content. At its core is a powerful digital object model that supports multiple views of each digital object and the relationships among digital objects. Digital objects can encapsulate locally-managed content or make reference to remote content. Dynamic views are possible by associating web services with objects. Digital objects exist within a repository architecture that supports a variety of management functions. All functions of Fedora, both at the object and repository level, are exposed as web services. These functions can be protected with fine-grained access control policies. This unique combination of features makes Fedora an attractive solution in a variety of domains. Some examples of applications that are built upon Fedora include library collections management, multimedia authoring systems, archival repositories, institutional repositories, and digital libraries for education. Web Publishing Word Press Word press started out as a quick, free, open-source solution blogging solution just a few years ago; today it is a perfect alternative to building a web site from scratch. In addition to being free to use (and easy to install), the Word press community has exploded, with thousands of users and programmers creating custom themes and plug-ins to completely change the way the software looks and operates. The most important aspect of the software is its easy-to- use interface and content management system. With its visual rich editor, anyone can publish text and photos to the web site. Other options include multiple authors (with separate log-ins), built in RSS (Real Simple Syndication) technology to keep subscribers updated, and a comment system that allows readers to interact with the sites content. A fantastic way to communicate with patrons, staff, etc.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 90
  • 104. Conclusion OSS is well worth considering, particularly for stand-alone applications thatcomplement traditional commercial library management systems. Systems librarians andlibrary managers should watch this trend for future developments. The most importantresource for the whole exercise is staff time and expertise. Although there is a lot of hi-techand computers involved in creating and running a digital library, most of it is hard work.Resources for emergencies need to be considered and contingency plans (stand-bymachine(s), access to temporary staff, etc.) need to be made. OSS is any software whosecode is available for users to look at and modifyReferencesAltman, Micah ; Open Source Software for Libraries: from Greenstone to the Virtual DataCenter and Beyond. IASSIST Quarterly, winter 2001, 5-11, 2001. Accessed on2011/09/07 fromWeb site:, Janet L;Consideringopensource software. Computers in Libraries.4 (8), 36-39,2004 from Web site:, David; Open Source Software: A History. ITAL: Information Technologyand Libraries.21(1),3-11, 2002 accessed on 2011/09/07 from Website:, Edward M.. The Importance of Open Access, Open Source, and Open Standardsfor Libraries. Issues in Science & Technology Librarianship. 42, 2005. accessed on2011/09/06 from Web site: open source Digital Library (DL) system. accessed on2011/09/06Ferraro, Joshua; Why Your Library Needs Open Source, 2006. Retrieved February 9, 2008,from Web site: Software Foundations software directory., Vimal; Selection and Management of Open Source Software in Libraries. InKumar, Manoj K., Eds. Proceedings CALIBER 2007: 5th International Convention onAutomation of Libraries in Education and Research Institutions, 1-5, 2007.Mackenzie, Adarian; Open Source Software: When is a Tool? What is a Commodity?.Science as Culture, 10(4), 541-552, 2001.Reasoning; How open source and commercial software compare: MySQL 4.0..16. availableat http:// on 2011/09/07), 2003.Warger, T;The open source movement, editcause quarterly,25(3),pp 18-20. on 2011-09-07), 2003.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 91
  • 105. Role of Social Networking Sites Sumuki Padmanabhan and N. Thilagavathy Abstract Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are increasingly popular nowadays. Many SNS developers like Face book, MySpace, Twitter and others are competing to give the best features in terms of socialization, interaction, privacy and even entertainment.Libraries and other information organizations are beginning to incorporate these applications as a means of creating more interactive, user centered library and information services. This paper attempts to highlight the value of social networking and profile the background information of social networking sites, discuss the positive and negative aspects of these websites, and outlines as to how libraries have taken these technologies into their areas to get benefits. Keywords: Social Networking, FaceBook, MySpace, Twitter, Cyworld, BeboIntroduction: “Social networks are so great A wonderful place to meet and mate But there are a few simple rules To make them really an effective tool…” Social network sites (SNSs) such as MySpace, Facebook, Cyworld, and Bebo haveattracted millions of users, many of whom have integrated these sites into their dailypractices. As of this writing, there are hundreds of SNSs, with various technologicalaffordances, supporting a wide range of interests and practices. While their key technologicalfeatures are fairly consistent, the cultures that emerge around SNSs are varied. Most sitessupport the maintenance of pre-existing social networks, but others help strangers connectbased on shared interests, political views, or activities. Some sites cater to diverse audiences,while others attract people based on common language or shared racial, sexual, religious, ornationality-based identities. Sites also vary in the extent to which they incorporate newinformation and communication tools, such as mobile connectivity, blogging, andphoto/video-sharing.Social Network Sites: A Definition Social network sites as web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct apublic or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users withwhom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and thosemade by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections mayvary from site to site. What makes social network sites unique is not that they allow individuals to meetstrangers, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make visible their social networks.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 92
  • 106. This can result in connections between individuals that would not otherwise be made, but thatis often not the goal, and these meetings are frequently between "latent ties"(Haythornthwaite, 2005) who share some offline connection. On many of the large SNSs,participants are not necessarily "networking" or looking to meet new people; instead, they areprimarily communicating with people who are already a part of their extended social network.To emphasize this articulated social network as a critical organizing feature of these sites andlabel them "social network sites." "Powerful new technologies provide great benefits, but they also change the way welive, and not always in ways that everyone likes. An example is the spread of air conditioning,which makes us more comfortable, but those who grew up before its invention speak fondlyof a time when everyone sat on the front porch and talked to their neighbors rather than goingindoors to stay cool and watch TV. The declining cost of information processing andcommunication represents a powerful new technology, with social networking as the mostrecent service to be provided at modest cost. It can be expected to bring pluses and minuses...But will social networking sites really improve the quality of peoples lives? The plusesinclude easier contacts with friends, and increased chances to make new friends and create acommunity, as well as find romantic relationships. Even the advertising may be a plus,because it is targeted to the particular interests of the user. The minuses are that all of this sharing can be dangerous, through gossip and potentialabuse of the services. Examples include reported suicides linked to malicious gossipcirculated on a social network. Some people become addicted to life on the computer screen,and withdraw from personal contact — its a long way from people sitting on the porchtalking to friends and neighbors... Thus, social networking sites have become increasinglypopular.Social Networking and Its value In the knowledge society in addition to technical skills and access to informationtechnologies, it is becoming increasingly important for people to have diversified andsupportive social connections. Social Networking – It is the way the 21 st century communicates now. The termsocial networking refers to a process of relationship building among a group of people whohave a common interest (What is Social Networking, 2010). Also social networking is thegrouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or a neighborhoodsubdivision. Although social networking is possible in person, especially in the workplace,universities and high schools, it is most popular online. The internet is filled with millions ofindividuals who are looking to meet other people, to gather and share first hand informationand experiences about golfing, gardening, aesthetics and cosmetic surgery, developingfriendships or professional alliances, finding employment, business – to – business marketingetc. When it comes to online social networking websites are commonly known as socialnetworking web sites and promote a number of social network services. It allows users toshare ideas, activities, events and interests within the individual networks.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 93
  • 107. In general social networking services allow users to create a profile for themselves andcan be broken down into two bread categories. Internal Social Networking (ISN) and ExternalSocial Networking (ESN) (MySpace, Facebook, Twitter and Bebo etc). An ISN is a closed /private community that consists of a group of people within a company, association, society,education provider and organization or even an “invite only” group created by a user in anESN. ESN’s can be smaller specialized communities or they can be large generic socialnetworking sites. However, whether specialized or generic there is commonality across thegeneral approach of social networking sites. Users can upload a picture of themselves; createtheir ‘profile’ and can often be “friends” with other users. In most social networking services,both users must confirm that they are friends before they are linked. Social networking sites typically have a section dedicated to comments by friends. OnFriendster, this section is called “Testimonials”. On Facebook, this section is called “TheWall”. In the beginning, this was a feature that encouraged people to write messages about theperson in the profile. But over time, people started writing creative testimonials back, creatinga form of conversation. Some social networks have additional features, such as the ability to create groups thatshare common interests or affiliations, upload or stream live videos and hold discussions inforums. Another social network allows professionals to exchange information, opportunitiesand ideas. Professionals are able to stay informed with new knowledge about their field.The role of social networking sites like Twitter and Face book in languagelearning Social networks are also being used by teachers, lecturers and students as acommunication tool. Because many students are already using a wide – range of socialnetworking sites, teachers and lecturers have begun to familiarize themselves with this trendand are now using it to their advantage. Teachers, lecturers and professors are doingeverything from creating chat room forums and groups to extend classroom, discussion toposting assignments, tests and quizzes to assisting with homework outside of the classroomsetting. Social networks are also being used to foster teacher – parent communication. Thesesites make it possible and more convenient for parents to ask questions and voice concernswithout having to meet face to face.Advantages of Social Networking SitesA few reasons that attest to the benefits of social networking includeIts Free On MySpace, you only need a valid e-mail address to become a member and create aprofile page. While most traditional advertising and marketing efforts require some sort offunding, an average social networking site requires no annual fees or start-up costs.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 94
  • 108. Simple Set-up A profile can be created with very little time and effort. For the less Web-savvyindividual, most sites provide straightforward instructions and a general template to makepage-construction simple.Easy Customization With online instruction, it is easy to customize a profile page to fit the image of yourbusiness. Many sites are dedicated to providing an endless variety of backgrounds and clip artfor social networking sites. Such options are accompanied with a code already incorporatedinto the editing section of the profile page. No extra work is needed on your part.Maintenance is Flexible After the profile is created, you decide how often you update the content. It doesntdemand constant attention; it only requires as much as you are willing to put into it. Manyenthusiastic social networkers enjoy constantly updating the look or information posted ontheir site. This helps to maintain interest in new information about your business.Conveys Information about the Business Many sites allow you to post bulletins or blogs for friends (people who have requestedto connect with you on your site). This gives businesses a chance to advertise weekly specials,sales, or new products/services. For many, the Web is one of the first places they visit tosearch for information. Having an online presence helps ensure your business will be one ofthe first they come across in a search.Buzz Generation When someone adds a business profile as a "friend," the profile appears in thatpersons friends list. This means other people will see, and perhaps visit, the profile; thusincreasing awareness about the business.Allows for Customer Feedback Social networking sites serve as an outlet for where a company can really explorepossibilities of reaching out to the customer and ask for feedback. Entertainment venues orrestaurants may ask connected customers to post pictures and comments about theirexperiencesTop 15 most Popular Networking sites: • Facebook – General • Twitter – General Micro-blogging, updatesNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 95
  • 109. • Linkediln – Business & Professional networking • My space – General • Ning – Users create their own social websites & social networks • Google plus – General • Tagged – General • Orkut – General, owned by Google Inc. • Hi 5 – General • Myyear book – General, Charity • – General, used to plan offline meeting for people interested in various activities • Badoo – General, meet new people • Mylife – Locating friends & family keeping in touch • Friendster – General.Role of libraries in Social Networking: Today libraries are using latest trends to make their services popular & user friendlyespecially in western countries. These trends are now also catching up with Indian libraryprofessionals. Everybody is now talking about Lib 2.0 applications. One of them is SocialNetworking (SN)!! The use of online social networks by libraries and information organizations is alsoincreasingly prevalent and a growing tool that is being used to communicate with morepotential library users, as well as extending the services provided to individual libraries. Various social networking sites like face book, MySpace, Orkut etc. can be used forthis. These web sites help people to build up network and relationships among themselves. Inaddition to these sites, various web 2.0 techniques may also be used to develop betterrelationships among people. Most of the library weblogs had some kind of statement of aims or purposes for theweblog and / or something about the intended audiences. Sometimes this was just a fewwords; sometimes a formal statement or short paragraph. Below presents the example of theaims or purposes. • Provide news or information for users • Provide links to recommended Internet Resources • Book reviews, information about new books • Provide entertainment or amusement for users • Provide news or information for librarians • Book discussions • Provide news or information for trustees • Provide research tips • Communication among librarians (in a library system) (Clyde, 2004)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 96
  • 110. Therefore in present society social networking is more important for libraries andinformation organizations. Librarians are always maintaining good rapport with their users aswell as other professional fellow beings. But doing the same with new resources provided byInformation & Communication Technologies (ICT) is now termed as “Social Networking”where users especially college students are targeted as they gets fascinated by suchapplications.The basic aim is same as resource sharing. Those who are not aware about SN may try following resources available on Internet.They also give insight how libraries can play role in social networking: • Using Social Networking Tags in a Library Setting • MySpace, Social Networking and Its Impact on Library Services • Building a Social Networking Environment at the Library At the same time there are incidences where libraries themselves have banned thesesites due to various reasons. SN may prove dangerous in some instances like misuse ofpersonal details. Everything has its pros and cons. One should look for positive things. SNalso may prove useful if applied correctly. Whether and how to use SN is the main point library professionals have to deal withkeeping in mind all the pros and cons, which may vary from organization to organization also.Innovations in libraries: Need of the day The library staff usually tends to become bored after doing same work over period oftime. To keep interest alive, one must try something new though the original work mayremain the same. This is nothing but one’s innovation and creativity, which helps in bringingnew value to monotonous work. Four elements of innovation are creativity, strategy, implementation and profitability.Innovations not only bring out creativeness in librarians but also save the times of users.Innovation is useful for libraries as it: • Makes optimal use of resources • Attracts new users • Builds stronger loyalty among current ones • Gives creative satisfaction to library staff • Helps in smooth running of activity irrespective of existing or newly introduced • To enhance the library image amongst management as well as user community To give some examples from library background, following changes may beconsidered as innovations: • The library visit now can be replaced by Virtual Tour / Library Map on internet / intranet site.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 97
  • 111. • Previously library marketing was done through Brochures / Pamphlets which is easier through Library Blog. • Earlier reference service was provided in person but now it can be done remotely also by Ask A Librarian / Instant Messaging service • Previously library collection had both print as well as non-print (CDs/DVDs) material which may be now replaced by Digital Library / Online databases etc. The above examples uses the various tools provided by information technology (IT)applications. But irrespective of IT, the librarians can do many things such as • Announcing “Best User” Awards to excel reading habits of users. • Display of slow moving titles in themes for increasing awareness amongst users. • Using user-friendly furniture & displays etc. • Creating “Book Clubs” of users. The most important of all is one’s own determination to make changes as and whenrequired for maintaining balance between the present scenario and latest happenings in andaround library keeping in mind future planning.Social Networking- Blogs Creating a library blog and managing it is really an art. One should have creativity,innovative capability and an urge to do something new especially for your library users. Youmay add numerous gadgets to your blog to look it more attractive but it will not work until thecontents on the blog are useful and educative from users point of view. There is also general observation, that many times professionals are always eager tolearn new things thro various workshops, conferences but when they go back its up to themhow they utilise their knowledge in their working schedule. Library blogs are really useful if it is used to optimum level. Following are fewexamples listed but not limited to Announcements purpose: • Change in time • Library Holidays • Exhibitions • Library Orientation SessionNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 98
  • 112. Users Participation • Thro Book reviews • Ask a librarian • Debate • Survey about library services • Ask their opinion as and when required • Students corner - to share their library experience / to announce their achievements • Special lectures on specific topics / authors • Online library orientation session • Quiz Information Services • New Arrivals • News - General / Subject specific thro Google News • Thro RSS Feeds from similar blogs • Useful resources - (A list) • RSS Feeds from Publishers for latest releases • Sharing / displaying Twitter, Delicious etc accounts on blogs • Posting latest happening in particular field of interest of users Library information: • Collection information • Library Timings • Virtual tour thr pictures • Special facilities if any • Services provided • E-collection • Library OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue) Search facility • Library Staff • Contact details • Holiday List • Any other important aspectNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 99
  • 113. Thus, blog provides a medium for publishing the information online instantly. Now adays users are getting tech-savvy hence it also helps to create an image for library. Blogmanagement is simpler as compared to website management and hence the librarians can do itfor themselves. Most important thing is, the web itself provides the various blog creation and hostingsoftware platforms and that too free!!! Its high time that librarians should get serious andapply these freely available latest techniques in otherwise budget crunch environment oflibrary.Web 2.0 In 2005 Tim O’Reilly coined the phrase ‘web 2.0’. The term ‘web 2.0’ is a new webenvironment (O’Reilly, 2005) including Weblogs, Wikis and Syndications. Libraries andother information organizations are beginning to incorporate these applications as a means ofcreating more interactive user centered library and information services.Weblog The term weblog refers to a web page containing brief, chronologically arranged itemsof information (Scott, 2002). Nichani and Rajamanikam (2001) insist that weblogs are‘personal websites, usually maintained by an individual, constantly updated with newinformation, personal experiences, analysis, hyperlinks and commentary’. However not all weblogs are personal websites: institutions (including libraries,information centers, professional associations and companies) have created what theythemselves describe as weblogs. Embrey (2002) defines weblogs as ‘a cross between a diary,a web site and an online community’. Today libraries and Information organizations have to act as powerful magnet inattracting the users. Therefore marketing is the way forward in transforming libraries for thefuture (Malik, 2009). Marketing simply means that we push out the services and facilities wecan provide the users and demonstrate their benefits. Therefore libraries are involved ininformation provision and in promoting and making available creative work and soknowledge of weblogs are important for librarians and information officers. Therefore, weblogs is a source of information for libraries and informationorganizations. Also weblog is a tool that libraries can use to promote their services or toprovide a means of communication with their clients. It leads to social networking in librariesand information organizations for their communities. Hence with a scant knowledge of HTML a hosted online blog is the perfect solutionfor implementing a social network.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 100
  • 114. Conclusion “2015—The Web continues to evolve from a world ruled by mass media and massaudiences to one ruled by messy media and messy participation.” The Internet has come ofage. It is not only the habitat of the digital natives who grew up with a mouse, a joystick, alaptop, a cell phone, texting and an iPod or two, but for all of us. We are the millions who logonto the Internet every day to do what has become routine–check our e-mail, get drivingdirections, find a recipe, browse a health care site, do our banking, book a flight, and ofcourse, delete the annoying messages that found their way through our spam filters.ReferencesClyde, Laurel A; Weblogs and Libraries, Chandos Publishing, UK, 2004.Digital Divide Network; Content and the digital divide: What do people want?, [online],Available at:,[accessed 11 November 2008], 2000.Embrey, Theresa Ross; ‘You Blog, We blog: A Guide to How Teacher – Librarians can useWeblogs to build communication and research skills’, Teacher Librarian, 30 (2), p.7-9, 2002.Haythornthwaite, C; Social networks and Internet connectivity effects. Information,Communication, & Society, 8 (2), 125-147, 2005. librarian.com, [accessed 02 April 2010]http;// Source: Dror Gill, “How to Effectively UseSocial Networks” [song lyrics based on Blonde 2.0 blog post, Sept. 6, 2007],Kevin Kelly, “We are the Web,” in Wired, August 2005.Malik, Fairunizan Akbar; “Push to Pull” IFLA ALP course on Information Literacywellington, New Zealand, IFLA Asia and Oceania Section Newsletter, 21(1), p.21 , 2009.Nichani, Maish and Rajamanickam, Venkat (2001), ‘Grassroots KM Through blogging’,Elearningpost [online], Available at: ,[accessed 11 April 2010]O’Reilly, Tim; ‘What is Web 2.0?’in Teaching with Technology: An Academic Librarian’sguide, Chandos Publishing, UK, 2005.Scott, Peter; ‘Blogging: Creating Instant Content for the Web’, [online], Available at:, [accessed 18 April 2010] , 2001.Stutzman, F.; An evaluation of identity-sharing behavior in social network communities.Journal of the International Digital Media and Arts Association, 3 (1), 10-18; 2006.Sundén, J.; Material Virtualities. New York: Peter Lang, (accessed: 1stSeptember 2009)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 101
  • 115. Library 2.0 - Transition in the Library Environment B. Srilakshmi Abstract This paper discusses the concept of Library 2.0 and also explains how Web 2.0 tools influence digital services in library. Library 2.0 is a loosely defined model for a modernized form of library service that reflects a transition within the library world in the way the services are delivered to users. It highlights the usage of Weblogs (blogs), RSS feeds, Instant Messaging (IM), Social Networking, Podcasting and Wikis. Keywords: Library 2.0, Web 2.0, Blogs, RSS feeds, Instant Messaging, WikisIntroduction Internet has made a profound contribution to modern life and has become an integral part ofmankind. Never in the history of mankind there has been an opportunity for individuals to beconnected and communicated in such a dynamic fashion. The prolific benefit of this new way ofcommunication is the ability of people to experience the world through the comfort of computers.During the last decade there has been a change in all the three major areas of information technology,like computing, communication and content. The world is going digital which emphasize on useroriented service. Libraries for being everywhere has to push their genuinely valuable content, services,staff expertise form the self defined boundaries to where user might stand to take benefit from them.The use of web 2.0 technologies and applications on libraries constitutes a significant and substantivechange in the use of online and personalized services of libraries, changing the collection of library tomore interactive and fully accessible, focusing more on the facilitation of information transfer andinformation literacy rather than providing controlled access to it. In the process of informationhandling and transfer, libraries have absorbed several technologies over the past to improve the qualityand timeliness in providing information services. Library 2.0 provides focus on the way libraries canmake themselves and their services visible to the society and to end users.. It is a model for libraryservice that encourages constant and purposeful change, inviting user participation in the creation ofboth the physical and virtual services they want supported by consistently evaluating services.Concept of Library 2.0 A leap from Web 2.0 to Library 2.0 was conceived by Michael Casey, who first used the termin his blog, ‘Library Crunch’. Maness defines library 2.0 as the “application of interactive,collaborative and multimedia web based technologies to web based library services and collections”.Library 2.0 is a loosely defined model for a modernized form of library services that reflects atransition within the library world in the way the services are delivered to users. The focus is in onuser-centered change and participation in the creation of content and community. Earlier libraryservices were one directional service, providing information to the users they required. With the newweb tools information flows from every direction from library to user, user to library, library tolibrary, and user to user. Information is taken to the desk of the user by bringing library services tointernet and making the user more involved by encouraging feedback participation. Library 2.0 is bothfor the participation and for delivering the services to those users who are not currently using thelibrary servicesNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 102
  • 116. Figure 1 – Library 2.0 2.0 The library meme map as seen in Figure 1 describes the modernized form of library serviceswhich is a transition in the library world. It ensures that information resources managed by the librarywould be available at the point of need with the barriers to use minimized, there is an activepresumption that use and reuse of resources is both permitted, also encourages the culture ofparticipation from the library’s community of users to participate, contributing their views on theresources they have accessed and the ones which they might access. Ultimately library 2.0 will replacethe traditional one directional service which has been offered by libraries for centuries.Principles of Library 2.0 Library 2.0 encourages user participation and feedback in the development and maintenanceof library services. The principle of lib 2.0 seeks to break down the barriers: barriers on services, ontime, on place, and barriers inherent on what we do. In this user centered paradigm libraries can getinformation, entertainment and knowledge into the hands of our users wherever they are and bywhatever means works best. The active and empowered library user is a significant component ofLibrary 2.0. Library 2.0 revolves around the following principles:  library is everywhere  library has no barriers  library invites participation  library uses flexible best of breed systems  library reaches out to users  library is human  library recognizes that its users are human too.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 103
  • 117. Features of Library 2.0 Library 2.0 ultimately relies on the skillful use of emergent technologies to serve librarypatrons. Web 2.0 tools are often the key pieces which Library 2.0 proponents use in their daily work.The major features of Library 2.0 includes: • Instant messaging • Video sharing • Podcasting • Photo sharing • Blogs and wikis • Social networks • Folksonomies and social tagging • RSS feeds • Web Mashups While Library 2.0 is still an evolving concept, it nonetheless is a necessary development thatencourages both users and libraries to reposition themselves and their ideas about how a libraryfunctions. It ultimately helps libraries to grow and develop as a significant cultural institution forsociety. • create experience for users • provide a meeting place • human- understanding user and getting closer to the user • user- generated content • promote radical trust • recognize staff competencies • create a community of users and staff Library 2.0 has largely contributed to the transition and he warranted requirements of today’slibrary environment. It facilitates so much interactions and sharing that it creates rich self and groupexperience amongst the use community at large and offers an avenue for creating community andrecognitions of the members’ skills and competencies. The information world today has come alongdistance away from the library with four walls. It is a global village that no information gap couldafford to exist or affect the user community from the vast resources available within and outside thelibrary domain. The most important Web 2.0 resources used in library environment are:Wiki A collaborative website whose content can be edited by any one who has access to it. librarywiki enables social interaction among librarians and patrons, essentially moving the study group roomonline. Wikis can be used as a source for obtaining information and knowledge, and also as a methodof virtual collaboration, e.g., to share dialogue and information among participants in group projects,or to allow learners to engage in learning with each other, using wikis as a collaborative environmentto construct their knowledge or to be part of a virtual community of practice.Blog Short form of web blog an online journal where information is posted on regular basis and inchronological order. Blogs are a perfect place for dissemination of information in a timely manner.Blogs act as an extension to the routine library work like Identifying, organizing and making theinformation accessible in libraries. The basic objective of a library Blog is to provide news,National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 104
  • 118. information, announce library events, post book reviews, listing of new acquisition and providing linkto internet resources for library users. Among other uses are good tool for promotion and delivery ofnews items.RSS RSS an acronym for Really Simple Syndication and Rich Site Summary is XML-based format forcontent distribution. RSS on a library website keeps the library users up-to-date with new content onthe library. This feed helps to get information directly on to the user’s computer without looking on toother sites. RSS can be applied to some of the following library services: • Selective dissemination of information • Current Awareness service • Bibliographic Service • Bulletin Board serviceInstant Messaging (IM) Instant Messaging is a real time online communication between two or more people.IM helpsto reshape the delivery of reference services in libraries through faster dissemination of information,recommending reliable websites, reserving the books for the users, clarifying doubts regarding usageof the library and also receives feedback. IM saves the time of the users.Social Networking Social Networking sites are another offshoot of web 2.0. Social Networking sites likeMySpace and Facebook are a great way to stay in touch with the users, these sites help toshare information. Social networks have a greater role in influencing the spread of new ideasand practices. Change agents and intermediaries often play major roles in spurring theadoption of innovations, although factors inherent to the innovations also play a role. Flickr is a popular photo sharing website allows members to upload their own photosinto customizable albums that can then be labeled, organized, tagged, and publicly posted.Flickr, as well as many other photo hosting websites, provides image URLs for every file thatis uploaded, and these image URLs can then be used to embed a photo in a website, socialnetworking profile, blog post, or email. Flickr gives a virtual tour of the library as how thelibrary looks and also can post the events of the library. YouTube is a video sharing service that allows users to watch videos posted by otherusers and upload videos of their own. Libraries create videos for a variety of differentpurposes, including promotion and outreach, instruction, and archiving" and that "the practiceof finding, using, sharing, and evaluating online videos has already entered the domain ofinformation literacy and is likely to become an essential part of the educational landscapePodcasting Podcasting describes the process of using audio files to deliver syndicated website content to adigital audience. Basically, in podcasting, you create audio files that are available on your website,which people can then download to their iPods or MP3 players and listen to. “Podcasts” are deliveredthrough RSS (Rich Site Summary) feeds; users subscribe to various podcasts which are then checkedregularly for updates – just like blogs. So podcasting is essentially another medium for deliveringsyndicated web content to your users.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 105
  • 119. Conclusion Library 2.0 is not to replace traditional philosophy and service whatever library has, but it isabout enhancing and extending its services into new areas. Library 2.0 is completely user centered anduser driven. It is a Mashup of traditional library services and innovative Web 2.0 services. It is alibrary for the 21st century, rich in content, interactivity and social activity.. It’s about making changein your organization easy and routine. It’s about updating the services we offer and creating newservices that will reach out to community members who do not yet make use of our great facilities andofferings. Library 2.0 has changed the traditional way of thinking about profession where library onlyengage in creating the content and services for user shifted to the side of user where librarian willenable user to create them for themselves. The ball is now in the court of library professional,implementing library 2.0 services need a bigger change in the professional mindset to adopt this newway of services with the objective to have “access to information from anywhere at any time”. In general, libraries and staff must accept and adapt towards the transition from the inheritedstatus as the mediators of a print focused and highly controlled environment to be role players andcollaborators of a multimedia rich, user empowered and disinter mediated free-for all where theirvalue will be proven only by demonstrably improving outcomes in learning, teaching and research.ReferencesCasey, Michael E. and Savastinuk, Laura C. “Library 2.0 Service for the next-generation library.”Library Journal, 131:14 (2006):40.Chad, Ken and Miller, Paul. “Do libraries matter? The rise of Library 2.0.” White Paper, Talis. 22 Jul2010. <>Cho, Allan. “Library 2.0 and the New Librarianship: New Ways of Understanding Libraries” 18 Sep2010. <, Nabin Chandra and Sarkar, Pronab. “RSS Feeds and its Application in Library Services”CALIBER-2009. 18 Sep 2010, M., & Maharana, B. A-Lib 2.0: New Avatar Academic Libraries with Web 2.0 Applications,2008. In International CALIBER,Allahabad, India,28 february-01 March 2008.pp.469-476.(Published) [Conference Paper].Foley, Marianne. “Instant Messaging Reference in an Academic Library: A Case Study.” College &Research Libraries, 63:1(2002): 36-45Peter Ramsey, T. “Social Networking Services: Library Collaboration 2.0?: A qualitative studyexamining academic librarians perception of virtual social and professional networks as vehicles forcollaboration.” A Master’s Paper for the M.S. in L.S degree for July, 2008. p64 18 Sep 2010, M. R. “Basic Concept of Library 2.0 is Remix of Rabid Change in Technology, Managementand Innovative Services in the Library: A Bird Eye View”. 8th International Caliber-2011. GoaUniversity, Goa, March 02-04, 2011Rinnovati, Laura. “Exploration of the use of Library 2.0 and its role in the transformation ofpersonalised services in Italian libraries.” Library . 10 (2009): 1-9.Stephens, M. “Web 2.0 for libraries: best practices for social software.” Library Technology Reports,42: 4 (2006)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 106
  • 120. An Innovative Application of Information and Communication Technology for Veterinary and Animal Husbandry S.Senthilkumar, R.Ramprabhu and V.Ranganathan Abstract Village Information Centres can open a world of information and access to village communities and allow them to provide low-cost services for government, non- government organizations, institutions and individuals. The Village Information Centres scheme to be successful, one needs to address and ensure the people focus and community ownership, multistakeholder partnerships and nationwide networks. One should manage content creation, gathering, validation and dissemination, manage technology and connectivity and manage delivery of content on time. Birth of community radio, growing number of television channels, fast growing Internet and increasing literacy is sure to facilitate dissemination of farm information effectively in India. Both media are sure to provide cost effective and efficient value added extension services to the rural masses if could be used in common platform i.e. Village Information Centre. This paper attempts to brief the innovative applications of ICT in the field of veterinary and animal husbandry. Key words: Village Information Centre, ICT, Internet, Community Radio, Farm Information, Telecentre, Veterinary science, Animal HusbandryIntroduction Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are those technologies which can beused to interlink information technology device such as personal computer with communicationtechnologies such as telephones and their telephone network. The personal computer and laptop withe-mail and Internet provides the best example of ICT (Chapman and Slaymaker, 2002). The term‘ICTs’ can be interpreted as including a wide range of media i.e., traditional media and new media,‘new ICTs’ are used to denote “use of computers and communication systems between computers”(CTA, 1999). Media especially mass media are instrumental in accelerating development in many areas ofhuman endeavor. They can communicate with more people in less time and less cost. Traditionalmedia such as print, television, films and radio have been used very successfully in developingcountries, and rural radio in particular has played a major role in delivering animal husbandry andagricultural messages.Traditional mediaRadio Radio technology was first developed during the late nineteenth century and came into popularusage during the early twentieth century. M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai is thepioneer organization in India to utilizing the radio in the Public Address System (PAS) method fordissemination of information to the farmers by the way of broadcasting news and forecasts to fishfarmers under Bio-Village project in Pondichery and Village Knowledge Centres in Tamil Nadu. Afterthat, different non-government Organizations are carrying the same work to the farmers. .National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 107
  • 121. Television Television, until recently the new medium, has been used for raising awareness, impartingtraining, thereby making a useful rural development tool. One of the unique advantages of TV is that itallows people know how to do something. Undoubtedly, television is the most powerful media closeto the rural masses. Besides these advantages teleconferencing through television is gaining popularityin the Village Information Centre established by Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal SciencesUniversity (TANUVAS) under the Information Technology and Rural Extension project.Video Video is another media for generating and promoting interaction. Experiments with smallformat Videotape and Compact Disc and Digital Video Disc (DVD) have recently aroused the interestof the farmers in developing countries. It is the ideal medium to promote motivation, communityparticipation and entertainment. These media have tremendous utility in the training of extensionpersonnel. These devices are being used in preparing CDs in dissemination of information to thefarmers in animal husbandry, agriculture and allied fields. These are well utilized in the VillageInformation Centres established by TANUVAS, M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF),DHAN Foundation, n-Logue communication, etc. in Tamil Nadu area.Telephone Telephone has also established itself in the rural areas and is becoming quite popular both withfarmers. This powerful electronic machine that was a farmers’ dream earlier has become a reality asthe farmers’ can immediately make use of it to address their field problems and other farm difficulties.The Ministry of Agriculture has launched a Kisan Call Centre Scheme on 04.01.2004 to provideagricultural information to the farming community through toll free telephone lines. A country widecommon number ‘1551’ has been allocated for these centres.Print Media It has great potential in the communication process for quick transfer of technology. The printmedia includes newspaper, magazines, journals, bulletins, folders, leaflets, etc., Village InformationCentres established by TANUVAS, MSSRF and DHAN Foundation are regularly publishing leaflets,folders, bulletins, pamphlets, posters, and magazine on farm problems and their solution. Some dailynewspapers have regular and periodic column for animal husbandry and allied fields. Some of theseare The Hindu, Indian Express and local languages newspaper that are being subscripted by thesecenters and the farmers are getting benefited from these printed materials. Illiterate farmers arebenefited through secondary readership.New Media - Internet Radio was a novelty as a mass communication tool in the 1920s, after print, which was theoldest. It evolved into an important tool, and television, which followed suit, had offered the addedadvantages of being able to transmit motion pictures. Nevertheless, all these are technologies of thepast today. They are being increasingly referred to as the traditional media leaving the mantle of newmedia to the new emerging technologies such as, Internet. The new media such as Internet however offers great potential as an interactive mass medium.The hallmark traits of this new medium have been its ability to deliver individualized message to aninfinite number of people; each of the people involved shares reciprocal control over that content. New ICTs include community radio and television, cellular telephony, use of computingdevices, digital imaging, the Internet and Wide Area Networking (WAN), Wi-Fi and mixed media, forNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 108
  • 122. example use of radio for internet access and Internet radio, SMS services and WAP (Wireless AccessProtocol) based Internet access using cellular telephony as also embedded use of micro-processors,computing devices and applications and digital media in processes and systems for data andinformation management and communications.Mix of Media Traditional media and new ICTs have played a major role in diffusing information to ruralcommunities, and have much more potential. New ICTs, however, have the potential of getting vastamounts of information to rural population in a more timely, comprehensive and cost-effectivemanner, and could be used together with traditional media (Forno, 1999). The state of Tamil Nadu is making notable progress in online citizen services in Tamil andEnglish languages, especially Web-based information such as land records, birth and death certificates,subsidy schemes, geographical information systems (GIS), college admission forms and examinationresults (UNDP, 2008). Despite a strong and fast growing Information Technology industry, access toInformation and Communication Technologies (ICTs) remains very low, particularly in rural areas.Innovative application of ICTs in rural areas The present era is rightly termed as an “Information age”. People want adequate and authenticinformation as early as possible. In recent years, there is a visible shift from the old ways to themodern ways of information delivery systems. With the advent of global information society,information and communication technologies are increasingly being adopted as effective tool forreaching rural communities. Yet the benefits of the information revolution are still much debated,particularly, in the case of developing countries like India. There is very much concern about the gapbetween the information “haves and have not’s” will continue to grow unless the developing countriesacquire the infrastructure and resources to access these new technologies, and they are likely tobecome more marginalized and isolated economically, socially and politically. The situation is more serious for remote rural communities where basic communicationinfrastructures such as newspaper, radio, television and telephone are lacking. If the benefits of newtechnologies are to reach rural areas in developing countries, it is essential to disseminate informationin local languages and ensure that it is relevant to local development needs. Many in the ruralcommunity do not have individual access to these technologies but Village Information Centres ortelecentre offer shared access.Telecentre or Information Centre A telecentre is “a public place where people can get a variety of communication services, andmajor part of the operators’ purpose is to benefit the community”. Even the term ‘telecentres’ isarguably out-dated, because of its implicitly narrow focus, and a broader term like ‘knowledgecentres’ or ‘information centres’ may be more appropriate. Other related terms in the Indian literature,often used interchangeably with ‘telecentres’, are ‘information kiosks’ and ‘cyber dhabas’ (Conroy,2006).Major ICT-enabled Village Information Centre initiatives in India In India, a large number of innovative initiatives in the area of ICT have been undertaken bythe government, non-governmental and private sectors to take ICT to agrarian community.Akashganga (Dairy Information Services Kiosk) was initiated during 1996: ICTs in the lives of ruraldairy producers (co-operative venture). It deploys appropriate IT to facilitate the timely collection ofNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 109
  • 123. milk and thereby generate higher profits for rural milk producers in Anand, West India.M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation has launched the Information Village Research Project inPondicherry with financial support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC),Canada; with a view to disseminate appropriate modes of ICT to improve the livelihoods of ruralwomen and men. Some other ICT-VICs initiatives are MANAGE cyber extension initiative in Andhra Pradesh,Computer on Wheels (COW) in Hyderabad, Gyandoot in Madhya Pradesh, Warna Wired Project inMaharastra, ITCs E-Choupals in five different states, Kisan and Akshaya in Kerala, Bhoomi inKarnataka, SEWA in Gujarat, EID Parry’s Agri-line project in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu,Drishtee in Haryana and Rajasthan, Maha Agrinet in Maharastra and Tarahaat of Delhi. These ICT-VICs are broadly divided into Profit Making (PM) and Not for Profit making (NPM) initiative models. Major government, non-governmental and private initiators of ICT-VICs in Tamil Nadu Stateis Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS), M.S. Swaminathan ResearchFoundation and n-Logue communication, respectively.Government Organization Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS), Chennai has initiatedexperimentation on rural e-extension for transfer of technology in seven villages and two urbanlocations of the State. Its primary aim was to find out whether the rural people who are the real clientscan access information on their felt needs electronically. Based on need assessment study conductedby using survey questionnaire and focus group discussion (Cecchini and Scott, 2003), three VillageInformation Centres, one each at Vellore, Tiruchirapalli and Madurai districts were established in July2001 with financial support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada. Ineach of these districts, training and research centres of TANUVAS serve as hub centres which havebeen provided with ICTs facilities i.e., computer, web camera, Internet connection, etc. (Sheriff,2005). To overcome the cultural barrier, information tools in the households of women who are themembers of Self-Help Groups were established. Accordingly, six more centres were established, twocentres in each district viz., Cuddalore (Rural), Kancheepuram (Semi-Urban) and Chennai (Urban) inMay 2003 with financial support from UNESCO, New Delhi (Sheriff and Ganalakshmi, 2006).ICT facilities The hub centres were provided with a computer, printer, web camera, speakers, telephone andinternet connectivity. Each Village Information centre was provided with a computer, printer, webcamera, digital camera, speakers, telephone, internet connectivity, printed books, journals,newspapers, video compact disc player, television, radio with tape and CD Player. At Madurai andCuddalore district, three centres were given internet connectivity by CorDect wireless local loop(WLL) technology and other centres were connected by dial up facility. Women did not useinformation centres effectively as they have been located in community buildings of the villages atVellore (Chitteri), Madurai (Puthuthamaraipatti), and Triruchirappalli (Kuzhumani). These centreswere financially supported by International Development and Research Centre, Canada. Based on theobservation that women and girls are not approaching information centres for accessing information,six more centres were established at Varakkalpattu and Kandrakkottai of Cuddalore District (RuralSite) Kancheepuram and Maraimalai Nagar of Kancheepuram District (Semi-Urban site) Pallikaranaiand Aminjikarai of Chennai District (Urban Site). These centres were financially supported byUNESCO, New Delhi for a period of two years from 2003 to 2005. The Audio and Video CDscontaining Animal Husbandry Practices, Fishery Products, Value added products were supplied to theNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 110
  • 124. village information centres. Based on the felt needs of the villages a Tamil portal was preparedcontaining District profile, Communication details, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Horticulture,Fisheries, Home Science, education, Government – departments, marketing places and frequentlyasked questions and hosted in our university website: adoption Various CDs are given to the members for self-learning. Mrs. Devi was rearing rabbitsin her house. She started rearing rabbits as pet at her home. Now she has 20 rabbits in herhouse. She did not know the method of rearing rabbits scientifically. She kept all rabbits inopen terrace of her house. The place became dirty. Once she came to the centre with herdaughter and watched the "scientifically rabbit rearing" CD prepared by Tamil NaduVeterinary and Animal Sciences University. After that she modified the cage and maintainedthe area without dirt and waste materials. She prepared feed scientifically for her rabbitsaccording to the formula. Now she wants to make it as a successful business. She has startedselling rabbits to her friends, peers, relatives etc., and started earning money. In Melur taluk of Madurai District, computer kiosk centres were established in 40 villages byDhan Foundation. All the kiosk centres and the Village Information Centre of Puduthamaraipatti ofTANUVAS-IDRC were connected to internet through cordect wireless technology. The kioskoperators of nearby villages used to send queries on treatment and husbandry practices to the VillageInformation Centre of the Puduthamaraipatti since it is managed by two Veterinarians. On 9.10.02 theVillage Information Centre of Puduthamaraipatti received a mail from Miss. Suganya, Kiosk Operatorof T.Ulagupitchanpatti village stating that six sheep of Mr.Pitchai and two of Mr.Pandi have died dueto some disease and around hundred sheep are suffering with diahorrea and other illness. Immediatelythe Village Information Centre staff contacted the Professor and Head, Veterinary University Trainingand Research Centre (Hub centre), Madurai and conveyed the message over e-mail and phone. Thenthe Village Information Centre staff with a specialist (Pathologist) rushed to the spot(T.Ulagupitchanpatti) and inspected the problems of the sheep. Based on the symptoms they came tothe conclusion that the sheep were affected by disease called "Enterotoxemia" a bacterial disease.Samples were collected from the affected animals and sent to the lab for confirmative diagnosis.Immediately around 623 (worth Rs.6,23,000) sheep were vaccinated with Enterotoxaemia vaccine.The affected animals recovered completely. All the sheep population of the village was saved bytimely information services available at T.Ulagupitchanpatti and Puduthamaraipatti.Non-Government Organisation M.S.Swaminathan Research Foundation has initiated an experimental Information VillageProject in Pondichery during 1998 by utilising ICT for information and poverty alleviation in ruralarea. By December 2004, 12 Village Knowledge Centres were established in Pondichery. As a needwas felt for a network linking experts and grassroots level communities, the National Virtual Academy(NVA) was launched in August 2003 with the generous support of Sir Dorabiji Tata Social WelfareTrust. A state level hub in Chennai and 4 block level hubs at Thiruvaiyaru (Thanjavur District),Sempatti (Dindigul District), Annavasal (Pudukkottai Distrcit) and Thangachimadam(Ramanathapuram District) were set-up during 2004 ( Indian Space ResearchOrganisation (ISRO) provided satellite connectivity for these block level information centres. Underthese hub centres, Village Knowledge Centres are being established. Information provided in theVillage Knowledge Centre is local specific and relates to prices of agricultural inputs and outputs,health care, animal husbandry, education, employment opportunities, transport, weather forecast andmicro enterprises training. This network provides the services of tele-education, tele-medicine, onlinedecision support, interactive farmers’ advisory services, tele-fisheries and weather forecast services.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 111
  • 125. Private Organisation n-Logue Communication - Chiraag Kiosk a franchise model of Sustainable Access for RuralIndia (SARI) project in Tamil Nadu. It established Chiraag Internet Illam during 2001. As of June2004, 14 Chiraag kiosks were in operation in Melur block of Madurai District. Besides e-governance,services offered include provision of animal husbandry and agriculture services through online modes,computer education, e-mail, desktop publishing, typing and printing work, taking pictures, video-mail,animal husbandry and agriculture consultancy services through video-conferencing mode to the needyperson in consultation with training and research centres of TANUVAS and Agriculture College andResearch Institute, Madurai (, S. and Scott, C., Can information and communications technology applications contribute topoverty reduction? Lessons from rural India. Information Technology for Development, 10: 73-84.2003.Chapman, R. and Slaymaker,T., ICTs and Rural Development: Review of Literature, CurrentInterventions and Opportunities for Action. Working paper 192. Overseas Development Institute,London, U.K. 2002.Conroy, C., Telecentre Initiatives in Rural India: Failed, Fad or the way Forward? Natural ResourcesInstitute, University of Greenwich, UK. Accessed from 2006CTA., Information and Communication technologies a remarkable revolution. In SPORE, 79.February, pp.: 4-5.1999.Forno, D.A., Sustainable developments start with agriculture. In: Sustainable agriculture solution: theaction report of the sustainable agriculture initiative. Novello Press Ltd., London,U.K. : pp. : 8-11.1999.Rao, B.S. and Kherde, R.L., A standardized test to measure the knowledge of the dairy farmers ondairy production technologies. Asian Journal of Dairy Research, 9 (4) : 224-228. 1990.Roman, R. and Colle, R.D., Themes and Issues in Telecentre Sustainability. Development InformaticsWorking Paper No. 10. IDPM: Manchester, UK. 2002.Sheriff, F.R. and Ganalakshmi,S., ICT in Rural Development: Empowering rural people the e-extension way. The First monthly magazine on ICT4D. IV (1): 12-14. www.asiantelecentreforum.netand 2006.Sheriff, F.R., ‘Information Technology and Rural Extension in India,’ Final Report, InternationalDevelopment and Research Centre, Canada, Ottawa, Available online at 2005.UNDP., ICT Profile of India, Digital Review of Asia Pacific, available : 2008.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 112
  • 126. Application of RFID Technology in Automation of Libraries Dhiraj Kumar Abstract Libraries have been active users of the latest outcomes of Information Technology. The application of RFID technology has not only transformed the functioning of libraries, but also spared the library staff of routine and repetitive functions to focus more on user services. The present paper provides an overview of the RFID technology for application in libraries. The advantages of RFID and various issues and challenges affecting it have also been discussed to support decision making. Key words: RFID Technology, Library Automation, Tags, SecurityIntroduction Beginning from merely store houses of books, libraries have travelled a long way toreach the modern day digital and virtual libraries. The implications of InformationTechnology (IT) have not only revolutionised the functioning of libraries, but also gave birthto the new formats of recording information and new tools and techniques of Informationhandling. Libraries have been active users of new outcomes of IT. The use of RadioFrequency Identification (RFID) Technology has proved to be a boon both for the library staffand users. It has relieved the library staff of routine jobs and ensured user satisfaction by easyand fast delivery of services. Madhusudhan says that “Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)is an exciting and fast growing technology for increasing efficiency, improving profitabilityand is an important area of study in todays information environment.” 1 The security and theftdetection system of RFID has comforted the library personnel, but what is most important forlibraries is that RFID can be used for tracking documents throughout the library and find itsexact location. Using this technology, the burden on staff at the circulation counter has almostbecome negligible due to self check-out/check-in facility. The job of stock verification, whichwas earlier considered as an exercise in fatal, has also become easy. Moreover, the frequencywhich is used in RFID is not harmful to human health.RFID: An overview Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio waves toidentify an object. RFID has been in use in various industries and businesses to locate theitems and for theft detection. This use of RFID technology to locate the items is its mostimportant use because it does not require the object to be in line of sight to identify it. According to PC Magazine Encyclopeadia “(Radio Frequency Identification) is datacollection technology that uses electronic tags for storing data. The tag also known as“electronic label”, “transponder” or “code plate” is made up of an RFID chip attached to anantenna. Transmitting in the kilohertz, megahertz and gigahertz ranges, tags may be battery-powered or derive their power from the RF waves coming from the reader.”National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 113
  • 127. A. Narayanan says “The concept of RFID can be simplified to that of an electronicbarcode and can be used to identify, track, sort or detect library holdings at the circulationdesk and in the daily stock maintenance. This system, consist of smart RFID labels, hardwareand software, provides libraries with more effective way of managing their collections whileproviding greater customer service to their patrons.”Components of RFID Radio waves are used in RFID technology to identify an object. This is a wirelessautomatic identification data capture (AIDC) system for non-contact reading and writing ofdata. A serial number assigned to an object is stored in the microchip of the tag for itsidentification, which is transmitted by the antenna attached to it. RFID technology is used totrack the position and for maintenance of objects. The various components of RFID arediscussed below:RFID Tags RFID Tags also called transponder consist of a microchip and an antenna attached toit. The chip can store data and process information for identification of the object and antennareceive and transmit the RF signals. “RFID tags can be read without contact, line-of-sight, ora particular orientation. This reduces materials handling, speeds inventory control tasks, andmakes circulation activities fast, easy and accurate.”[4] The tags have three sections: one foritem identification, second for library specific use and third for theft detection. RFID tagscome in different shapes e.g. square, rectangular and round. RFID tags are of three types: • Passive tags: There is no internal power supply in passive RFID tag. The antenna backscatter the wave received from the reader. These tags have read distances from 10 cm to a few meters. • Active tags: There is internal power supply i.e. battery in active RFID tag, which is used to power the chip and broadcast the signal to the reader. These tags have read distances of hundred of meters. • Semi-passive tags: Similar to Active tags there is internal power supply i.e. battery in semi-passive RFID tag, but this battery only powers the chip and does not broadcast the signal to reader. The RF energy is reflected back to the reader just like an active tag. These tags are 100 times more sensitive than passive tags.Antenna Antenna is the channel between RFID tags and the coupler/reader. Radio waves areemitted by the antenna, which activate the tags when the object passes through the activationfield. Then the tags send the information back, which is passed on to the coupler/reader.Coupler/Reader A coupler or reader is attached to a server on one end and an antenna on the other end.Through antenna it sends information from the server to the tag in the write mode and sendsNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 114
  • 128. information from tag to server in read mode. The reader powers the antenna to generate theRF field. When the tag passes through this field the information stored in the chip of the tag isconveyed to the reader. The reader then sends this information to server.Server Server is a computer that links the reader to the automation system. It acts as aninterface between the RFID hardware and the automation system. It serves as the heart of thewhole system. It receives information from several readers and exchanges the same with thedatabase.Working of the system The reader powers the antenna to generate RF field and when the object having tagpasses through this field the microchip of the tag conveys the information, which isinterpreted by the reader/coupler. The reader sends the information to the server and serverinteracts with the database of the system. The functioning of the system is given in thefollowing diagram.Implementation of RFID Technology in Libraries Conventionally the library staff is involved in all in-house operation e.g. check-out/check-in of the library material, locating a document, security at the gates, stockverification etc. But all these operations if performed with the use of RFID technology, theamount of work to be done by the staff and the time involved will be considerably reduced.This is why the use of RFID technology to track books, CDs, videotapes and other librarymaterial has gained popularity in the recent past. Implementation of RFID in libraries isdiscussed in following sections:Technical Services Workstation The library staff affix RFID tags directly on the library material i.e. books, CDs andvideotapes etc. Accession number of the library material is entered with the help of keyboardand the tag is programmed with the item ID. For theft detection, the security bit is activated.Check-out/Check-in RFID reader and an antenna are attached to a computer and a printer is deployed at thecirculation counter. The reader can read upto 4 to 8 books per second. When a book is issued to a member the anti-theft function of the RFID tag is de-activated and when the member returns the book the anti-theft function of the RFID tag isactivated automatically.User Self-Checkout Station As an account holder of a bank can withdraw cash from an ATM machine without theassistance of bank staff, similarly the members of the library can check out the documentswithout the assistance of library staff. Touch screen monitor with smart card or RFID membercard are used for member identification. The workload on staff and the time involved incheck-out is considerably reduced and there is improvement in user service.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 115
  • 129. Security Gate The security gates are positioned at the library exit. They constantly check the securitybits of material passing through them. When one tries to carry a book outside the librarypremises without getting it issued, an alarm sounds because the anti-theft function of the tagwas not de-activated. So it detects the unauthorized passing of tagged material.Self Check-in /Book Drop Station This station performs the check-in task when the member drops the book inside it. Thesystem is programmed to check-in multiple copies at a go. The database of the libraryautomation system is updated automatically and the status of the book is reflectedimmediately.Sorting Station The security bits of checked-in material are reactivated by the staff at this station andshelving locations of the material is determined by scanning or with an automated materialshandling (AMH) system. A conveyor carries items past an RFID reader, which checks themin and then sorts them by category into bins or onto carts, eliminating the need for staff tohandle items until the fine-sorting step of the process.Shelf Management/Stock Verification Conventionally various manual methods of stock verification are used which are verycumbersome and time consuming and sometimes not fully accurate. But with RFID inventorycontrol system this has become easy. RFID inventory control system has two parts: i) A hand-held RFID reader which scans the items on the shelves ii) A software which generates reports about the collected dataAdvantagesRapid Charging/discharging RFID facilitates charging/ discharging of reading material at a rapid rate. With theavailability of self-check-out facility the users need not to stand in long queues for getting thematerial issued. Similarly the Self Check-in /Book Drop Station facility saves users’ time.RFID relieves library staff of repetitive tasks and enable them to concentrate on users servicesfor user satisfaction.Faster sorting of books With Automated Materials Handling (AMH) system the returned books, CDs etc. canbe sorted automatically into different categories thus, saving time of the staff of maintenancesection of the library.Stock verification/Inventory control With RFID the stock verification of library material has become very easy as thehand-held RFID reader can read several items in a second and the complete collection of theNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 116
  • 130. library can be verified in a day or so depending on the size of collection of the library. Themisplaced material can also be detected with no effort at all. The shelf management becomeseasy.High reliability The reliability of the RFID system is indispensable because if someone tries to domischief by carrying out the library material without getting it issued then the sounding of thealarm alerts the library staff to be vigilant. Further, if the user cards also have a chip then theculprit can very easily be identified.Security One of the most important advantages of the RFID system for libraries is its securityfeature. The theft detection mechanism employed in this system has no other competitor sofar. The security system has become so strong that even the staff at the gates need not bepresent for security reasons.Health concerns The World Health Organization has not found any hazardous impact of thefrequency used by RFID on general health.Issues to be considered The following issues need consideration for application of RFID Technology inlibraries:Cost/Return The process of implementing the RFID technology in library is a costly affair. Returnon investment should be taken into account before its implementation. For a small libraryspecially a library which is financially not very sound, return on investment needs specialconsideration. However, as the library grows and the system is used to its capacity the costfactor does not act as hindrance in its implementation.Power Supply The whole working of RFID system depends on electric power. Therefore, thereshould be uninterrupted power supply. The power supply at the security gates, in particularshould never be interrupted. A power back-up is must for the successful implementation ofthe system.Vulnerability to Compromise The radio signals can be blocked by metallic content such as household foil or simplyaluminium foil. Thus by wrapping the library material in two or three layers of household foilthe RFID system can be compromised. The system can also be compromised by keeping thetwo materials in such a way that the one tag overlays another tag.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 117
  • 131. Tag Collision Many items can be read simultaneously, which may lead to collision and the readermay get confused. However this can be minimized by using collision avoidance air interfaceprotocol.Users’ mischief Since the RFID tags can easily be located on the library material the users canintentionally remove the tags and taking away the library material without getting noticedfrom the security gates. Further if the user passes from the side of the pedestal, which is out ofthe range of the system then again he may not be got noticed.Conclusions There is no doubt that implementation of RFID technology in libraries is a costlyaffair but the fruits of its implementation cannot be ignored. The rapid charging/discharging,quick sorting of material and efficient and effective inventory control saves time of both thestaff and users. This leads to increase in user satisfaction level, which is the prime objectivefor any library. Theft of library material, one of the main issues of concern for libraries hasalso found a solution with RFID technology as it provides a great degree of security. Theissues like vulnerability to compromise tag collision and mischiefs are negligible as comparedto the benefits of the RFID system. Thus the RFID technology should be adopted in librariesto empower the users and staff with the latest technology.ReferencesMadhusudhan, Margam RFID technology implementation in two libraries in New Delhi.(2010). Program: Electronic Library and Information Systems, 44(2), 149. Retrieved on 21thOctober, 2011. journals.htm?articleid=1858344&show=html (Accessed 20-10-2011)PC Magazine Encyclopedia. Definition of RFID.,2542,t=RFID&i=50512,00.asp#fbid=lNf7XINy80c (Accessed 11-11-2011).Narayanan, A., Sanjay Singh and M. Somasekharan. Implementing RFID in Library:Methodologies, Advantages and Disadvantages. http://www.libsys. (Accessed 21-10-2011).Vinod Chachra, Experiences in Implementing the VTLS RFID Solution in a Multi-vendorEnvironment (2003). In World Library and Information Congress: 69th IFLA GeneralConference and Council. Berlin. 11-11-2011).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 118
  • 132. Library 2.0, Information and Digital Literacy in the Light of the Contradictory Nature of Web 2.0 Ramireddy Pusapati Abstract Desk research was done to examine the importance of raising awareness of differences between professional content and content produced by the amateurs of the Web 2.0. The commercial nature of Web 2.0 was briefly explained. Questions related to amateurism have been raised and amateur contents characterizing Web 2.0 were contrasted to professional ones. The results show that some principles can be laid down. First of all, the need in literacy of students, teaching staff and researchers is different from that of other categories of users, when the former are fulfilling their professional roles. These needs can be satisfied mainly by services that traditionally have been provided by academic and special libraries, while making use of Web 2.0 tools could mean moving towards the goals of public library users. Second, information literacy and digital literacy alongside with adequately defined Library 2.0 are expedient in the era of Web 2.0 to support user needs by the provision of appropriate library resources and services. Keywords: Information literacy; Digital literacy; Amateur content; Professional content; Public libraries; Academic librariesIntroduction This opinion paper based on desk research aims to prove the hypothesis that raisingawareness of differences between professional content and content produced by the amateursof Web 2.0 is of extraordinary importance in providing adequate library services, be it in theform of offering content services or information literacy (IL) and digital literacy (DL)education. Beyond describing phenomena we will argue for setting preferences and layingdown principles that can be converted into practical measures. This is especially important inthe light of the enthusiasm of libraries and librarians in adapting new technologies into theirwork. Doing this, they have to remember that technological advances alone do not determineand bring about effective and relevant library services, but it is user needs that are decisive.We know that Web 2.0 and Library 2.0 can attract library users and can render a number ofuseful applications. Yet they should not be adopted merely because they are cutting-edgetechnology. We have to evaluate their ability to meet user needs, instead (Hendrix, 2010). One of the main lines of division between differing information needs can be found inthe professional or amateur use of information and that these needs have to be met by offeringlibrary collections and services, supplemented by information and digital literacies education,which are differential in accordance with user needs. To achieve this, traditional differencesbetween the needs of public library users and those of academic and special libraries have tobe taken into consideration.Being critical LIS literature seems to take criticisms of Web 2.0 into consideration only to aneglectable extent. This is understandable in the light of the sweeping popularity of Web 2.0applications among potential library users and especially younger generations, even thoughtaking critical stance would be advisable. Being critical is not identical with exercisingcriticism on Web 2.0, because this kind of criticism is not enough to obtain a balanced view,if we do not attempt to discover its use for purposes that properly serve different libraryNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 119
  • 133. constituencies. Raising awareness of some disadvantageous features of Web 2.0 thus cannotbe the main goal. However, a critical attitude helps to identify the most useful tools that canserve library goals. Considered that being critical is essential component of IL and DL it alsoserves as a basis for providing adequate information literacy and digital literacy education. Taking these deliberations into account, this paper is going to address the mainfeatures of Web 2.0 that contribute to its commercial success. We will also examine someother critical topics: the question of amateurism, the differences between amateur andprofessional contents, including their role in library services and in regard to IL and DL, aswell as Library 2.0.The commercial nature of Web 2.0 There seems to be no need to repeat the tools and services of Web 2.0. There is ampleliterature on the subject (e.g. Anderson, 2007; Secker, 2008) and a number of papers thataddress a particular segment of the application of Web 2.0 also provide overviews. However,we do not have to forget that Web 2.0 is an uncertain term, thus definitional issues haveplagued the concept not because there are competing definitions for it, but because it coversmany different things, some in conflict, some overlapping with each other, but in any caseontologically non-compatible. Web 2.0 can be labeled as a conceptual frame, including ideas,behaviors, technologies and ideals. Many current Internet developments, activities andapplications can be understood as examples of Web 2.0 however they do not themselvesconstitute it (Allen, 2008).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 120
  • 134. Many raise the question if we should pay attention to this uncertainty. On the onehand, it is true that we can accept and use Web 2.0 without discussing its liquid boundaries.On the other hand, libraries traditionally have been collecting trusted information and this factmotivates librarians to use clear concepts and employ proven and safe tools. This does notallow us to accept Web 2.0 without criticism, and not without reason. We are in a situation,which is somewhat similar to the case of relevance judgments on Internet search engines hits.From the viewpoint of the information professional, many of them are far less acceptable thanwe see it done by the general public and especially younger people. As Keen (2007) pointsout in his provocative and thought-provoking book, "The Cult of the Amateur," many youngpeople believe in Google just like in the Gospel. Beliefs aside, we know that the Web is acompetitive arena where authors and especially companies seek to promote their Web content,at all costs, not excluding the abuse of topical metadata, thus search engines must act in self-defense, treating keywords and topical metadata as irrelevant (Brooks, 2003). This is entirelyjustified from their side. However, libraries can accept this only as a makeshift arrangementand should remain wary. Taking a metaphor to describe this situation, we can say that usingsearch engines is just like sitting on a barrel. The problem is that we do not know if it is full ofwine, or it contains gunpowder. In the first case we need a spigot, in the latter it is dangerousand even expressly prohibited to smoke or use naked flame. By analogy, this is also true formany Web 2.0 tools and services. Whatever barrel we are sitting on, the library world must beaware of the opportunities and threats. Beyond this there are complex issues and sometimes paradoxes that are related notonly to technology. Many questions are thus matter of debate, including whether Web 2.0developments threaten traditional library services or not. It is extremely difficult to answerthis and similar questions as the long-term effects of Web 2.0 on the library profession are farfrom clear (Bawden et al., 2007). Altogether, we do not have to repeat all criticism directed towards Web 2.0, itsapplications, its philosophy and the issues of security. However, the nature of participationand amateurism deserves scrutiny.Participation and amateurism As Livingstone (2004) points out, content creation is easier than ever, because thesame technology can be readily used for sending and receiving messages, thus many arealready content producers. As a consequence, we witness an explosive growth of onlinepublishing, with an increasing number of writers (Beeson, 2005). In this environment writershave to realize that they are reaching a much wider and more varied audience, that comprisesboth specialists and laymen (Chan & Foo, 2004). This also means that there is a visiblegrowth of content, generated by amateurs, carrying their do-it-yourself culture into theforeground. The nature of this amateur production can be highlighted if we draw the lessonsform an investigation of Flickr, a photo sharing site. The results show that the central value onthis site is not photography, but social networking. Flickr serves to encourage more and morephotos to be taken as advertisers want more and more members, who show more and moreactivity, while the quality of interaction is immaterial. Probably these are the reasons whyFlickr fits only poorly into the traditional framework and the social worlds of amateurphotography, thus it lacks the structures and culture to support a critical learning. Thepredominance of commercial motives makes it uncritical and participation is not a primarilyan aesthetic pursuit in it (Cox, 2008). Lessig defends Web 2.0 amateurism with the following words: "I think it is a greatthing when amateurs create, even if the thing they create is not as great as what theprofessional creates. I want my kids to write. But that doesnt mean that Ill stop readingNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 121
  • 135. Hemingway and read only what they write" (Lessig, 2007). From our point of view there is noneed to defend amateurs. What is needed is an approach that makes difference betweencontent created by amateurs and professionals taking the goals of production intoconsideration. The essence of Lessigs argument would also be that.Library use of Web 2.0 Whatever the content, amateur or not, Library 2.0 may be a vehicle to convey thatcontent. To get closer to this function, it seems to be useful to compare two definitions ofLibrary 2.0. Maness (2006) defines Library 2.0 as "the application of interactive,collaborative, and multi-media web-based technologies to web-based library services andcollections". In their definition Casey and Savastinuk (2006) speak about a model of libraryservice. Both agree in its user centeredness in the sense that users participate in the creation ofthe content. Maness adds that this is a dynamic process, thus the roles of librarian and user arenot always clear. Librarians in this environment might act as a facilitators, although notnecessarily. Both definitions stress constant and purposeful change although this seems to bemuch more a requirement, set against Library 2.0 than its characteristic feature. Manessexpressly adds that this feature is foundational of libraries as a community service. Last butnot least, while Maness stresses the provision a multi-media experience, Casey andSavastinuk point out that it can be also a new physical service or operation. These definitionstogether form a concept that is both operational and acceptable, provided that we stress thatLibrary 2.0 is a model of library activities.Literacies and participation The two most promising literacy concepts are information literacy and digital literacy.The former is a well known concept among information professionals. In fact, informationliteracy and especially the lack of it has always seemed to be of more importance toinformation professionals, especially academic librarians, than to any other players of theinformation and especially the education arena, where its implications are particularly obvious(Bawden & Robinson, 2009; Shenton, 2009). Let us add that - on the one hand - that it seemsto be of lesser importance whether literacies of the information age are called informationliteracy or digital literacy (Bawden, 2001).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 122
  • 136. Ideas of participation appeared in the LIS literature much earlier that the idea of Web2.0. This was the concept of the information player, which is based on the following idea.While library users (in the more traditional sense of the word) take what they are offered, andmake the best of it, players are much more active. They take part in deciding what they need,and what should be provided for them and they may even start to supply information to otherplayers. The concept of the information player brought a new view on potential new roles forlibrarians and information specialists: functioning as managers, coaches or trainers (Nicholaset al., 2000). Despite of this, traditional approaches towards information literacy tend to seeordinary people as receivers of information and give less attention to the active part, i.e. ofbeing senders of messages. That is the reason why not all definitions of information literacyinclude production. Digital literacy is more receptive towards production, partially due to its multimodalnature. As Cordes (2009, p. 4) points out, multimodal literacies require "in part a newsensibility, one that promotes a self responsibility for the acquisition and use of knowledgethat is flexible, exploratory, and ethical." This self-responsibility appeared due to the fact thatthe role of gatekeepers has decreased in the Web 2.0 environment. Gatekeepers are no longerrequired, even though they still exist, and have great value, we can publish without them.Under these circumstances we experience that the speed and easiness of creating texts allowshalf-blown ideas to appear as if they were the more well-formulated concepts, just like theones we would encounter in print documents. With this we lose certainty that was provided bythe quality system applied to a part of publications that is applied in the print environment.Accordingly, the solution is that the readers themselves have to become the gatekeepers,provided that they enhance their evaluation skills (Badke, 2004), that is acquire informationliteracy and digital literacy. No doubt, the growth in user-generated content may bring with itself challenge andchange in our thinking on a number of issues arise, including the question on the status ofproducing knowledge (Anderson, 2007). We will have to see how profound these changes areand if they are as massive as some of the proponents of Web 2.0 indicate.DL offers a framework for integrating various other literacies, including IL, while not beingrestricted to them. It touches on and includes many things that it does not claim to own. Suchelements are the presentation, evaluation and organization of information (Bawden, 2008). Italso includes awareness of the value of traditional tools in conjunction with networked mediaand social networks.Different literacy to different user groups One of the most crucial issues to providing IL and DL education is that differentgroups of users require different literacies. This may sound self-explanatory. However it is nottaken into consideration to an adequate extent.Beard and Dale (2009) point out that library space contributes users literacies because it isone of the contexts of their use just like possible designs of writing have to correspond todifferent social and cultural contexts. Analogously we can say that the amateur nature ofcontent creation gives also an important context. It is intriguing to observe that someone likeCarnaby (2009), who stresses that there is an express need for preserving informal, citizen-created information separates it from formal and authoritative knowledge sources ratherstrictly. Let us add that in our opinion she does this reasonably, simply because amateurcontents have to be dealt with differently from professional ones. As to user needs, our idea isthat one of the main lines of division between differing needs is in the goals: whether usersNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 123
  • 137. use information for entertainment or intend to use it for professional goals. In both cases it isimportant to know if users recognize this. Nonetheless, professional goals characterize first ofall different groups of professionals, teaching staff and researchers, and - to a part - students.This is not required anytime. Professional contents have to be offered to students, teachingstaff and researchers when they are fulfilling their professional roles. Their needs are thusdifferent from that of other categories of users and they are (or could be) based on the wellknown tradition and strength of special and academic libraries that lies in providing highlyspecialized and reliable information for these user categories. It is useful to know that in manyregards students are also professionals even though they are usually requested to show lowerlevels of performance than the one produced by teaching staff members and researchers. Professional goals require higher level of reliability, accuracy and validity, with whichthey have a higher potential in the knowledge creation process. In this context IL and DLeducation should put emphasis on understanding disciplinary discourses and keep in view theimportance of disciplinary knowledge (Williams, 2007). These are some of the reasons, whyWeb 2.0 applications and especially amateur contents are less applicable to achieve the aim ofserving professionals. Making use of Web 2.0 tools could mean fulfilling in particular the goals, set forth inpoints 3 and 5 of the IFLA/UNESCO Public Library Manifesto (1994). Key mission 3 stressesthe need of providing opportunities for personal creative development, while key missions 5is about promoting awareness of cultural heritage, appreciation of the arts, scientificachievements and innovations. Personal development is in many regards, although notexclusively, self-development that corresponds to the needs of amateurs of Web 2.0. Theorientation towards culture and arts hardly needs explanation in this regard. Awareness ofscientific achievements is highly valuable. Nonetheless, it usually does not includescholarship in a strict sense, the basics of which are acquired in higher education and which ispracticed by researchers and university teaching staff members as a professional practice.Public libraries always have been offering amateur content in the sense that it was not gearedtowards the needs of professionals. This is obviously not a question of quality, but showsdifferent orientation towards providing value. It is well known, that public libraries may offervaluable services that are designed for professional users, even though these users aretypically served by special and academic libraries and in many cases public libraries cannotaim to fulfill the functions of these latter library types and usually there is no intention to doso. All this is in accordance with the general mission of library services: to facilitateconvenient access to documents and support the mission of the institution or the interests ofthe population served (Buckland, 1992). In our understanding, the academic library and thespecial library are designed to serve both, as the university is roughly identical with itsstudents, teaching staff and researchers. Similarly, a research institutes interests are basicallythe same as the ones of the researchers working there. The mission of the public libraryhowever is directed towards supporting the interests of the population served, but not theinstitution itself, at least not primarily. A possible "Public Library 2.0" idea depicts an institution, which provides a platformfor the storage and dissemination of local community knowledge, using digital technologiesand also using Library 2.0 principles (Chowdhury et al., 2006). This does not contradict theprinciple of differentiating between amateur and professional content. Information related tolocal communities and especially to local history represents a mix in this regard (Reid &Macafee, 2007) and. it has been one of the vital components of public libraries and had apotential to reach wider audiences, especially as it has involved local non-professionals andNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 124
  • 138. professional researchers. Digitization and harnessing active participation of the users withLibrary 2.0 tools add a new dimension to this important segment of public library activities.On the whole, however, it does not change it substantially. The question arises if the responsibility for information literacy education in the Web2.0 era is solely up to public librarians or should all librarians take note (Godwin, 2008). Theanswer seems to be obvious. It is integral part of all librarians role, while we should notforget about the differences, outlined above. Amateur content that dominates Web 2.0 is useful mainly for public library users, thusit could be offered, among others, to students in their quality of consumers, even thoughfuture research has to clear up to what extent young people differentiate between their roles ofbeing students and being children. Some studies already suggest that even the youngergenerations do differentiate between using technology in institutional settings and using it athome (Lohnes & Kinzer, 2007). As public libraries serve people of all ages and provide facilities for them they canoffer Web 2.0 tools in a playground manner with low risk of overlooking these differences.Thus, serving the amateurs is the closest possibility of using Web 2.0 properly, especiallybecause the mission of the public library encompasses supplying its users with technologiesthat are easy to understand and easy to use (Tóth, 2003). The world playground seems todenote the possibility of experimenting with Web 2.0 tools. On the content level this presentslower risks in public library settings than in academic ones. The latter have to be more carefulwith the content, while using Web 2.0 tools and encouraging user participation in general canhave a good public relation effect, the importance and essence can be expressed by thissequence: "We are where you are".Lessons to be learnt When engaging into the above activities, it is important not to lose sight of thedifference between "being where our users are" and "being useful to our users where they are"(Farkas, 2006). This rule applies for all library types and user groups, even though it has to bestressed in the academic library sphere. We have to be aware of this, even if we know thatnew media user behavior can be characterized with the following sentence: "People like to bewhere other people are" (Scholz, 2008) and this seems to be one of the motifs of participatingin new media related activities, though the real motivations on the whole remain unclear (Beer& Burrows, 2007). As Johnston and Webber (2003) stress it, IL is the adoption of appropriate informationbehavior. Consequently, it is not by accident that information style can play an important role.According to Steinerova (2009), information style is based on the analysis of an individualsinformation seeking preferences and perceptions, the characteristics of their use of electronicresources. Two main styles can be identified: the pragmatic and the analytic style. The formeris dominant. It is characterized by preferences for simple access to information, simpleorganization of knowledge, low cost and fast access to electronic resources. Its representativeswould not read extensive texts, they are experiential learners. Those who represent the analytic style show deeper intellectual informationprocessing. Reliability and verification of information are important for them. They usemultidisciplinary terminology and assess information by its relevance, having experience injudging it. They use complex queries in contrast to intuitive, simple ones. Organization ofinformation is integrative, based on expert knowledge and experience. The analytic stylerequires intellectual processing and the presence of doubts and interpretation is stressedinstead of navigation.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 125
  • 139. In our opinion, the pragmatic style is compatible with amateurism, thus has a place inpublic library environments, while the analytic style is the ideal for academic users andliteracies geared towards their needs should show preferences to this information style. If not,we are risking that the already existing lack of deep learning and critical thinking withinacademia will be aggravated (Head & Eisenberg, 2009). We cannot be satisfied with this andcannot accept that students behave like other digital consumers. They must be different if wewant to educate them to be professionals.Conclusion There is no single literacy that is appropriate for all people or for one person over alltheir lifetime. Literacies require constant updating of concepts and competencies inaccordance with the changing circumstances of the information environment (Bawden et al.,2007). Using Web 2.0 for providing library services, including DL and IL education isappropriate if we recognize that the same tools can and should be used for different purposesaccording to differential user needs. We are competing for the attention of our users in aworld where there is scarcity of attention (Bridges, 2008). This attention is the same that mostWeb 2.0 services want to attract in order to commodify them.ReferencesAllen, M., Web 2.0: an argument against convergence. First Monday, 13(3). RetrievedSeptember 18, 2010, from bin/ ojs/ index.php/fm/article/view /2139/ 1946. 2008.Anderson, P., What is web 2.0? Ideas, technologies and implications for education. Bristol:JISC. Retrieved September 18, 2010, from 2007 Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 126
  • 140. Badke, W., Research strategies: finding your way through the information fog. 2nd ed.,Lincoln, NE: 2004.Bawden, D. et al., Towards Curriculum 2.0: library / information education for a web 2.0world. Library and Information Research, 3(1), 99. Retrieved September 18, 2010, from 2007.Bawden, D., Information and digital literacies: a review of concepts. Journal ofDocumentation, 57(2), 218-259. 2001.Beard, J., & Dale, P., Building literacy: the relationship between academic literacy, emergingpedagogies and library design. World Library and Information Congress: 75th IFLA GeneralConference and Assembly. Milan: IFLA. Retrieved September 18, 2010, from 2003.Beer, D., & Burrows, R., Sociology and, of and in web 2.0: some initial considerations.Sociological Research Online, 12(5). Retrieved September 18, 2010, from 2007.Beeson, I., Judging relevance: a problem for e-literacy. ITALICS, 4(2). Retrieved September18, 2010, from 2005.Buckland, M., Redesigning Library Services: a Manifesto. Chicago, IL: American LibraryAssociation. 1992.Carnaby, P., Citizen-created content, digital equity and the preservation of communitymemory. World Library and Information Congress: 75th IFLA General Conference andAssembly. Milan: IFLA. Retrieved September 18, 2010, from 2009.Casey, M.E., & Savastinuk, L. C., Library 2.0. Library Journal, 131 (14), 40-42. 2006.Chan, S.K., & Foo, S., Interdisciplinary perspectives on abstracts for information retrieval.IBERICA, 8, 100-124. 2004.Chowdhury, G. et al., Public library 2.0: towards a new mission for public libraries as anetwork of community knowledge. Online Information Review, 30(4), 454-460. 2006.Cordes, S., Broad horizons: the role of multimodal literacy in 21st century library instruction.World Library and Information Congress: 75th IFLA General Conference and Assembly,"Libraries Create Futures: Building on Cultural Heritage", August 23-27, Milan, Italy.Retrieved September 18, 2010, from 2009.Cox, A. M., Flickr: a case study of Web 2.0. Aslib Proceedings, 60(5), 493-516. 2008.Drotner, K., Childrens media culture: a key to libraries of the future? World Library andInformation Congress: 75th IFLA General Conference and Assembly. Milan: IFLA. RetrievedSeptember 18, 2010, from, M., Libraries in social networking software. Blog posting on Information wants to befree. Posted May 10. Retrieved September 18, 2010, from 2006.Godwin, P., Introduction: making the connections. In Godwin, P., & Parker, J. (Ed.),Information literacy meets Library 2.0, Facet, London, 3-18. 2008.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 127
  • 141. Head, A.J., & Eisenberg, M.B., How college students seek information in digital age.University of Washington, The Information School, Seattle, WA. Retrieved September 18,2010, from 2009.Hendrix, J. C., Checking out the future: perspectives from the library community oninformation technology and 21st-century libraries. American Library Associations Office forInformation Technology Policy, Chicago, IL. Retrieved September 18, 2010, from 2010.IFLA UNESCO. Public Library Manifesto. Retrieved September 18, 2010, from 1994.Johnston, B., & Webber, S., Information Literacy in Higher Education: a review and casestudy. Studies in Higher Education, 28 (3), 335-352. 2003.Keen, A., The cult of the amateur. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. 2007.Lessig, L., Keens the cult of the amateur: Brilliant! Blog posting. Retrieved September 18,2010, from 2007.Livingstone, S., Media literacy and the challenge of new information and communicationtechnologies. Communication Review, 7(1), 3-14. 2004.Lohnes, S., & Kinzer, C., Questioning assumptions about students expectations fortechnology in college classrooms. Innovate, 3(5). Retrieved September 18, 2010, from 2007.Maness, J., Library 2.0 theory: web 2.0 and its implications for libraries. Webology, 3(2),Article 25. Retrieved September 18, 2010, from 2006.Nicholas, D. et al., The information player: a new concept for the information user. AslibProceedings, 52(5), 163-165. 2000.Reid, P.H., & Macafee, C., The philosophy of local studies in the interactive age. Journal ofLibrarianship and Information Science, 39(3), 126-141. 2007.Scholz, T., Market ideology and the myths of web 2.0. First Monday, 13(3). RetrievedSeptember 18, 2010, from 2008.Secker, J., Social software and libraries: a literature review from the LASSIE project.Program, 42(3), 215-231. 2008.Shenton, A.K., Information literacy and scholarly investigation: a british perspective. IFLAJournal, 35(3), 226-231. 2009.Steinerova, J. (2010). Ecological dimensions of information literacy. Information Research,15(4) paper colis719. Retrieved September 18, 2010, fromóth, Gy., A közkönyvtár. [The public library. in Hungarian], In Horváth, T., & Papp, I.(Ed.): Könyvtárosok kézikönyve. 3. A könyvtárak rendszere. Osiris, Budapest, 67-104. 2003.Williams, G., Unclear on the context: refocusing on information literacys evaluativecomponent in the age of Google. Library Philosophy and Practice, June. Retrieved September18, 2010, from ht tp:// 2007.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 128
  • 142. Social Networks in N.P.R Library & Info center M. Veerachamy, C. Martin Arokiasamy and P.Balasubramanian Abstract Social networks vital role to action of innovative technology to share knowledge and ideas enabling them to develop multinational and cross-institutional contacts and partnerships, as well as to enhance their knowledge, expertise, and abilities with regard to utilization of E-resources in Higher Education & development social network sites such as MySpace, Ning Facebook, Cyworld, and Bebo have attracted millions of users, many of whom have integrated these sites into their daily practices with various technological affordances, supporting a wide range of interests and practices. This paper attempts to provide an overview on the initiatives taken by the NPR Library and Information Centre to make use of Social Networking facility among its users. Keywords: Social Networks, N.P.R Library, Readers Farm, FaceBook, Cyworld, BeboIntroduction Social networks are playing a vital role to share knowledge and ideas and also todevelop multinational and cross-institutional contacts and partnerships. Realising this and alsoto make use of them, We have created a network viz., N.P.R.Readers Forum to enrich ourstudents and staff members in their knowledge exposure and 100% Result & placement to thestudents communities .you are welcome to join signup to Figure 1: Homepage of NPR Readers Forum .Ning Ning is the social platform for the world’s interests and passions online. Based in PaloAlto, Calif., Ning offers an easy-to-use service that allows people to join and create NingNetworks. With more than 1.8 million Ning Networks created and 39 million registered users,National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 129
  • 143. millions of people every day are coming together across Ning to explore and express theirinterests, discover new passions, and meet new people around shared pursuits. Ning wasfounded in October 2004 by Gina Bianchini and Marc Andreessen. The company is privatelyheld. For more information, visit Design Freedom Ning Network enables the most flexibility and visual freedom in the industry. Choosefrom one of 50 distinct and unique themes or create your own design with custom CSS. Addtabs and sub-tabs to specific pages and external links via the Tab Manager feature.Unique Member Profiles Define your own profile questions for incoming members. Enable members tocustomize their profile pages with their own design, choice of widgets and OpenSocial profileapplications. Customize advanced member search based on your Ning Networks uniqueprofile questions, including location.Moderation & Privacy Choose to make your Ning Network public or private for members only. Moderatemembers before they join. Moderate photos, videos, groups, chat and events before theyreposted. Set up multiple layers of administrators. Ban members from your Ning Network.Enable members to close their profiles to others.Invitations & Search Engine Optimization Every Ning Network comes with a rich invitation engine for you and members toinvite new members. Full Web address book and .csv file importing. Full search engineoptimization beginning with your Ning Networks information: tagline, description andkeywords.Latest Activity A real-time, dynamic activity feed of everything happening across your Ning Networkincluding status updates from members. Put it on the Main page or make it persistent on everypage by adding it to the right hand column. Choose the activities that are displayed.Custom Text & Widgets Add a text box to your Main page, then copy and paste in your choice of widgets fromthe thousands available on the Web today. For something more simple, use the text box foryour weekly column, special promotions or your own unique images and graphics.RSS Feeds In and RSS Out Pull in one or more RSS feeds from your blog, Web site or news source for anongoing stream of information into your Ning Network. All features for public NingNetworks are also available automatically via RSS.Photos Feature & Branded Photo Slideshows Enable your members to upload and share photos. Automatically present yourmembers with the option to embed your Ning Networks branded photo slideshows anywhereon the Web and link back to your Ning Network.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 130
  • 144. Video Feature & Branded Video Players Enable your members to upload and share videos. Automatically present yourmembers with the option to embed your Ning Networks branded video players anywhere onthe Web and link back to your Ning Network.Chat Enable your members to see whos online and chat in real-time with the persistent chatfeature across the bottom of your Ning Network or pop it out into its own window.Groups Enable groups on your Ning Network with images, membership, comments and adiscussion forum.Blogs for Every Member Enable blogging for every member of your Ning Network. Display everyones blogposts as a tab or just feature specific blog posts on your Ning Networks Main page via ourunique Feature displays.Events Organize events and keep track of whos attending. Limit event creation to you oropen it up to all of your members.Forum This is main area to all the Activities to be done. Upload & Download facilities areavailable as following categories as given below Figure 2: Homepage • Education View Discussions • News Letter • From N.P.R Group of Colleges View Discussions • Research • Assignment • Question Bank • Library News • Paper PresentationNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 131
  • 145. • Power Point Presentation • Lecture Notes • Lesson Plan • 100 % Result • Job opportunitiesTarget People • Students and Research Scholars; • Information Technology professionals; • Management Professionals; • Knowledge workers; • Policy makers; • Archivists; • Content and knowledge managers; • IT Service providers; Instructional Designers • Information providers and representatives from Information Industry; • Electronic publishing and virtual electronic communities; • Professional Associations; and All stakeholders in the knowledge managementConclusion Vital role of network and resource sharing in the field of library and informationcentre is realized by the higher educational institutes worldwide. In this context, the LISprofessionals should come forward to make use of the social networking facilities available onthe Internet to bridge the gap that exists between the library and user community. Since thesocial networking facilities are available freely on the Internet, there are no any major limitingfactors to the LIS professionals to make use of them.ReferencesManess, Jack M.; Library 2.0: The next generation of web-based library services. LOGOS:Journal of the World Book Community, vol. 17, no. 3, 2006.Maness, Jack M.; Library 2.0 theory: Web 2.0 and its implications for libraries. Webology. 3(2), Available at http://www.webol /2006/v3n2/a25.html, 2006.Mukhopadhyay, Parthasarathi; Das, Subarna K ; Towards Library 2.0: Designing andImplementing the Modern Library Service. 6th Convention PLANNER , NagalandUniversity., 2008.Nouruzi, Alireza; Ketabkhaneye 2: khadamate ketabkhaneiee mobtani bar Web 2. Ketab-emah kolliat, 11 (131), 2008.O’Reilly, Tim; What is Web 2.0? Design Patterns and Business Models for the NextGeneration of Software, 2005. Online: http:// tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.htmlNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 132
  • 146. Save the Time of the Readers in Public Libraries: A Study of how ICT Coincide with the Fourth Law of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan R. Sivasankari and K. Nithyanandam Abstract Today Internet and web technologies open up new ways of interactive communication between public libraries and the society. The growing information communication technologies have been revolutionizing society by making information available to the people in a new way. Use of ICT is increasing day by day as it is time saving, more informative and less expensive. In this modern age of ICT the role of the public library has changed radically in developed countries. They are providing more sophisticated and user friendly services to their users. This paper will explore how to save the time of the readers in public libraries through ICT for the fulfillment of Ranaganathan’s fourth law. Keywords: Information Communication Technology (ICT), Public libraries, Convergence Technologies, Information Systems, Internet, OPACIntroduction The UNESCO Public Library Manifesto defines the public library as "the local Gateway to knowledge, provides a basic condition for lifelong learning, independent decisionmaking and cultural development of the individual and social groups”. The public librarieshappen to cover the widest population possible; their role in spreading literacy & educationhas long been acknowledged and is considered to be indispensable. Information and communication Technologies (ICT) are a diverse set of technologicaltools and resources to create, disseminate, store, bring value addition and manageinformation. In bridging the digital divide Public libraries have a major role to play in Qualityof infrastructure, collection, information technology use, manpower, etc. All these aspectswere comparatively better in research, academic and special libraries. Computerization willprovide high speed of communication, online access, accurate and better service to their users.It is of vital importance that network is to be developed in such a way to reach to the remotestcorner of the country. The new digital ICT is not single technology but combination of hardware, software,multimedia, and delivery systems. Today, ICT in education encompasses a great range ofrapidly evolving technologies such as desktop, notebook, and handheld computers, digitalcameras, local area networking, Bluetooth, the Internet, cloud computing, the World WideWeb, streaming, and DVDs; and applications such as word processors, spreadsheets, tutorials,simulations, email, digital libraries, computer-mediated conferencing, videoconferencing,virtual environment, simulator, emulator etc. It is important to mention that use of newer ICTis being integrated with use of older technologies, enabling the existing resources and servicesto be continuous use.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 133
  • 147. In the specific context of LIS, one of the implications of use of ICT is that Libraries canreach out globally to provide their services 24-hours a day in very cost effective manner. ICThas enabled users to avail many services without any human intervention, the role of LISprofessional is changing from an intermediary to a facilitator and enabler. We have groupedthe ICT enabled services into two categories as follow: • ICT enabled conventional LIS, that can be delivered more efficiently through use of ICT, and • New Services, which have been made possible due to developments in ICT. • ICTs offer today’s library users different opportunities compared to their predecessors. ICTs have enabled libraries to transform themselves into digital libraries.ICT in Public LibrariesRanganathans fourth law: Save the time of the Reader This law highlighted on, how fast information can be delivered to its end users.Perhaps this law is not as self-evident as the others. None the less, it has been responsible formany reforms in library administration. A Library must examine every aspect of its policies,rules, procedures, and systems with the one simple criteria that saving the time of the reader isvital to the librarys mission. Policies must formulate with the needs of the librarys user inmind. For example, hours of operation must be set in order to ensure appropriate andconvenient access, and the collection must be arranged in an inviting, clear, and obvious wayso as not to waste the time of the users. Saving time of the user means providing efficient,thorough access to materials.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 134
  • 148. ICT has helped user in getting their required information into their laptop, palmtop,and desktops. Today’s the concept “library without wall” has come into the picture. Throughbroadband connection information professionals serve the information to its clients with in afraction of second. Day by day internet is speedy and reaching to every user irrespective ofthe place and time. Web site collection must be designed and arranged in an inviting, obvious,and clear way so as not to waste the time of users as they search for web resources they need.This law has both a front-end component (make sure people quickly find what they arelooking for) and a back-end component (make sure our data is structured in a way thatinformation can be retrieved quickly). It is also imperative that we understand what goals ourusers are trying to achieve on our site (Steckel, 2002). A librarian acts as a liaison between the patron and the information he needs and doesexactly fourth law states; the librarian "saves the time of the reader." By knowing whichresources contain the facts needed by a researcher, a reference librarian can save precioustime? A librarian helps in little ways, as well, such as leading the patron to the book that s/hewants without criticizing her for not knowing how to use the Dewey Decimal system, or bygiving tips to the patron on the way.Components of ICT Patil, Kumbarand and Krisnananda categorized the components of InformationTechnology (IT), which frequently used in Library and Information center as follows, • Computer Technology • Communication Technology • Reprographic, micrographic and printing technology The ICT tools are follows, Workstations, Personal computers, Microchip technology,Artificial Intelligence, Software technologies like, CDS/ISIS, In magic, Autolib, Libsys,Liberty, Minisis, etc., CD-ROM technologies, Audio technology, Audio-visual technologieslike, Motion pictures, TV, CATV, Videodisc, Videotext, Teletext, Telephone, Cell phone orMobile phone, FAX (Facsimile transmission), E-mail, Voice mail, Teleconference, Satellitetechnology, Internet, Network technology, WAN (Wide Area Network), LAN (Local AreaNetwork), Reprographic technology, Micrographic technology, and Printed technology. Above these technologies ICT is changing the work of libraries and informationcenters. An increased number of users, a greater demand for library materials, and an increasein the amount of material being published, new electronic formats and sources are increased.For these improvement readers precious time will be saving.ICT Based User Services: Library users are adopting electronic habits, making increasing use of the new ICTtechnologies. User is placing new demands on their libraries. They require access to the latestinformation, updated information resources and access to ICT facilities that they could use inthe work. Use of ICT in libraries enhances user’s satisfaction. It provides numerous benefitsto library users and it uses save the time of readers also. Some of the benefits are, • Provide speedy and easy access to informationNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 135
  • 149. • Provide remote access to the users • Provide round the clock access to the users • Provide access to unlimited information from different sources • Provides information flexibility to be used by any individual according to his/her requirements • Provides increased flexibility • Facilitates the reformatting and combining of data from different sources Libraries are also providing various ICT based services to their users, including thefollowing:CD Rom Searching The CD-ROMs coming along with books are assigned accession numbers and are kept atthe computer section to be issued to the users to get information whenever needed. Libraryhas also subscribed to CD ROM database provides for online Access.On-line Networking Networking is one of the most effective ways of serving users’ needs comprehensively.Networked access to databases would help get newly-published information to library users.Photocopying The technology of reprography made a big impact on the document delivery system. Mostof the research libraries have reprographic machines and provide photocopy of any documenton demand.On-line Information Service Online Information services are anticipatory or responsive. Both these services promotethe use of library materials, make available library materials to users and thus meet userrequirements. The various services include Newspaper clippings,Abstracting/Indexing Services, Current awareness services, translation services,referral services, photocopying services and computerized services.News Clipping Scanning service Newspaper Constitute an important source of Information as they contain the latestinformation in the form of news with, often daily, updating. Print media is useful for researchneeds but many organization and individuals are turning to online newspaper clippingservices and some are organization do this by their library. Support Desk using the requestoption on the on-line catalogue.Database Searching Service Through this service, we regularly provide the users with the exact information they need.On-line Reservation Service The Online Reservation Service allows you to reserve books and journals which are onorder, being processed by the Library or on loan to another reader. User can placea reservation at the Issue or Information from our collection of major national andNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 136
  • 150. international databases (retrospective and current) on our subject. The databases are in CDROM or computerized form which saves their valuable time and energy, as the informationavailable here is pinpointed and readily accessible.Audio-Visual Service Audiovisual materials are important sources of information, education and entertainment.Many libraries particularly media libraries and large academic and public libraries hold audiovisual material such as DVD, films, pictures and photographs etc. Libraries allow theirmembers to borrow these. Recent developments in storage media, compression andencryption technology have made it possible to store large amount of multimedia documentson hard disk and disseminate through internet.Internet Access The use of the Internet around the world has been growing rapidly over the last decade.Libraries provide free or controlled access to internet and email. Depending upon theavailability users can be given time slots for use of internet facility. Usually internet enabledterminals are provided in the library that can be used for internet access and email etc.E-Query Services E-Query Service is a Web-enabled contemporary reference service offered to theregistered members of the Library together handle queries received in person or by e-Mail. E-Queries may sometimes need to be followed-up with telephone, fax, regular mail, or personalinteractions. Library, appropriate and brief information gathered in response will be sent tothe enquirer through e-Mail within three consecutive working days from the date of receipt ofthe query.Web access to OPACs Libraries are providing access to Web-based Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC)interfaces. This is making it easier for OPAC users to learn and use these resources since theyonly have to learn how to use one universal access client, the Web browser.Electronic Document Delivery Libraries are implementing ICT-based interlibrary lending system using electronicnetworks to deliver copies of journal articles and other documents in digital format [mainly inPortable Document Format (PDF)] to library user’s desktop.Networked Information Resources Libraries are providing their users with access to networked information resources, i.e.databases, electronic scholarly, journals encyclopedias, public government information etc,provided by various publishers or suppliers.Online Instructions Libraries also implementing online based bibliographic or library use programmes. Theseinclude online tutorials on searching online resources and virtual tours of library collections.Online Readers Advisory Services Libraries are implementing web-based versions of reader’s advisory services andreference services. These include services such as informing users via the web about newacquisitions, providing reviews and recommendations, providing facilities for readers tointeract with the reference staff.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 137
  • 151. Conventional LIS such as OPAC, User Services, Reference Service, BibliographicService, Current Awareness Service, Document Delivery, Inter-library loan, Audio-VisualServices and Customer Relations can be provided more efficiently and effectively by usingICT, as they offer convenience of time and place, cost effectiveness, faster and most up todate dissemination and end user’s involvement in the LIS processes.ICT as a Tool for Teaching and Learning in Respect of Learner with Disability Readers: ICT have the potential for reducing discrimination and providing more opportunities toengage people with disabilities in all aspects of life including teaching and learning. ICToffers a range of specialized software and hardware solutions for communicating, accessingand inputting data/information to/from web applications. Following are some of the ICTtools/applications for assisting different kind of disabled learners: • ICT bases specialized vocational training to perform functions within abilities • Specialized Keyboards, such as Braille • Braille Printer • Conversion of local language to Braille • Screen Readers • Touch Screens • Eye Tracking • Talking word processors • Screen Magnifiers.The Downsides of users for their time saving: Unfortunately there are a number of issues with Public library readers at present, theuse of ICT in libraries has raised a number of challenges, These includes, • Changing role or libraries and librarians • Funding for libraries • Copyright management • Information access • Preservation of digital information resources • Legal deposit • Communication systems are continually changing the way people access information • All technology ends. All technologies commonly used today will be replaced by something new • We haven’t yet reached the ultimate small particle for storage. But soon. • Search technology will become increasingly more complicated • Time compression is changing the lifestyle of library patrons • Over time we will be transitioning to a verbal societyNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 138
  • 152. • The demand for global information is growing exponentially • Libraries will transition from a center of information to a center of culture • Information insecurity • More technology dependenceConclusion The information services offered by libraries would develop in the directions ofdeepening its levels and improving its quality and effects. The public library would continueto foster the relationship of help-each-other with the users, seek cooperation actively whichconcentrate on the exploitation of library. Libraries will not simply be a matter of installingrows of computers with Internet access, our users will increasingly expect to be able to accessmaterial from where they live and work. Providing access will increasingly be aboutdeveloping electronic information services such as Internet portals and acting as a brokerbetween content providers and remote users” Librarians with computer and information systems skills can work as automated-systems librarians, planning and operating computer systems, and as information architects,designing information storage and retrieval systems and developing procedures for collecting,organizing, interpreting, and classifying information. These librarians analyze and plan forfuture information needs. This is also one of the best ways to save the time of the readers. The ways to satisfy this law a well-planned and executed site map saves the time ofthe user. Saving the time of the user means providing efficient, thorough access to webresources. In order to save the time of the user, web sites need to effectively and efficientlydesign systems that will enable the users to find what they are looking for quickly andaccurately, as well as to explore the vast amount of collection of information available thatcould potentially be useful. This fourth law emphasizes efficient service to the users, whichimplies a well design and easy-to-understand map/index to the site.ReferencesLancaster, E. W. and Sandore, Beth; Technology and management in library andinformation services. London, Library Association, 2001Venkata, Ramana, P., The changing role of librarian in a challenging dynamic webenvironment. 4thInternational Convention Caliber-, Gulbarga, 2-4 February, Inflibnet Centre,Ahmedabad. (2006). Print.Dewan, M.L. and others, Public Library System and Services,: 10-16, 2009National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 139
  • 153. Web 2.0 and Library Services L.R. Divya and K.G. Sudhier Abstract Information is a vital resource and valuable input for social development. The relevant and importance of information is increasing day by day. Information is available through libraries, communication resources, media, and internet and from many other resources. The impact of Information and Communication Technology tools and services have influence the library services. Librarians need to change their roles and the ways in which they provide services in response to the recent developments in web technologies. This paper discussed about the web 2.0 technologies used for library services. It also discusses free online and Internet tools that can be adapted by librarians for use with library instruction and information literacy training, with a focus on social media and Web 2.0 technologies, including social networking websites blogs, wikis, tagging, social networks, tagging, RSS feeds, and instant messaging streaming and mashups etc. The core idea behind this study is to aware librarians in using Web 2.0 tools to improve the information literacy of their users. Keywords: Web 2.0, Library 2.0, Blogs, Wikis, Tagging, Social networksIntroduction Facing the challenges due to advancement of internet technologies, libraries areadopting new technologies of the web to provide better information services and match theuser’s expectations. Librarians need to change their roles and the ways in which they provideservices in response to the recent developments in web technologies. The evolution of socialnetworks and social sharing has posed a challenge to libraries to adopt this technology in theirroutine services to meet users’ expectation and immediate information delivery. Thesedevelopments and increased usage of web-based services have become necessity in the dailyoperation of the library activities. (Shri Ram, 2010). Library can take the advantage of Web2.0 technologies and implement them in the different services to meet the expectations of newgeneration of users. The application of computer and networking technologies in information storage andretrieval techniques a new set of skills, methods and media o user education put under thetable of information literacy. To be ‘Information literate’ one needs to know why, when andhow to use all of these tools and think critically about the information they provide. The ALAdefinition of information literacy, Information literacy is a set of abilities that enables anindividual to “recognize when information is needed and have the ability to effectively locate,evaluate, and use the needed information." Library and information services professionalshave the task of handling the information explosion and deliver the right kind of informationservices to the right users at the right time. LIS professionals are expected and guide the usersfor using the right information and develop the skill of users (Lapuz, 2009).Library 2.0 The term Library 2.0 (L2) was first coined by Michael Casey in his blog LibraryCrunch in September 2005. The main theory and philosophy of Library 2.0 has been evolvedfrom Web 2.0 concept. The application of Web 2.0 technologies in library services to make it,interactive, collaborative and web-based has been framed as Library 2.0. It can be argued thatacademic libraries are in a unique position to implement library 2.0 services. It is becauseNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 140
  • 154. Academic Libraries are driven by most of the young generation user, they are frequentlyvisiting net and they are grown up with internet. Due to the impact of social networkingsoftware (SNS) most of them have profiles in Internet in different social network sites. Many libraries are developing library 2.0 model although there are services librarywere using before the word library 2.0 evolves, for example reference services through IMmessenger. Developing a model for Library 2.0 depends upon the library, type of services itprovides and the user community. Librarian need to evaluate the services which they areproviding and find the new way to incorporate web 2.0 services in to the existing services(Mallikarjun and Bulu, 2008).Web 2.0 Wikipedia says “Web 2.0 is a term often applied to a perceived ongoing transition ofthe World Wide Web from a collection of websites to a full-fledged computing platformserving web applications to end users. Ultimately Web 2.0 services are expected to replacedesktop computing applications for many purposes. Web 2.0 is fundamentally about userparticipation, remixing and tagging, featuring user generated content using simpler web toolswhich are easier for the end-user to learn. Users will be reading, creating and publishing moreand more content. For example, social networking sites like MySpace let individuals createtheir own profile and interests, express their views and connect with others via the Web(Godwin, 2006). Web 2.0 holds the mechanisms and infrastructures for facilitating modern methods tocreate, share, publish and promote information. Think beyond e-mail and basic websites, tosocial networking, web services technologies, and the next iteration of blogs, wikis and podcasts. Web 2.0 is about the more human aspects of interactivity. It’s about conversations,interpersonal networking, personalization, and individualism. The emerging modern userneeds the experience of the Web, and not just content, to learn and succeed. . . Web 2.0 isultimately about a social phenomenon—not just about networked social experiences, butabout the distribution and creation of Web content itself, characterized by opencommunication, decentralization of authority, freedom to share and reuse, and the market as aconversation (Lorenzo 2007).Web 2.0 tools literacy in library services The outcome of interactivity is the emergence of services like Instant Messaging,Steaming media, Blogs, news feeds, tagging etc. which are grouped together called as Web2.0 services. The modern library concepts have also embraced these services and call them asLibrary 2.0 services. The concepts of Library 2.0, OPAC 2.0, and Librarian 2.0 are theoffspring of Web 2.0 ideas. The idea of Web 2.0 can be summarized as the reciprocal linkbetween the user and provider. The essence of Web 2.0 lies in the genuine interactivitybetween the user and the content. Thus many services which underline the participationplatform were derived and underline the concept of Web 2.0 (Sanjay and John, 2009). The various Web 2.0 tools that can be considered as means for teaching informationliteracy may take the forms of blogs, photo-sharing and video-sharing, tagging andbookmarking sites as well as social networks. Librarians need to understand why users preferother sources of information despite their respect for and trust in a library’s resources. Thischange in user’s perception and their preference for Internet tools and services such as websearch engines, e-mail, blogs, and RSS feeds are the outcome of several factors. First, usersassign great value to the ease of use, ease of access, and speed that characterise Internet toolsand services. Although web search engines may lack the options available through librarycatalogues and scholarly databases, and may be less accurate, the web search engines areNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 141
  • 155. more fun to work with; offer immediate satisfaction and are easy to learn and use (Shri Ram,2010).Blogs The weblogs which are the innovations of Web 2.0 concept make another form ofinformation source in modern libraries. Interestingly, many libraries treat blogs as anotherform of publication. Blogs are considered to be an informal source of information. Though theblogs have not formed the formal part in the library environment most of the modern librarycatalogues try to use this utility in their catalogues (Sanjay and John 2009). Librarians now need to teach the best sources for searching out blogs, e.g.Technorati,Google Blog Search or and how to evaluate blog content. Blogging encouragescommunity, creativity, interaction and reflection, all key attributes of the Information Literatestudent. It can motivate students and allow ideas to be aired, encourage reflection and lead toa synthesis of ideas. A blog could be created for a course receiving IL teaching, whichallowed comments, learning from one another and linking to subject guides. The University ofMinnesota U Think blog site encourages the creation of Library blogs. Librarians can also useblogs themselves for marketing services to academic staff Temple University Library,Philadelphia, for example, uses its blog for news events and discussion (Godwin, 2006).Wikis Wiki is a piece of server software that allows users to freely create and edit Web pagecontent using any Web browser. Wiki supports hyperlinks and has simple text syntax forcreating new pages and cross links between internal pages on the fly. Several libraries haveused the Wiki tool in the provision of different services. A Wiki-like platform created for thelibrarians to work collaboratively and concurrently on providing answers to the users’enquiries and enable them freely edit text and post their point of view. This allows any staff totap on the collective wisdom of the communities of Subject Librarians and provide qualityanswers to their queries. The Wikis also allow the librarians to determine which content areused most and this can influence the type of content to focus on. Librarians could be usingwikis to exchange information for their teaching. Librarians have been very coy so far inposting their definitions on this site to arrive at consensus (Sanjay and John, 2009).RSS feeds RSS feeds provide the glue which link us to the content which we want to read. Thefeeds can allow students and researchers to subscribe to regular content from news services,blogs and relevant content from databases. They can create their own information world,choosing their content which then comes automatically to them, keeping them up to date(Godwin, 2007). Signing up for RSS feeds basically allows users to manage the flow ofinformation they peruse through their web browser. RSS technology is also gaining groundquickly for creative use by higher education faculty and academic librarians (Lorenzo, 2007).In olden days the libraries ran a service called SDI. Those services can be very effectivelyautomated to serve users with news feed. For a multimedia library catalogues and dynamiclibrary catalogues like music catalogue the RSS Feeds are good choices (Sanjay and John,2009).Podcasting Podcasting can be defined as the process by which the digital audio files aredistributed over the internet using either feeds or by any other distribution media. Vodcastingis the video format of the same kind of service. Mostly the media casting which includes bothNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 142
  • 156. audio and video is done either through the “media on demand” or through subscriptionservices (Sanjay and John, 2009). Podcasts are a type of broadcasting which allows individuals to record, publish, find,subscribe and listen over the internet using a portable player. This technology allows greatopportunities for academic star performers, who have good voice projection. Librarians canuse this technology for tours and other IL teaching. For example, University of AlbertaScience and Technology Library are providing basic IL programmes via screen casts andpodcasts, as well as podcast tours of the Library (Godwin, 2006).Social bookmarking These services enable easier storage of our own chosen references and bookmarks,making them accessible to us on a PC wherever we are. can be used as a researchtool to help students to organise individually what they find and bookmark easily, accessibleanywhere. It can assist referencing and encourages them to tag, which is central to the linkingof ideas, and aids sharing of resources. Individuals will use different tags according to theirown interests, but when these are shared with others, this tagging can expose new links, whichin turn lead to discovery of further resources. The use of tagging is becoming criticallyimportant in widening the power of search. Students increase their searching power as theycome to understand the tagging, and folksonomies. Some librarians are being critical oftagging and compare it unfavorably with tradition taxonomies as used in classificationschemes. Much can be made of the limitations of tagging, especially where tags are limited tosingle words, and users may use a number of words to describe similar phenomena (Godwin(2007).Tagging Tagging is described as the process by which the resources in a collection are assignedtags in the form of words, phrases, codes or other strings of characters. This allows users toadd and change the data and metadata and at times give a local flavor to the data andmetadata. The advantage of user tags is that it helps the data to be more easily searchable. Asthe Web 2.0 re-emphasises the importance of users and their impact on services the impact oftagging in library services are greatly anticipated. The tagging service from the university ofPennsylvania library catalogue illustrates how tagging is been tried in a library catalogue.More conservative librarians feel that tagging has got its own negative focus on libraries andtheir catalogues. The users can include tags to a record but the suggested tags are to besubmitted to the librarian who can approve or disapprove (Sanjay and John, 2009).Social networking sites These social network sites allow individuals to create profiles which can includepersonal interests, hobbies, and pictures. Most of the social networking facilities are web-based interfaces where users make use of the above mentioned Web 2.0 tools such as chat,messaging, email, video, blog. Etc., Living examples of the social networking groups areMySpace, Face Book,, Flickr. The social networking spaces are considered to bepotential meeting place of likeminded people (Sanjay and John, 2009). The popularity of these social networks with students cannot be overlooked, andlibrarians throughout the world are coming to terms with what this means for their services.Many public libraries in the USA are seeing this as an opportunity to market them quiteaggressively where the users or non-users are.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 143
  • 157. Flickr Flickr is now the most popular storage repository on the web for photos. It has anumber of uses for librarians to consider. Photos of our library, staff and students, itspresentations, classes, and events, can be stored quickly and efficiently. Easy access will beenabled and possibilities of sharing with others. Library groups are being formed and thisphoto sharing, along with general images under the Creative Commons license gives us ahuge bank of material for use in our presentations (Godwin, 2007).Library Thing Library Thing is a social network which anyone can join to store and share details ofbooks which they have read. Brief descriptions are added and tags can be constructed. It islike a social book club, with reviews. The information is then shared with others. This mayfoster alternative and additional reading based on their opinions and favourites. Library Thingcould be used with groups of students to encourage reading, sharing of favourites and criticalreview (Godwin, 2009).YouTube This service, although limited to a ten minute format and of variable technical quality,can be used to create our own YouTube videos for promotional programmes and tutorials.Some of the best examples have used students as presenters, and their involvement inplanning is crucial. Librarians now also have an interesting teaching resource in YouTubematerial for use in our teaching to trigger discussion (Godwin, 2007).Instant messaging Instant messaging is a real-time text/audio/video communication between more thanone individual. In the earlier versions of OPAC there used to be a section know as frequentlyasked questions which covered a number of issues in the libraries, but those services weremerely stock questions and answers which were not dynamic. Currently in most of theintegrated library systems users get interactive help on a number of issues through thisreference desk. Interestingly these reference desks are becoming more and more interactivewith more multi-media experience where audio and video messaging has become common.One of the main advantages of this service is that the transcripts of these references arevaluable tools for the evaluation and analysis for future reference. Many integrated librarysystems use this service in their OPAC interface (Sanjay and John, 2009).Streaming Media Streaming Media is another important Web 2.0 enhancement which has an influenceon the library services. Streaming media is a “Sequential delivery of multimedia content overthe network” mostly on request, providing the requested media instantaneously. In traditionallibraries many short films, music, and different forms of streaming media are catalogued andgiven to the users to be used offline. These are potential materials which are marked forstreaming media for the users. More and more ILS and OPAC 2.0 services are including thestreaming media in their services (Sanjay and John, 2009).Mashups Mashups are websites or web applications which use content from more than onesource to create a completely new service. Such content often sources by use of various API(Application Programme Interfaces), web feeds and JavaScript. Crucially these mashupsrequire little technical knowledge. For example Google Maps have been used with other datasources accessible on the internet to provide new services. The Chicago crime page is anexemplary site which does this and can display location of crime history street by street.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 144
  • 158. Hudders field University has used Grease monkey to display their local catalogue informationin Amazon so that users can be linked back into the Library OPAC to view the full record(Godwin, 2006).Conclusion Web2.0 technologies can also be used for modernising library services. The focus ison user-centered change and participation in the creation of content and community. With thislibrary services are constantly updated and re evaluated to best serve library users. Librariansuse Web 2.0 tools to improve the information literacy of their users. Internet tools that can be adaptedby librarians for use with library instruction and information literacy training, with a focus on socialmedia and Web 2.0 technologies, including social networking websites Facebook and Twitter, blogs,RSS, wikis, and video sharing. Librarians are embracing Web 2.0 as it becomes more main streamand experimenting with the tools to supplement their information literacy interventions.ReferenceMallikarjun Dora Bulu Maharana .A-Lib 2.0: New Avatar Academic Libraries with Web2.0Applications.6th International CALIBER -2008, University of Allahabad, Allahabad,February 28-29 & March 1, 2008 © INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad 469-476, 2008.Godwin, Peter. The Web 2.0 challenge to information literacy. Paper presented at theINFORUM 2007: 13th Conference on Professional Information Resources, Prague, CzechRepublic. Retrieved on 21 August 2011, from, Peter. Information Literacy In The Age Of Amateurs How Google And Web 2.0Affect Librarians’ Support Of Information Literacy. 268-87 Retrieved FromWww.Ics.Heacademy.Ac.Uk/Italics/Vol5iss4/Godwin.Pdf, 2008.Lorenzo, G. Catalysts for change: information fluency, Web 2.0, Library2.0, and the neweducation culture. Clarence Center, NY : Lorenzo Associates, Inc., retrieved on September21, 2011 from, 2007.Godwin, Peter. Information Literacy Meets Web 2.0: How The New Tools Affect Our OwnTraining and Our Teaching, New Review Of Information Networking, 13(2), 101-112., 2007.Godwin, Peter. Information literacy and Web 2.0: is it just hype? Program: electronic libraryand information systems, 43(3), 264-274. DOI 10.1108/00330330910978563, 2007.Lapuz, Elvira Basibas. Teaching Web 2.0 applications in the planning and development ofinformation literacy programs: reaching out to librarians and information professionals.retrieved on September 21, from, 2009.Sanjay Kataria and John Paul Anbu K. Applications of Web 2.0 in the Enhancement ofServices and Resource in Academic Libraries : An Experiment @ JIIT University Noida,India.ICAL 2009 – Library Services 583-89, 2009.Shri Ram. Information Literacy through Web 2.0 Integrated WebOPAC: An Experiment atJaypee Group of Institutions. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology,30(3).43-50, 2010.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 145
  • 159. Social Networking Sites and its Applications in Libraries V.Radha Krishnan, M.S. Premraj and L.Rajendran Abstract The world of information continues to evolve towards interaction, consumer creation, and flexibility in the platforms and behaviours of information and its purveyors. Social networking sites are becoming central forums for accessing and sharing information. Librarians are responding to the popularity and utility of social networking sites by using them as central media for interacting with library patrons for traditional and novel services. Librarians need a new branch of skill sets specific to utilizing and leveraging social networking sites to provide quality services and maintain their role as info experts. This paper explains the usage of social networking sites in the field of library and also emphasizes the relationship between the social networking librarian and customer and it gives an idea to market the library products and services with the assistance of social networking sites. Keywords: Social Networking Sites, My space, FacebookIntroduction In the context of library, social networking presents three interesting opportunities,marketing, professional development and socially enhanced search. Social networking is aterm, broadly applied to features of internet system that allows you to specify your connectionto other people and to search, browse, filter, find, or organize things using the informationabout the connection between the people. Online social networking accesses in twooverlapping ways, via social networking sites and websites.Definition Social Networking sites are online communities on which people can connect withindividuals, both friends and strangers even though all networking sites have the mainpurpose to interact with others via Web 2.0. Each site uses a different approach to accomplishthe tasks. Social Networking sites are extremely popular among under graduates and with itsorigin in higher education. Myspace, Facebook are the most popular Social Networking sitesamong to students group. My space is popular with these. Now a days, Facebook is moreused Social Networking site and the twitter, linked in the other sites respectively.Social Networking for Communication Social network sites also called social networking services or social networkingcommunities are those internet systems that have at their heart the personalized profileFacebook, Linked in and Myspace are prominent examples. The sites share three conefeatures each user has as “profile “ that explicitly catalogues their interests and background;each users explicitly identifies who they know establishing a “network” of social relationshipsand users have some mechanism to communicate with one another through the site.Social Networks and Libraries The use of social networks in libraries is teetering between public fear lack ofknowledge and confusion on how to incorporate these new technologies and the popularityand outcry of these systems within our society. Choices made by today’s librarians,administrators and law makers will either tilt the scale towards limiting their uses withinNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 146
  • 160. library systems, are making social networks a part of media literacy for society’s lifelonglearners.Role of Social Networking Librarians Social networking sites allow librarians to adopt a new role by placing themselves intoa social realm with users. By reading blogs, group postings, and message boards the librarianbecomes an active participant, who is able to anticipate and advise also keeps the librarywithin the consciousness of users, potentially increasing interaction. The social networkinglibrarian should follow the public conversation ports updates and events of these keyindividuals and proactively offer advice resources and help While libraries are unlikely to start an “epidemic” spread of knowledge their services,they still stand to benefit from spreading knowledge about their services, they still stand tobenefit from spreading knowledge about their services for example in my experience evenLIS students are not fully aware of offerings from the library such as networks and citationlinking services undergraduates are often not aware of databases and faculty are not oftenaware of specific databases that might be available to them. The social networking librarian can find the library’s “salesmen “ in Facebook bylooking at the discussions associates with hot topic groups specifically, groups whose subjectmatters is of local interest, or interest to areas where the library has services or collectionswould be of interest the salesmen are the ones who local in advocating or evangelizing a pointof view, or a product while librarians might not be comfortable assisting someone inevangelizing a those individuals that advocated information related products finding anindividual that helps others pick a technology is a good idea if you can make that personaware of the technology provided by the library they may become an effective advocate forthe libraries costly and underutilized software, computers and online resources.Pros and Cons A library can use social networking sites as a form of communication with teenagers.If teens need help with their homework or have a question about an assignment, they can postit upon their local libraries Myspace page. “Ask a librarian” has a Myspace where users canask questions from anywhere and will get the response immediately. Libraries use socialnetworking sites to draw in young adults by using advertising programmes. While the libraries can use Myspace, Facebook for good, there are also0 people onsocial networking sites who are considered child predation and pretend to someone else. Nowdays libraries are trying to monitor teen usage of social networking sites to secure their safety.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 147
  • 161. Another problem is identifying theft. Both issues cause great concern when postinginformation online to a social networking site.Proactive Reference for Library Marketing Libraries should appoint a social networking librarian whose job is to find members ofthe libraries community in Facebook, and identity those who are connector’s mavens andsalesman in subject areas for which the library can be of extraordinary values Instead the goal is to act as an authentic participant in the social spaces and activitiesof those members of the libraries communities and to be of value in precisely the way thatlibraries set out to the social networking librarian would seek out mavens (subject area expertsand the spreaders of knowledge) and follow their wall post, posts in discussion forum etc., thelibrarian would look for ways that library resources or services might help out andparticipating by offering information, links to the library resources, and even directs often ofhelp. The social networking librarian can spread awareness of library services to these whomight never hear of them in the first place connection of those people that bridge communitiesby virtue of the large number of people they know.Libraries can use Facebook for Marketing Librarians began to adopt Facebook in incredible numbers but that libraries arestruggling to find productive uses for Facebook. Importantly Facebook is an online spaceheavily represented by university and college students. Given the popularity of Facebook among students and the familiarity of Facebookwith librarians, it is and ideal vehicle of marketing the services of academic libraries tostudents. Social networking sites allow librarians to adopt a new role by placing themselves intoa social realm with users, by reading blogs group postings and message board, the librariansbecomes an active participant who is able to anticipate ad advise patrons as needs arise.Linking to patron profiles also keeps the library with in the consciousness of uses, potentiallyincreasing interaction. While libraries are unlikely to start an epidemic speed of knowledge about theirservices, they still stand to benefit from spreading knowledge about their services.Conclusion Now-a-days social networking sites are widely used in libraries. It makes theparadigm shift to market the library products and services. The social networking librarian’srole is also a vital one for the growth of users and the quality of library products and services.Although Social Networking sites have issues that still need to be worked out, our society issuch that it is necessary for libraries to utilise them. In the struggle to reach kids, to hold theirattention, Web 2.0 is one of the smartest tool that libraries can use. The younger generationneed to be communicated within the format with which they are most familiar and that is viaInternet.ReferencesClyde, Laurel A., Weblogs and Libraries, Chandos Publishing, UK. 2004Embrey, Theresa Ross., ‘You Blog, We blog: A Guide to How Teacher – Librarians can useWeblogs to build communication and research skills’, Teacher Librarian, 30(2), p.7-9. 2002.O’Reilly, Tim., ‘What is Web 2.0?’in Teaching with Technology: An Academic Librarian’sguide, Chandos Publishing, UK. 2005National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 148
  • 162. To E-Publishing: A Tribute to Modern Era Ruchika Krishna Abstract E-publishing is short for electronic publishing, referring to a type of publishing that does not include printed books. E-publishing instead takes the format of works published online, on a compact disk, emailed, or provided in a file format compatible with handheld electronic readers. E-publishing is an alternate form of publication especially attractive to new writers. There are advantages and disadvantages to e-publishing over traditional printed books. In this article the overview of e-publishing. Keywords: e-Publishing, e-books, e-journals, Print on Demand, CD-ROM, IndiaIntroduction E-Publishing or electronic publishing is the distribution of information, art orsoftware, delivered electronically via internet, CD-Rom, or other electronic devices. Thismaterial could be in the form of books, music, information sites, reports etc. Electronic publishing uses new technology that allows publishers to deliver content toreaders quickly and efficiently. It has changed the way we read books, receive news, work,and listen to music. It allows us almost immediate access to information whenever andwherever we are - and we have only begun to see the effects of electronic publishing. e-Publishing encompasses a variety of delivery methods, including eBooks, emailnewsletters, print-on-demand (POD), web publishing, CD-Rom, wireless publishing, andmost recently electronic ink. New hardware and software offerings are being developedcontinually, providing even more and diverse ways to deliver and receive content.Advantages of E-Publishing:The advantages of e-publishing include: • Negligible investment by the publisher translates to a greater willingness to take on untried writers and non-traditional characters, story lines, and manuscript lengths. • Faster publishing time for accepted manuscripts. Rather than waiting up to two years for a manuscript to see print, e-publishing generally publishes work within a few weeks to a few months after acceptance. • Greater flexibility within the writer/publisher relationship. E-publishing affords more say to writers in preparing works for publication. A paper publisher might ask a writer to change a character, plot line, or other features of a story to make it more marketable. An e-publisher might also make suggestions, but the writer will generally have more say. The writer might also be instrumental in providing graphics for the work, such as an electronic jacket. • Writers have the ability to update text often and easily at virtually no cost. This is particularly handy for works related to fast-moving industries such as computer technology. Since the e-publisher does not have an investment in printed booksNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 149
  • 163. already lining shelves, text can be electronically updated in seconds. • E-publishing offers greater longevity for works with slower sales. While paper publishers will remove slow movers from active status (print), electronic storage affords unlimited archiving. This gives new writers time to build a following by having their entire catalog available over extended periods of time. • Works published electronically have an ISBN number, just like printed books. This means anyone can walk into a storefront bookstore and order an electronic copy of the book. • Writers get a higher percentage of royalties through e-publishing because the initial financial layout for the publisher is so much less than for a paper publisher. Some writers receive as much as 70% of the profits in royalties. • With e-publishing writers normally retain all other rights to the work, such as the option to go to a paper publisher later, adapt a screenplay, or use the work in some other capacity. Paper publishers, on the other hand, tend to covet as many rights as possible from the writer in the initial boilerplate contract.Disadvantages of E-PublishingThe disadvantages of e-publishing are: • To date, electronic works sell far fewer copies than paper books. Many people aren’t aware of e-publishing and others prefer reading a book from print rather than electronically. Good sales, according to one e-publisher, amount to 500 copies for a successful manuscript. • Writers are responsible for providing their own ongoing marketing for e-published work. A book might be great, but if nobody knows about it, it won’t sell. Authors also can’t count on the public seeing their books on shelves or in store windows. • If interested in building credentials, e-published works do not carry the same weight as traditional paper publishers. The sense is that the bar is somehow lower for e- published works than for printed works. However, this may change with time as e- publishing becomes more established. • Writers do not receive an advance. This is not just a financial disadvantage, but might disqualify e-published authors from participating in certain organizations where membership requirements include works paid by advance. That said, sales royalties are often paid more frequently by e-publishers, such as quarterly rather than annually. • Piracy is another concern in the e-publishing industry. It is a fairly simple thing, technically speaking, for a recipient of an e-work to edit the file, make several copies, and sell the work out from under the nose of the e-publisher and author. Some e- publishers counter that the relatively small market for e-works provides little impetus for this.Key benefits of software outsourcing • Cost Efficiency Labor cost savings may reach 90% for routine low-level tasks as compared with in-house development in North America and Western Europe. • Significant reduction of development time and, thus, speed-to-market becomesNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 150
  • 164. invaluable advantage in a present-day competitive environment. • Availability of trained IT staff Immediate access to a large pool of best industry talents allows overcoming hiring gap for IT professionals in the developed countries. • Flexible manpower utilization By using outsourcing model company cuts down its housing, recruiting and training expenses. • Proven development process and quality management system. • No up-front investments No up-front investments on the customers part.Economics of E publishing The e-publisher might save costs associated with paper, printing and distribution, butif he wants to put out quality content, he continues to incur fairly high costs in terms of theeditorial and technical staff. To capture the true value that e publishing can deliver, he has tochoose the business model that enables him to cast a wider net and garner more customers tocover total cost such that each customer need pay for a smaller fraction of the total. Total costs include support function costs like HR, accounting and legal, operationalcosts including editorial and technical staff for activities like design and typesetting, and lastlythe chunk constituting advertising, promotions and distribution. Of these, costs incurred oneditorial and technical staff engaged in bring out quality products will remain significantlyhigh, but the costs incurred on paper, printing and actually mailing individual copies coulddrop considerably. The revenue spectrum would range from subscription rates, to licences to specialgroups (universities / corporate entities, industry bodies, libraries) and pay-per-look options.Advertising and selling rights for reprinting are additional sources of revenue.E-Publishing Impact on Acquisition and Interlibrary Loan Electronic publishing has had an unprecedented impact on what is available forlibraries to acquire and on purchasing practices. Unfortunately, as the number of useful digitalproducts, as well as users desires, for them to escalate, many libraries also are facingunusually severe financial constraints. Publicly funded libraries have had drastic funding cutsbecause of state budget problems. Private academic institutions also have suffered because ofreduced return on endowment investments. Moreover, many in the higher educationcommunity believe that declining budgets are not simply the natural consequence of cyclicalforces but instead represent a fundamentally changed outlook that will continue for sometime. These analysts argue that cuts in university funding occur because education is nolonger regarded as a public good to be supported automatically and unconditionally. If thisidea is truly the case, academic libraries at state institutions will be able to afford only afraction of the growing array of electronic resources being brought to market. Even richlyendowed libraries may be challenged, [because] costs show no sign of significant decline andattractive products continue to appear in rapid succession.Some examples are: • Art media Publishing - Contemporary Australian and New Zealand literary and performing arts site, with eBooks, web site links, and monthly Physical Theatre and e-Publishing newsletters. • B&R Samizdat Express - Wide range of electronic books and articles available onNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 151
  • 165. CD-ROM, including world literature and advice on internet related business. • Books on Computer - Offers authors the chance to submit manuscripts that will receive world-wide distribution in electronic and paper formats. • Breuer & Co. - Site offers hosting and publishing facilities for many forms of electronic data, including statistics, text, images, and hyperlinks in any combination. • London Circle Publishing - Offers a unique approach for self published authors by converting manuscripts or books to an electronic format. • MV Design - Offering a full range of print and website graphic design features. • Macroknow Inc. - Electronic publisher offering website development, distance learning, syndication, corporate problem-solving, research, and seminars. • Mizpah ePublihers India - offers e-publishing and web-publishing services of academic, scientific and technical books, journals, medical publications and software user manuals. • Moker Inc. - Moker designs, produces, hosts and distributes hi-tech content-rich media e-publications. • Mushroom eBooks - Publishers of electronic books in various genres, including fiction and local interest books. • NeoSoft - The creator of innovative software applications for electronic publishing. • New Millennium Publishing - Provides advisory services, project management, and focused research for electronic publishers. • Ninestar Information Technologies Ltd - Offering high quality typesetting, data capturing SGML, XML and other electronic publishing services. • Octavo Digital Imaging - Octavo publishes and preserves rare books and manuscripts on CD-ROM using advanced digital photography. • Online Publishing - Offering digital products that feature audio, video, and text. • OverDrive - Site offers Digital Rights Management (DRM) and associated digital media solutions for distribution of premium digital content over global networks. • PayLoadz - Downloadable Digital Goods eCommerce - PayLoadz offers a service to sell intangible goods such as software, eBooks, music, podcasts, movies, digital art, manuals, articles, certificates, forms, files, or any other file. • Pele Publications - Publishers of business books providing a fast-track into print, and offering an on-line reading room. • - Mimics the effect of turning real pages online. It is a complete electronic edition of the document. • Publishing - Publishes books in both print and electronic formats. • Zizzoo Digital Publishing - Online publisher of outcomes based, non fiction learning material. • - Offers digital publishing of ebooks, print-on-demand paperbacks, design studio services, website design, domain registration and web hosting plans.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 152
  • 166. • E-Text - Publishes and posts electronic textooks, course packets, readers, and other materials for college students. • eBooksOnThe.Net - All genres of electronic books for download to your PC or hand-held electronic reading device. • EWOC - Creators of electronic rich media content, converting PDf documents into books with turning pages.Aspects of E-Publishing Electronic publishing or ePublishing includes the digital publication of e-books andelectronic articles, and the development of digital libraries and catalogues. Electronicpublishing has become common in scientific publishing where it has been argued that peer-reviewed paper scientific journals are in the process of being replaced by electronicpublishing. Although distribution via the Internet (also known as online publishing or webpublishing when in the form of a website) is nowadays strongly associated with electronicpublishing, there are many non network electronic publications such as Encyclopedias on CDand DVD, as well as technical and reference publications relied on by mobile users and otherswithout reliable and high speed access to a network. After an article is submitted to a journal for consideration, there can be a delay rangingfrom several months to more than two years before it is published in a journal, renderingjournals a less than ideal format for disseminating current research. In some fields such asastronomy and some parts of physics, the role of the journal in disseminating the latestresearch has largely been replaced by preprint repositories such as However,scholarly journals still play an important role in quality control and establishing scientificcredit. In many instances, the electronic materials uploaded to preprint repositories are stillintended for eventual publication in a peer-reviewed journal.Advertising, however, tends to belimited in the online versions, and take the form of either related advertising or affiliatedlinks. And if an online vendor distributes the e-book, the revenue is lower on account ofgreater revenue splitting.Publishing in India The Indian typesetting industry is in its nascent stage and is only a few decades old. InIndia, typesetting activity commenced as providing data-conversion services to some foreignpublishers. To this date, the Indian typesetting industry is poised to provide almost completepre-press services to various global publishers. India continues to be a favoured outsourcingaddress, followed by the United States, Philippines, China and the United Kingdom. Theindustry is facing challenges in terms of global recession, the appreciating rupee and theemergence of new media. The publishers expectations are increasing in terms of consistentquantity and quality, E-publishing is very broad and encompasses a variety of publishingpatterns, such as eBooks, print-on-demand, email publishing, web publishing services, etc.reduced pricing, multiple and complex deliverables and need to deal with fewer suppliers.Publishing has to encompass a gamut of services under one roof. For full-service jobs to bemanaged in-house, end-to-end services are the need of the hour for a typesetter/vendor inIndia. India’s high-quality, cost-efficient services and huge competent human resources havetransformed it to a spellbound address for global publishers. Fast turnaround times and thecapability to provide round-the-clock services facilitate India as the most favoured terminusNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 153
  • 167. for typesetting. Office politics, fear of stagnation, stressful work schedule, and having to worknight shifts are among the few primary concerns of Indian employees. Over the past fewmonths, we all professionals have been a part and parcel of some kind of cost-cuttingmeasures adopted by our respective employers; the various major approaches being: goingdigital, reducing print publishing, cutting different overhead costs, cutting salaries, bonuscuts, retrenchments, forced leaves, to name a few. In spite of confronting the challenges of rupee values, talent crunch and growth ofnewer media, Indian e-publishing industry is estimated to spring up by 35 per cent andprovide a 1.46 billion dollar outsourcing chance by the end of 2010.Conclusion To this day, India is also known world-wide as a major book-publishing country.Having more than around 17,000 publishing entities producing content in more than 29regional languages, India is a huge market for ePublishing. After the IT boom, theconventional publishers in India have moved their business orientation into the ePublishingsector with diverse products. Till date, some among the Indian publishers have brought forth alarge amount of ePublications catering to both Indian and foreign readers. Publishers can’tsustain their current levels of profitability through sales of eBooks only. They will have toalso market their prints in parallel to eBooks. Truly and slowly, we are witnessing a paradigmshift in the areas of digital reading. Indian users still prefer printed content and theinfrastructure to access and use digital content is yet to be made conducive or robust in India.The role of 3D in ePublishing is emerging in specific market segments in India. Whiletechnology will continue to drive evolution in the publishing industry, at the end of the day,it’s content that continues to be the soul of the publishing industry regardless of either digitalor print formats. Hence, by switching to eBooks, we can save our trees and our nextgeneration.ReferencesArchana Saxena, Electronic Publishing: Impact of ICT on Academic Libraries, ICAL, Posterpaper, pp670-672, 2009.Ellison.G, "The Slowdown of the Economics Publishing Process". Journal of PoliticalEconomy 110 (5): 947-993. 2002Pettenati, Corrado, Electronic Publishing at the end of 2001, World Scientific on December 4,2001.Getz, M. An Economic perspective on e-publishing in academia. Journal of ElectronicPublishing, 1997.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 154
  • 168. Use of Social Networking Sites: A Study among University Library Professionals in Coimbatore District K.Mahalakshmi and S.Ally Sornam Abstract A questionnaire was distributed to the library professionals in Coimbatore district to identify the use of networking sites in their libraries. The questionnaire was distributed to 50 library professionals in Coimbatore District. The study revealed that library professionals are aware of the few social networking sites and have fair knowledge in using social networking sites to market library services and resources.Introduction Social networking sites are extremely popular across age groups and are centralforums for accessing and sharing information. Librarians are responding to the popularity ofsocial networking sites and their expanding role in the creation, use, and sharing ofinformation by engaging them as a central medium for interacting with library patrons andproviding services to meet their information needs. Librarians need a new branch of skill setsnew branch of skill sets specific to utilizing and leveraging social networking sites to providequality services and maintain their role as information experts in a Web2.0 world. Thefollowing competencies are a suggested set of skills that librarians should possess as socialnetworking literate information professionals capable of implementing library services andutilizing information within social networking sites. These include understanding andarticulating the nature of social networking sites and their potential roles related to libraryservices, creating content, evaluating and applying information and having the ability to assistpatrons with gaining and applying these skills. Librarians possessing these skills are capableof efficiently and effectively navigating online social networking sites and applying theirexpertise to services.Definition Social network sites are defined as web-based services that allow individuals to (1)construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of otherusers with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connectionsand those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of theseconnections may vary from site to site.Literature Review The literature revealed many studies about social networking sites in general and fewstudies about social networking sites and libraries. Acquisti and Gross (2006) in their article titled “Imagined Communities Awareness,Information Sharing, and Privacy on the Face book” conducted a survey among face bookusers in an US academic institution to find out use of SNS in communication, interaction,privacy and security issues. It is found that privacy concerned individuals join the networkand reveal great amounts of personal information. Some manage their privacy concerns bytrusting their ability to control the information they provide and the external access to it.However, we find significant misconceptions among some members about the onlinecommunity’s reach and the visibility of their profiles.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 155
  • 169. In First Monday (November 2011) “Tightening the Net: Intellectual property micro–regimes and peer–to–peer practice in higher education networks” examines the recentresponses by U.S. university administrators to the volume and legal challenges surroundingon–campus and in–residence peer–to–peer (P2P) traffic. Since the earliest days of online P2Pactivity, universities have served as key flashpoints in the broader file–sharing and intellectualproperty debates. But while there has been considerable attention to the emerging file–sharingcase law, and some attention to the shifting legal and political strategies of IP holders mostaffected by P2P traffic (or most aggressive in asserting their rights), the multiple, varied, andoften ambivalent responses of university network administrators have for the most partescaped sustained attention. This paper draws on published survey and original interview data to explore thedistinctive and heterogeneous policy sets put together by campus network administrators anddecision–makers in dealing with IP issues associated with on–campus file–sharing practice. Murphy and Moulasion (2009) in their article titled “Social Networking LiteracyCompetencies for Librarians: Exploring Considerations and Engaging Participation,” revealedfollowing competency skills Understanding and articulating social networking sites and theirroles, Creating content, Evaluating information, Applying information ethically, Searchingand navigating, Interaction, Teaching, Providing Services and Flexibility to leverage socialnetworking sites to provide quality services and maintain librarians’ role as info experts. There is another study by Libby Post (2009) in the presentation titled “Your Library:What Does Social Networking Have to Do With It?” Suggests that social networking sites areextremely relevant, cost effective way to market library’s programs and services and enablesto target audience.Universities in Coimbatore The district of Coimbatore has six universities such as Avinashilingam University,Bharathiar University, TNAU, Karunya University, Amrita University and Anna Universityof Technology, Coimbatore.Methodology A questionnaire method was adopted to collect data from the university libraryprofessionals in Coimbatore District. First part of the questionnaire consists of designation,age group, gender, experience, professional qualification, nativity of the respondents andlocation of the university where they are employed and the second part contains questionssuch as awareness of the social networking sites, usage of social networking sites to marketlibrary resources and services, library’s role to build social networking sites for youruniversity Library, Benefits of Social networking sites in libraries, traditional method ofmarketing of library resources and services. Population consists of library professionals(Librarian, Assistant Librarians, and Library Assistant) of Universities in Coimbatore District.There are six universities in Coimbatore District. Questionnaires were distributed to 50 libraryprofessionals in the university but only 41 questionnaires were received and thereby leads to82% of response rate.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 156
  • 170. Table 1 Demographical detailsDemographic Variable Classification Frequency PercentageDesignation Librarian 2 4.9 Deputy Librarian - - Assistant Librarian 9 22.0 Technical Assistant 9 22.0 Library Assistant 21 51.2Age Group Below 30 21 51.2 31-40 18 43.9 41-50 2 4.9 Above 51 - -Gender Male 28 68.29 Female 13 31.71Experience Below 10 9 21.96 11-20 17 41.65 Above 21 15 36.59Professinal Qualification BLIS/MLIS/M.Phil 38 92.67 Ph.D 2 4.9 NET/SET 1 2.44Nativity Urban 1 2.4 Rural 40 97.6Location Of Institution Urban 10 24.39 Rural 31 75.61 It is found from Table 1 that, maximum of 21(51.2%) respondents belong to libraryassistant category, while a minimum of 2(4.9%) are in the category of librarian. Maximum of28(68.29%) of the respondents are male. Maximum of 17 respondents (41.65%) have 11-20years of experience, while a minimum of 9(21.96%) respondents have experience of below 10years. Maximum of 31(75.61%) of the respondents are employed in universities located ruralarea. Table 2 Benefits of Social Networking Sites Benefits Mean Standard DeviationProvide information to users 2 .000Provide links to recommended internet resources 2 .000Provide information for stakeholders 2 .000Book reviews, information about new books 2.02 .156Provide research tips 2.02 .156Communication among librarians 1.98 .156Library’s role to build social networking sites for 2 .000their library It is found from Table 2 that, maximum of (2.02) respondents are of the opinion thatsocial networking sites give information about book reviews, information about new booksand provide research tips.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 157
  • 171. Table 3 View about Social Networking sites Here respondents were given five point scaling to provide their responses such as, D-Do not Know, B-Beginner, F-fair Knowledge, E-Expert, P-Proficient Variable D B F E P Marketing of library resources - 2(4.9) 39(95.1) - - and services It is found from Table 3 that maximum of 39(95.1%) of the respondents have fairknowledge in using social networking sites to market library services and resources.Conclusion This paper studied the use of social networking sites in marketing of library servicesand resources. Though the respondents have fair knowledge in using social networking sitesto market the library’s resources and services, in reality none of the university library is usingthe social networking sites for marketing of library resources and services. If the libraryprofessionals possess certain skills such as understanding and articulating the nature of socialnetworking sites and their potential roles related to library services, creating content andevaluating information and assist patrons to possess these skills.ReferenceAcquisti, Alessandro, and Gross, Ralph. (2006). Imagined Communities:Awarness,Information Awarness and privacy on the facebook. Proceedings of 6th Workshopon Privacy Enhancing Technologies. (pp. 36--58).Cambridge, U.K. Robinson College. June28-30.Boyd,Danah.M. Social Networking sites: Histroty, Definition and Scholarship. Retrievedfrom Post (2009).Your Library: what does social networking have to do with it? Presented atstaff development day on March 19, 2009.Murphy and Moulasion (2009).Social networking literacy competencies for librarians:Exploring consideration and engaging participation. ACRL Fourteenth NationalConference.march12-15, Seattle, Washington.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 158
  • 172. Application of RFID Technology in Libraries: an Overview Y.Ch.Venkateswar Abstract The base of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) was established in the 1940’s. Business organization has been exploring and implementing RFID to acquire, manage and provide security to their products. New technologies are of interest both for their potential of increasing the quality of service and for improving efficiency of operations. In the ear of globalization and liberalization and application of hi-technologies, the world has shrunk into a small frame, as it were. This paper gives brief idea about the RFID, its importance in the library system, how it works and describes different components of the RFID technology. It also briefs about tentative cost of implementing RFID system in a library and how it functions and describes the role of librarians. Finally, it concludes discusses the advantages and dis- advantages of RFID system in libraries. Keywords: RFID, Library, NCIP, Antenna, Tags, Library security systemIntroduction Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a method of remotely storing and retrievingdata using devices called RFID tags. An RFID tag is a small object, such as an adhesivesticker, that can be attached to or incorporated into a product. This technology is similar intheory to barcode identification. With RFID, the electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling inthe RF portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used to transmit signals. An RFID system consists of an antenna and a transceiver, which read the radiofrequency and transfer the information to a processing device, and a transponder, or tag,which is an integrated circuit containing the RF circuitry and information to be transmitted.RFID Application in Libraries RFID is the latest fast growing technology to be used in library for minimizing thetheft of documents and as an access control systems. RFID-based systems move beyondsecurity to become tracking systems that combine security with more efficient tracking ofmaterials throughout the library, including easier and faster charge and dis-charge,inventorying, and materials handling. RFID is a combination of Radio-Frequency-Based technology and micro chiptechnology. The information contained on inbuilt microchips in the tags affixed to librarymaterials is read using radio frequency technology regardless of item orientation arealignment and distance from the item. The tags can be read at a distance of up to two feet byeach of two parallel exit sensors. The devices used for circulation are usually called “readers”while the ones used at building exits are usually called ”sensors”, The technology used in RFID systems can replace both EM (Electro-Mechanical) orRF (Radio Frequency) and even the barcodes theft detection systems.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 159
  • 173. Components of an RFID system A Comprehensive RFID System has four components • RFID tags that are electronically programmed with unique information. • Readers or sensors to query the tags. • Antenna • Server on which the software that interfaces with the integrated library software is loaded Tags: The heart of the system is the RFID tag, which can be fixed inside a book’s backcover or directly on to CD’s and Videos. This tag is equipped with a programmable chip andan antenna. Each paper-thin tag contains and engraved antenna and a microchip with acapacity of at least 64 bits. There are three types of tags: “Read only”, “WORM”, and“Read/Write” (Boss 2003). “Tags are “read only” if the identification is encoded at the timeof manufacture and not rewritable. “WORM” (Write-Once-Read-Many) tags are programmedby the using the organization, but without the ability to rewrite them later. “Read/Write tags,”which are chosen by most libraries, can have information charged or added. In libraries thatuse RFID, it is common to have part of the read/write tag secured against rewriting, e.g. theidentification number of the item. Readers: RFID Readers or receivers are composed of a radio frequency module, a controlunit and an antenna to interrogate electronic tags via radio frequency (RF) communication(Sarma et al.2002). The Reader powers an antenna to generate an RF field. When a tag passesthrough the field, the information stored on the chip in the tag is interpreted by the reader andsent to the server, which, in turn, communicates with the integrated library system when theRFID system in interfaced with it (Boss 2004). Antenna: The Antenna produces radio signals to activate the tag and read and write datato it. Antennas are the channels between the tag and the reader, which controls the system’sdata acquisition and communication. The electromagnetic field produced by and antenna canbe constantly present when multiple tags are expected continually. Antenna’s can be built intoa doorframe to receive tag data from person’s things passing through the door. Server: The Server is the heart of some comprehensive RFID systems. It is thecommunications gateway among the various components (Boss 2004). It receives theinformation from one are more of the readers and exchanges information with the circulationdata base. Its software includes the SIP/SIP2 (Session Initiation Protocol), API’s(Applications Programming Interface) NCIP (National Circulation Interchange Protocol) orSLNP necessary to interface it with the integrated library software but no library vendor hasyet fully implemented NCIP approved by NISO (Koppel, 2004). The server typically includesa transaction database so that reports can be produced.Optional Components Optional RFID system includes the following three components (Bibliotheca 2003): • RFID label printer • Handheld Reader • External Book ReturnNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 160
  • 174. RFID Label Printer: An RFID printer is used to print the labels with an individual barcode,library logo, etc. when the print is applied; it simultaneously programs the data in to the chip.After this process, the RFID label is taken from the printer and applied the to the book.Handheld Reader/ Inventory wand: The portable handheld reader or inventory wand canbe moved along the items on the shelves without touching them. The data goes to a storageunit, which can be downloaded at a server later on, or it can go a unit, which will transmit it tothe server using wireless technology. The inventory wand will cover three requirements. • Screen the complete book collection on the shelves for inventory control • Search for book, which are miss helved.External Book Return: Libraries can offer a distinct service that is very useful for users,such as the ability to return books when the library is closed. An external book return is amachine with a slot with a chip RFID reader integrated into the wall. It works the same wayhas the self checkout station. The user identifies himself/herself (if required by the library),and then puts the book(s) in to the slot. Upon completing the return, the user will receive areceipt showing how many and which books were returned. Since they have already beenchecked in, they can go directly back onto the shelves. These units can also be used withsorter and conveyor systemsRFID Technology use in librariesLibrary use • RFID is used in library theft detection systems. Unlike EM (Electro Mechanical) and RF (Radio Frequency) systems, which have been used in libraries for decades, RFID based systems move beyond security to become tracking systems that combine security with more efficient tracking of materials throughout the library, including easier and faster charge and discharge, inventorying, and materials handling. • RFID is a combination of radio-frequency-based technology and microchip technology. The information contained on microchip in the tags affixed to library materials is read using radio frequency technology regardless of item orientation or alignment and distance from the item is not a critical factor except in the case of extra- wide exit gates. • The targets used in RFID systems can replace both EM or RF theft detection targets and barcodes.Features RFID tags replace both the EM security strips and barcode. • Simplifies patron self-checkout /check-in. • Ability to handle material without exception for video and audiotapes. • Radio Frequency anti-theft detection is innovative and safe. • High-speed inventory and identify items which are out of proper sequence. • Long term development guarantee when using open standardNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 161
  • 175. • Because identification and security tagging is achieved with one swipe, RFID provides a faster service for library staff and borrowers, saving time at queues.Cost of Implementing RFID system in LibrariesA small library of 40,000 items should plan on a minimum budget of rupees 16 lakhs for anRFID system. The shopping list would consists of 40,000 tags @ Rs.34/- = Rs. 13,60,000/- 1 programmer/converter rental (3 weeks) = Rs. 25,000/- 2 staff stations @ Rs.1,00,000 = Rs. 10,00,000/- 2 exit sensors @ Rs.1,60,000 = Rs. 3,20,000/- 1 wireless portable Scanner = Rs. 1,80,000/- 222 hours of labor @ Rs.300 = Rs. 6,66,000/- Carpentry and Electrical = Rs. 39,000/- • The labor cost assumes a conversation rate of three tags for minute • A library with 1,00,000 items interested in pattern self-charging and a book drop unit should plan on a minimum budget of Rs.65,00,000/- for an RFID system; and • A library with a collection of 2, 50,000 items interested in patron self-charging and a book drop unit should plan on a minimum budget of Rs.1.5 crores for an RFID system.RFID standards Local governmental bodies regulate the electromagnetic spectrum on which RFID isbased. Global standards “define the most efficient platform on which an industry can operateand advance”. The international organization for standardization (ISO) and EPC Global havebeen very active in developing RFID standards. There are two ISO standards pertinent tolibrary RFID systems. The current standard, ISO 15693, was not designed for the item-leveltracking done in libraries. Yet, most library RFID tags follow this standard. ISO 15693 wasdesigned for supply chain applications. It defines the physical characteristics, air interface,and communication protocol for RFID cards. In September 2004, a new standard designed foritem-level tagging allows for more secure communications between tag and reader.Protocols Two protocols are being used for automating inventory or circulation process in RFID:SIP protocol and NCIP protocol. • SIP Protocol: SIP is a proprietary interface of 3M, a library technology leader in the development and implementation of several important standards that allow disparate library system to interoperate. This small focused protocol is a designed for library self-check units use to talk to the circulation module of the integrated library management system. 3M has released the second version of SIP (SIP 2.0) which is compliant with all the major LIS vendors and self-check vendors.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 162
  • 176. • NCIP Protocol: NCIP, the NISO circulation interchange protocol is the NISO’s (National Information Standards Organization) standard superseding the SIP2 of 3M. The reason for consideration of NCIP standard was due to the absence of an agreed- upon standard for exchanging circulation data, interoperability among disparate applications and “vendor-neutral” replacement for the ad hoc and proprietary 3M SIP. The NCIP standard protocol is designed to address the growing need for interoperability between self-service applications and circulation and interlibrary loan applications, and between other related applications, has been the primary focus on the standard including access to electronic resources. NISO has developed this standard in two parts: Part 1: ANSI/NISO Z39.83-2002 circulation interchange Part 2: Protocol (NCIP) implementation ( More information about the standard can be found in the website for LibrariansWhile considering RFID implementation in a library, the librarian should be aware of thefollowing points at the time of system selection and implementation. • RFID tag should be the ISO 15693 and ISO 18000-3 compliant; it means libraries adopting the system are able to source their tags from any supplier of ISO compliant tags rather than being confined to the proprietary tag architecture. • Integrated library management system should be approved RFID protocol compliant. • RFID tag should be placed in the document in such a way that it is not visible to users, so that users cannot identify and tear it.Advantages of RFID systems Rapid charging/discharging • The use of RFID reduces the amount of time required to perform documents circulation operations. The most significant time saving are attributable to the facts that information can be read from RFID tags much faster than from barcodes and that several items in a stack can be read at the same time. While initially unrealizable, the anti-collision algorithm that allows an entire stack to be charged or discharged now appears to be working well. Simplified Patron Self-Charging/ Discharging • For patrons using self-charging, there is a marked improvement because they do not have to carefully place materials within la designated template and they can charge several items at the same time. • Patron self-discharging shifts that work from staff to patrons. Staff is relieved further when readers are installed in book-drops.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 163
  • 177. High Reliability • The readers are highly realizable. RFID library systems claim an almost 100% detection rate using RFID tags. • There are fewer false alarms with RFID than with older technologies. High speed Inventorying • A unique advantage of RFID system is their ability to scan books on the shelves without having to tip them out or remove them. A hand-held inventory reader an be moved rapidly across a shelf of books to read all of the unique identification information. Using wireless technology, it is possible not only to update the inventory, but also to identify items, which are out of proper sequence. Automated materials handling • Another application of RFID technology is automated materials handling. this includes conveyer and sorting systems that can move library materials and sort them by category into separate bins or on to separate carts. This significantly reduces staff time required to ready materials for re-shelving.Disadvantages of RFID systems High Cost • The major disadvantage of RFID technology is its cost. Libraries suffering from budget shortfalls as never before. The implementation cost of RFID can be high. Each circulated item must have its own tag. The tags cost anywhere from Rs.30 to 60 each. Plain tags used in books range from 50 cents to 70 cents. Customized tags containing the library logo are more expensive. The cost goes up when tags are placed on other media such as CD’s DVD’s and tapes. Vulnerability to compromise • It is possible to compromise an RFID system by wrapping the protected material in two to three layers of ordinary household foil to block the radio signal. Clearly, bringing household foil into a library using RFID would represent premeditated theft, just as bringing a magnet into a library using EM Technology would be. Removal of tags • The RFID tags are typically affixed to the inside back cover of the book and are exposed for removal. This is a rare case but that not mean that there won’t be problems when patrons become more familiar with the role of the tags. If a library wishes, lit can insert the RFID tags in the spines of all except of thin books, however, not all RFID tags are flexible enough. A library can also imprint the RFID tags with its logo and make them appear to be bookplates, or it can put a printed cover label over each tag.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 164
  • 178. Conclusion It is quite clear from the about discussion that an RFID system may be comprehensivesystem that addresses both the security and materials tracking needs of a library. RFID in thelibrary is not a threat if best practices guidelines followed religiously, that is speeds up bookborrowing and inventories and free staff to do more users service tasks. The technology savesmoney too and quickly gives a return on investment. It is important to educate library staffand library users about RFID technologies before implementing a program. RFID is atechnology that is booming in libraries due to increased productivity in library process and apossible increase in security of items for loan.ReferencesAyre, Lori Bowen, the Galecial Group (August 2004) position paper. RFID and Libraries.Retrieved from RFID Library systems AG (2003) RFID technologies overview. Retrievedfrom www.bibliotheca-rfid.comBoss. R.W. (2003) RFID technology for libraries (monograph) Library technology reports.November-December 2003. (Accessed on 1st July 2010) (Accessed on 5th July 2010)Sumi, suman: Kumar, Jatinder (2007) application of RFID technology in libraries. Paperpresented at 5th international CALIBER-2007 Punjab university, Chandigarhg, 08-10February 2007.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 165
  • 179. Knowledge Mobilisation through E-Learning / Virtual Learning M. Natarajan Abstract This article deals with the implications of information communication technology for e-learning / virtual learning environment. The definitions of e-learning with the basic structure the characteristics of that are discussed. The knowledge mobilization concept has been introduced. The mobilization of knowledge by utilizing the resources made available through e-learning for sustaining competitive advantage are given more emphasize with virtual learning environment (VLE). Library integration with VLEs and the factors affecting VLEs are discussed. The critical success factors for e- learning are outlined by giving the need for quality of delivering the e-content for higher education to carry out the research. The sustainability of e-learning initiative and the conditions required for it are considered in detail. The barriers to e-learning with the benefits are given at the end. Keywords: e-learning, virtual learning, knowledge mobilization, learning style, online instruction.Introduction The presence of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) withintertiary education has expanded exponentially and touched virtually all dimensions of thehigher education institution. Electronic databases house valuable records about students,faculty members, staff and management information, as well as course contents and researchmaterials. University websites play an important role in positioning the institution both at theglobal and local scales, providing a public image that can be accessed from anywhere in theworld, at any time, and serving as an informational platform for all members of thecommunity. ICT resources such as e-mail, instant messaging, online social networking spacesand discussion forums provide avenues and opportunities for academic collaboration, jointresearch, international visibility and personal and professional networking. A virtualenvironment gives students and staff opportunities for remote access to hardware andsoftware to be used in coursework development and delivery as well as scientific research.Continuously available wireless networks and remote-access library databases have alteredthe notions of time and space for work and study on campuses. Networked classrooms,equipped with a range of audio-visual equipment, have expanded the range of materials thatmay be introduced to students and the methods by which information and ideas can be shared.The open educational resources (OERs) concept suggested by UNESCO in 2002 wasfamously implemented by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States withits open courseware initiative. Since that time, development and use of Open CourseResources (OCR) has picked up significant momentum in higher education institutions aroundthe world, making notable achievements in terms of the number of courses offered online andin terms of the quality of these courses (d’Antoni 2008). OCRs provide free access to highquality courses, curricula and pedagogical approaches not yet available locally in most less-National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 166
  • 180. developed countries. Various combinations of online and virtual resources have laid animportant foundation for the expansion of the e-learning (EL) movement in the highereducation business (Laurillard 2002, Altbach et al. 2009). This article deals with thedefinitions of e-learning, its characteristics, knowledge mobilization by the EL and virtuallearning environment (VLE) for the benefit of students and educators.Defining the E-Learning Concept Liu and Wang (2009) stated that the development of e-learning definitions is afoundation for any e-learning system implementation and improvement. Research scholars inthe area of education have made great efforts to develop definitions for the term of EL fromdifferent perspectives. There are more than 20 terms that describe the employment of the newtechnologies in education, such as Internet-mediated teaching, technology-enhanced learning,web-based education, online education, computer-mediated communication, web-basedtraining, e-learning, virtual classrooms, virtual laboratory environments, e-campus,cyberspace learning environments, computer-driven interactive communication, open anddistance learning, distributed learning, blended courses, electronic course materials, hybridcourses, digital education, mobile learning and technology-enhanced learning (Figure 1)(Altbach et al. 2009). Figure 1. Basic structure of e-learning and its types. WBT =Web Based Training; CBT = Computer Based Training. The definition of e-learning is that “E-learning is the acquisition and use of knowledgedistributed and facilitated primarily by electronic means. This form of learning currentlydepends on networked computers but will likely evolve into systems consisting of a variety ofchannels (e.g. wireless, satellite) and technologies (e.g. cellular phones, PDAs) as they aredeveloped and adopted (Wentling et al. 2000)”. Senge (2000) defined EL as ‘the use ofInternet technologies to deliver a broad array of solutions that enhance knowledge andperformance’. Twigg (2002) described the EL approach as learner-centered and its design asentailing a system that is interactive, self-paced, repetitious and customizable. Huffaker andNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 167
  • 181. Calvert (2003) proposed that EL can be understood as the use of network technologies thatfoster an anytime-anywhere transfer of information. Welsh et al. (2003) defined EL as ‘theuse of computer network technology, primarily over or through the Internet, to deliverinformation and instruction to individuals’. A common structure of all EL forms is based onfour major components, as shown in Figure 1. These are: • the learner or the student; • the content; • the instructor; • the technology.E-Learning Characteristics Gu and Jiang (2004) described EL as a study activity carried by the Internet or otherdigitized means. It fully utilizes modern information technology establishing the digitisationallearning environment with brand new communication mechanisms to collect knowledge,probe into knowledge, discover knowledge and create knowledge by consulting andcooperative study. Liu and Wang (2009) conducted an extensive review of EL from Western(US) and Eastern (China) perspectives and summarized the characteristics of the EL approachby the following elements (in Figure 2): • E-learning is a learning activity mainly based on the Internet. • Information spreads in the form of network courses. • Worldwide distribution and sharing of learning resources. • A virtual study environment is created. • E-learning is one method of studying. • There is flexibility of study (anytime, anywhere). The true power of EL is likely to be found in its potential to provide the rightinformation to the right people at the right time and place. The adoption of EL not onlyrequires the integration of pedagogic or technologic approaches into their strategies, but alsothe provision of services that will facilitate their integration. Figure 2. Characteristics of e-learningNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 168
  • 182. Knowledge Mobilisation (KM) The concept of knowledge mobilization (KM) refers to the multiple ways in whichstronger connections can be made between research, policy and practice. KM is a growingfield of interest not only in education but in all areas of social policy (Cooper, Levin, andCampbell 2009). All over the world governments, universities, school systems and variousother parties are looking at new ways to find, share, understand and apply the knowledgeemerging from research, leading to increasing conceptual and empirical work to understandhow this can be done. Km as a field of research is growing, not only in education but in otherfields as well. Researchers working on these issues are increasingly connected, both withinand across home disciplines. New journals have been created, new degree programs are beingoffered by universities around the world, many conferences are held all around themes ofresearch–practice connections, and the literature in terms of articles and books has increaseddramatically. KM is also an area that offers fruitful interdisciplinary connections. Many of theissues are very similar whether one is studying education, health care, social policy or evenscience policy. There is room for much useful collaboration among researchers in thesevarious fields, though at present such collaboration remains relatively uncommon anddisciplinary boundaries continue to be primary.E-Learning and Knowledge Mobilization Knowledge mobilization and research utilization are processes that attempt to narrowthe gap between knowledge or research evidence and practice. This is about acquiring,sharing and applying valuable new knowledge in practice. EL systems play an important rolein the mobilization process and can be considered as boundary objects that either aid or hindertranslation of knowledge into practice (Alavi & Tiwana, 2003). Knowledge resources need tobe effectively mobilized for organizations to sustain competitive advantage (Joshi, Sarker, &Sarker, S., 2007). EL systems which include both synchronous and asynchronous technologyhave played an important role in knowledge mobilization (Dede, 1999). Knowledgemobilization refers to the extent to which a person who needs knowledge for a specific taskcan be effectively matched with others who possess that knowledge (Gosain, 2007). Some ofthe important perspectives on knowledge mobilization are:• Firstly, the activity of knowledge transfer is central to the knowledge mobilization efforts of an organization. Transfer can occur through formal or informal processes. Formalized knowledge sharing (KS) views knowledge as an artifact or commodity that can be structured and transferred using deliberate processes (Röpke, 2006). In contrast, informal KS occurs through personal linkages held in communities of practice. Here knowledge is tacit, socially constructed and held collectively.• Secondly, the conception of knowledge mobilization regards knowledge in terms of situational needs (Keen & Tan, 2007). It focuses on how to get the right information to the right person in the right format at the right time in order to support decision making (Delgado, Pérez-Pérez, & Requena, 2005). To utilize knowledge effectively, it must be dependent on the users’ context. Based on these perspectives, it is learnt that EL systems support knowledge mobilization as they enable effective knowledge transfer processes and allow learners to actively construct their knowledge through social interactions rather than passively assimilate information (Dede, 1999).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 169
  • 183. Virtual Learning Virtual learning (VL) is defined as the delivery of learning through electronicmediation which bridges the gap caused when the instructor and student are separated ineither time or place (Leonard, 1996). The range of electronic mediation includes voice, video,data, and print through such formats as radio, television, Web-based programming, andstreaming audio and video, as well as a variety of recording technologies. These technologiespurport to permit delivery of learning which is “new, better, cheaper, and faster” (Bardach,1997; Taylor, 2002) than traditional classroom methods.Virtual Learning Environment A virtual learning environment (VLE) integrates a variety of tools supporting multiplefunctions: information, communication, collaboration, learning and management. The veryidea of environment includes this notion of integration. This is also called learning platformthat organizes and provides access to online learning services for the students, teachers andadministrators. These services include access control, provision of learning content, e-learningtools and administration of user groups. In VLE, the learner • is at a far off place from the tutor or teacher or instructor; • uses some form of technology (obviously internet connected computer) to • access the learning resource materials which are web-based; • also interacts with the teacher/tutor or instructor and other learners; • is provided with some form of support to meet his/her needs. Academic universities have adopted virtual technologies through a variety of formats,including on-line courses and programs, asynchronous learning, virtual supplements to coursecontent, and executive and non-degree programs. Moore (1997) argues that, for survival,academic universities must provide greater availability of asynchronous education,specialized courses, lifetime-based and interdisciplinary learning, and testing fordemonstrated competencies in degree programs. Many universities have made progress inthese directions. Bargeron et al. (2002) described a multi-media program to provideasynchronous “on-demand” education, which is one of several Web-based programs designedto integrate classes or, more broadly, a learning community. VLEs have well-developedresource management features, making them an attractive way of distributing coursedocuments and enabling students to refer to them later. They are potentially a very effectiveway of managing access to subject-specific information resources, including licensed materialsuch as e-journals and digitized course readings or “electronic reserves” (Black, 2008; Duttonet al., 2004). However, some commentators view the VLE as a threat to the library, because itallows electronic materials to be uploaded by academic staff and students, overlapping withthe role of the academic subject librarian (SL) as a central information manager.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 170
  • 184. Library integration with VLEs - Common examples of library integration with VLEsinclude: • the provision of links to the library home page and other web-based resources (e.g. catalogues, databases, past examination papers, reading lists, guides, help sheets, online reference services); • the administration of digitized journal articles and book chapters as course-specific readings or “e-reserves”; • the delivery of online instruction, through information literacy courses, tutorials, videos, worksheets and quizzes, often customized to particular subject fields; and • the use of facilities within VLEs (e.g. announcements, e-mail and discussion tools) to communicate directly with students.Factors affecting VLE use Some of the studies identified the VLE as the main way for academic institutions toreach students with e-learning materials. Bonthron et al. (2003) identified the VLE as therelevant route for accessing learning materials, but others such as Pinfield (2001a) promotelibrary web sites as a “channel” for online delivery. SCONUL (2004) also identified time as asignificant limitation and suggested the outsourcing of VLE developments as a potentialsolution. However, Stubley (2002) argues that one of the factors driving the delivery ofinformation skills tutorials via VLEs has been limited time in academic schedules for subjectlibrarians to have contact with students for face-to-face information skills instruction, i.e. timeconstraints have had a positive impact on VLE use.Critical success factors (CSF) for e-learning CSF means ‘those things that must be done if an organization is to be successful’. Inthe higher education institutions, CSFs constitute a set of parameters that should be ensuredand guaranteed by the institution in order to be successfully implemented in the EL approachin its educational process. Gasco et al. (2004) proposed CSFs of EL from a training policyperspective. These CSFs include: (1) flexibility in time management for training; (2) activeparticipation of trainers; (3) the establishment of control mechanisms that ensure trainingoccurs; (4) the creation of quality content; (5) the promotion of interactive elements amongtrainers and with each other; (6) the use of standardised and developed technologies; (7)gradual implementation. Selim (2005) identified eight categories for EL CSFs as follows: (1)the instructor’s attitude towards the technology; (2) the instructor’s teaching style; (3)learners’ motivation and technical competency; (4) learners’ interactive collaboration; (5) e-learning course content and structure; (6) ease of on-campus Internet access; (7) electivenessof the information technology infrastructure; (8) organisational support of EL activities. Morerecently, Zhang and Bhattacharyya (2007) identified six CSFs of EL as: (1) the instructor’sattitude towards EL; (2) participation of key personnel in the institution; (3) concrete aim ofEL; (4) computer and Internet environment; (5) management platform of the system; (6)professional technological staff.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 171
  • 185. Quality and E-Learning The notion of quality in the delivery of education is generally contextualised withinthree possible definitions: quality as value for money, quality as fit for purpose of theinstitution or quality as transforming. Biggs (2001) argues that the quality agenda thatconfronts many in higher education today involves mainly quality assurance processes basedon public accountability. For example: • accountability to a funding body, for example, the Government; • a desire to improve outcomes; • the prospect of new opportunities; • being able to sustain programmes and activities; and • an ability to demonstrate achievement against stated goals. For EL, technology necessarily underpins the administrative functions of most universitiesand higher education institutions and, for many, the lines between the administration, and theconduct, of teaching can be blurred. EL takes many forms, and common instantiations in e-learning delivery and approaches include: • flexible learning, technology supports for learning any time, anywhere; • blended learning, varying mixes of technology with conventional learning usually • in conventional settings; and • online learning, where technology provides the means for the implementation and • delivery of learning programmes totally distinct from face-to-face teaching (Fresen, 2005). Within this diverse and broad range of activities, there is a heightened level of interestin being able to monitor and review performance and to demonstrate successful outcomes formaintaining quality. Once parameters have been set for excellence and best practice, thevariations that exist among EL examples that come from a blended learning or flexibledelivery form can still be adequately accommodated. There are usually two main ways bywhich the quality of a process or activity can be assessed, through benchmarking or by thespecification of standards. The effectiveness of a student’s EL experience depends not only onlearning design and learning resources, but also on the manner in which it is delivered andsupported. Learning supports describe the measures and means by which learners interactwith systems, peers, mentors and teachers in the learning process.SustainabilityAn EL initiative is considered sustainable when all the following three conditions are met: • A learning design involving information and communications technology has been developed and implemented within a course or courses of study. It has been through a proof-of-concept stage and has been judged, on the basis of evidence produced, to be beneficial to teaching and learning. • The e-learning concept, design, system or resources have proven potential to be adopted, and possibly adapted, for use beyond the original development environment.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 172
  • 186. • Maintenance, use and further development of the EL concept, design, system or resources do not remain dependent on one or a few individuals who created them, to the extent that, if their involvement ceased, future prospects would not be compromised. (Gunn, 2010).Barriers to E-Learning There are certain barriers to online teaching and EL, which hamper the effortsundertaken by the higher education institutions. Muilenburg and Berge (2001) found throughtheir survey on academic staff, students and learners, that EL barriers are heterogeneous andof a multi-dimensional nature. They can be categorised under seven major types of barriers,namely: (1) personal or dispositional; (2) learning style; (3) instructional; (4) situational; (5)organisational; (6) content suitability; (7) technological barriers. Situational andorganisational barriers such as a lack of an official EL strategy and lack of technologyinfrastructure are the most prevalent while personal barriers can be the least common. Fourkey factors emerged as significant predictors of EL barriers, namely: (1) organisation; (2)selfefficacy; (3) computer competence; (4) computer training. Other factors such as age,gender, ethnicity, marital status, level of education, prior experiences with computers and EL,computer ownership, location of study and job position can be considered as significantpredictors and influential variables on e-learning barriers.Benefits The benefits of using EL in higher education institutions for both students andeducators are as follows: • Wide availability and accessibility. • Convenience • Improved retention. • Instant feedback. • Accommodation of different learning styles and multimedia formats. • Hands-on training. • Collaboration. • Standardised course delivery. • Information resource. • Learner control and ownership. • Lower costs. • International visibility.Conclusion Higher education establishments are undergoing rapid change and the impact of EL onthe teaching and learning process is uneven and highly differentiated. The establishment of aclear vision with a long-term global strategy is essential, along with the promotion of moreinterest and cooperation at the departmental level. There is also a universal need for moreNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 173
  • 187. internal communication, collaboration and exchange with each other within the university,organising their own resources and experimenting internally. There is evidence to suggest thatthe management of knowledge within a large traditional institution requires a model thatfosters horizontal communication and disseminates information throughout its complex andheterogeneous structure, rather than a more hierarchical structure that limits networkingpossibilities. The focus of much EL activity is mostly on the development of courses and theirresources. E-learning systems enable the creation, distribution and future application ofvaluable knowledge via a variety of online delivery mechanisms (Wild, Griggs, & Downing,2002). Their research showed that individuals have different abilities in their use ofinformation technology and it is recognition of these very differences that leads to optimalvirtual learning in organisations. But successful EL takes place within a complex systeminvolving also the student’s experience and culture of learning, teacher professionaldevelopment, and the specific needs of each discipline. Virtualisation of content and course design is not isolated with respect to the otherareas of EL; it is mainly connected to the new roles of university libraries and the IPR issueswith a clear link to teacher training and student support. All these concerns are integral to theeffective design and use of LMS-supported learning in traditional universities. (Barajas andGannaway). E-learning is an activity that has many costs and makes many demands. It will beimportant to be able to satisfy stakeholders that the activity is providing the maximumpossible return on investment and that further investment is warranted. To do this, there is aneed to discover and document best practice models that institutions can use to grow theircapabilities and performances, and also that benchmarks against quality can be demonstrated.ReferencesAlavi, M., & Tiwana, A. Knowledge Management: The Information Technology Dimension.In Easterby-Smith, & M. A. Lyles (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Learning andKnowledge Management (pp. 104–121). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003.Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L. and Rumbley, L.E. Trends in global higher education: Tracking anacademic resolution. UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education, 6–8, July,Paris, France, 2009d’Antoni, S. Open educational resources: the way forward. Paris: UNESCO, InternationalInstitute for Educational Planning, 2008.Bargeron, D and others. “Asynchronous collaboration around multimedia applied to on-demand education”, Journal of Management Information Systems, 18 (4), 117-45, 2002.Black, E.L. “Toolkit approach to integrating library resources into the learning managementsystem”, Journal of Academic Librarianship, 34 (6), 496-501, 2008.Bonthron, K and others. “Trends in use of electronic journals in higher education in the UK:views of academic staff and students”, D-Lib Magazine, 9 (6), available, 2003.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 174
  • 188. Cooper, A., B. Levin, and C. Campbell. The growing (but still limited) importance ofevidence in education policy and practice. Journal of Educational Change 10, no. 2/3: 159–71, 2009.Dutton, W.H., Cheong, P.H. and Park, N. “The social shaping of a virtual learningenvironment: the case of a university-wide course management system”, Electronic Journalof e-Learning, 2 (1), 69-80, 2004.Fresen, J. Quality assurance practice in online (web-supported) learning in higher education:an exploratory study, unpublished doctoral thesis. Available online at:, 2005.Gu, H. and Jiang, Z. Function of e-learning in promoting the learning ability of enterprise.Economic Tribune, 3, 61–62, 2004.Gunn, Cathy. Sustainability factors for e-learning initiatives. ALT-J, Research in LearningTechnology 18(2), 89-103, 2010.Joshi, K. D., Sarker, S., & Sarker, S. Knowledge transfer within information systemsdevelopment teams: Examining the role of knowledge source attributes. Decision SupportSystems, 43(2), 322–335, 2007.Laurillard, P. Rethinking university teaching, a conversational framework for the effective useof learning technologies. London: Routledge Falmer, 2002.Liu, Y. and Wang, H. A comparative study on e-learning technologies and products: from theEast to the West. System Research, 26, 191–209, 2009.Moore, T.E. “The corporate university: transforming management education”, AccountingHorizons, 11 (1), 77-85, 1997.Röpke, J. Knowledge Mobilization and Academic Entrepreneurship. Journal ofEntrepreneurship Research, 1(1), 33–61, 2006.SCONUL, Information Support for eLearning: Principles and Practice, rev. ed., Society ofCollege, National and University Libraries, London, available /pubs/info_support_elearning.pdf, 2004.Selim, H.M. Critical success factors for e-learning acceptance: confirmatory factor models.Computers&Education+, 9 (2), 396–413, 2005.Twigg, C. Quality, cost and access: the case for redesign. In: M.S. Pittinsky, ed. The wiredtower. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 111–143, 2002.Welsh, E.T., et al. E-learning: emerging uses, empirical results and future directions.International Journal of Training and Development, 200 (7), 245–258, 2003.Wild, R. H., Griggs, K. A., & Downing, T. A framework for e-learning as a tool forknowledge management. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 102(7), 371–380, 2002.Zhang,Y. and Bhattacharyya, S. Effectiveness of Q-learning as a tool for calibrating agent-based supply network models. Enterprise Information Systems, 1 (2), 217–233, 2007.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 175
  • 189. Intellectual Property Rights in the Digital Environment K.Vijayakumar and T.Prabakaran Abstract The scope of intellectual property is growing tremendously and attempts are being made by person who creates new creative ideas to seek protection under the umbrella of Intellectual Property Rights. Intellectual property is a group of exclusive legal rights over creations of mind, like musical work, discoveries, etc. The aim of this article is to examine the Intellectual Property Rights regime in the context of the digital riot. Keywords: IPR, Copyright, Patent, Trademark, Geographical Indication, Industrial Design, Information Technology ActIntroduction Intellectual property laws confer a bundle of exclusive rights in relation to theparticular form or manner in which ideas or information are expressed or manifested. Theterm "intellectual property" denotes the specific legal rights which authors, inventors andother IP holders may hold and exercise, and not the intellectual work itself. It is a generic termcovering patents, registered design, trademark, and copyright, layout of integrated circuits,information technology; geographical indicators and anti-competitive practices in contractuallicenses.Definition According Oppenheim define as “comprises all those things that come from thehuman intellectual, whether they are idea s inventions words , music theatre or art and wouldinclude books ,materials on the internet, individual items in a database, computer softwareand even innovating pieces of hardware that are subject to patent coverage”. PadmaV.Upadhyaya has defined “IPR as the creation of human mind. A human being’s potentialeffort to intellectual outcomes, which in turn have considerable value in economy. Rightsassociated with intellectual property which gives legal protection is referred to as intellectualproperty rights or (IPR).Advantages of Intellectual Property Rights Intellectual property rights help in providing exclusive rights to creator or inventorthereby induces them to distribute and share information and data instead of keeping itconfidential. It provides legal protection and offers them incentive of their work. Rightsgranted under the intellectual property act helps in socio and economic development.IPR and copyright issues These are related to marketplace issues, quality information whether it to be textstatics or multimedia, cost time, effort and money to create. Producers seek it recoup theirinvestment. Yet, it is difficult to enforce appropriate copyright protection with electronicdocuments.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 176
  • 190. Types of Intellectual Property Rights • Patent 1970 • Copyright 1957 • Trademark 1958 • Geographical Indication 1999 • Industrial Design Rights 2000 • Information Technology Act-2000Patent 1970 A patent is termed as the exclusionary rights given by the government or theauthorized authority to its inventor for a particular duration of time, in respect of hisinvention. It is the part of the intellectual property right. Patents are rights related to newinventions. This right is conferred on persons who invent any new machine, process, article ofmanufacture or composition of matter, biological discoveries, etc.Copyright Act, 1957 The Indian copyright act facilitates the owner for reproducing or reusing theircopyrighted items, to prepare its derivate, to public their work and to distribute copies of theircreative items. Copyright aims to protect the work of creator, transformed in a tangible formof expression. It includes art work, plays, movies, shows, various types of music, sound andsongs, books, manuscripts, written work and all types of images, photos, pictures, drawings,and graphics.Trademark Act 1958 The trademark or trade mark, symbolized as the â„¢ and ®, is the distinctive sign orindication which is used for signifying some kind of goods or/and services and is distinctivelyused across the business A Trademark is a word, or symbol, or phrase, or design, or anycombination of these, which identifies and distinguishes the source or origin of a product orservice. Other forms of identifying features which have come to be recognized as trademarksinclude particular color combinations, smells and sounds (for example, an advertisementjingle), textures, packaging, shapes, etc.Geographical Indication Act 1999 Geographical Indication (GI) signifies to the name or sign, used in reference to theproducts which are corresponding to the particular geographical area. Thus GI grants therights to its holder which acts as the certification mark. The Trade Related Aspects ofIntellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement has defined the geographical indicationsrights as the exclusionary rights for the indicator which identify the goods originated withinthe member nations territories, or area or region of that territory, where the reputation orother attributes of the goods is essentially related to the geographic origin of the place.Geographical indications are the part of the intellectual property law.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 177
  • 191. Industrial Design Rights 2000 A Design refers to the features of shape, configuration, pattern, ornamentation orcomposition of lines or colours applied to any article, in two or three dimensional forms. Itmay be applied by any industrial process separately or by a combined process, which in thefinished article appeals to and is judged solely by the eye.Information Technology Act-2000 The Parliament of India has passed the Information Technology Act-2000 whichprovides the legal infrastructure for e-commerce in India. This act has received the assentfrom the President of India and has become the law of the land in India. It is the first CyberLaw of the country.IPR in the digital environmentDigital Copyrights Intellectual Property in our legal system, which is belongs to the Continental System,is addressed by two, distinctive and absolute rights. Directive 2001/29/EC of the EuropeanParliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonization of certain aspects ofcopyright and related rights in the information society has introduced the so called “DigitalRights” in Copyright, namely the right for reproduction of copyrighted material, the right fordistribution of copyrighted works, the right for communication of the work to the public inaddition to the other known economic rights of copyright with which the creator and/or right-holder is empowered to permit or forbid the use of his/her work. They are also cause offriction between DL and Collecting Societies More specifically.Digital Environment Internet has simultaneously increased the promise of information and communicationtechnologies. By dramatically reducing the cost of limitation and diffusion of illegal copies, ithas tremendously increased stakes of intellectual property for entertainment and softwarecompanies as well as for various information providers such as database producers. The mainarea of concern has been copyright with an extension of copyright to software in a largenumber of countries and the rapidly evolving issue of implementation as new technologiesenable better monitoring of diffusion on the web.IPR in the Digital Era IPR issues in the IT sector have assumed significance following rapid emergence ofdigital era.. Recent advances in technology have produced radical shifts in the ability toreproduce, distribute, control and publish information. WWW has allowed everyone to be apublisher with worldwide reach. At this crucial scenario, in order to protect the right ofauthors, developers and to provide privacy and liberty to user, it becomes essential tointroduce laws against computer crime and help to build IT infrastructure. In view of thesefacts, various laws, Electronic-fund transfer, Electronic cash digital intellectual propertyrights, etc. have been enact14. The initiatives taken by the Government of India, Private andNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 178
  • 192. NGOs to create awareness about IPR are creating a climate to face the challenges of the newIPR regime.Converting Analog to Digital Troublesome to many copyright owners was the prospect that their analog materialswould be converted to digital formats, and hence made susceptible to easy downloading anddissemination. The TEAC Act takes a cautious approach and allows conversions only in quantitiesallowed for performance and display in the course, and only if a digital version of the work isnot available to the institutions.Digital preservation Digital preservation aims to ensure that digital media and information systems are stillinterpretable into the indefinite future. Each necessary component of the must be migrated,preserved or emulated. Typically lower levels of systems (floppy disks for example) areemulated, bit-streams (the actual files stored in the disks) are preserved and operating systemsare emulated as a virtual machine. Only where the meaning and content of digital media andinformation systems are well understood is migration possible, as is the case for officedocuments.WIPO The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) was founded by a 1967convention, though its roots date back to the Berne Convention of 1886. It currently has 182member States; 65 intergovernmental organizations and 107 non-governmental organizationsfrom the private sector and civil society are admitted as observers. WIPO currently administers 23 international treaties on the protection of intellectualproperty, and promotes and manages work on further treaties. It also offers dispute resolutionservices for both offline and online disputes.WIPO NET The world intellectual property right origination network .It is worldwide network.This network will help in the process of generation, valuation and protection of intellectualproperty global information network. Communication between WIPO and IP community. Itwill interconnect 332 IP offices in 171 countries.WIPO NET Service E- mail, list service, web hosting , file transfer services , virus scanning and theprovision of updated signatures and use of administration. It also properly digital libraries(IPDL) and online filing under the parent cooperation treaty. A website is established oninternet, which provides all information on WIPO website address is Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 179
  • 193. Copyright and the Internet As the Internet has became more prevalent, the need for copyright protection there hasalso become a necessity. Today, copyright law has been adapted to protect Internet items, justas it has been adapted through the years to protect various other new mediums. It protectsoriginal work or work that is fixed in a tangible medium, meaning it is written, typed, orrecorded.Digital watermarking Digital watermarking is one of the devices is used to protect content and has beenwidely adopted by the cultural sector for adding in additional layer of protection, particularlyfor images. Digital watermarking can also been packaged with other types of encryptiondevices according to the sophistication of software provided.Fingerprinting Fingerprinting is another method using digital encryption technology where by serialnumber are set of characteristic that tend to distinguish an object from other similar object arehidden within the digital content. Digital watermarking, the reuse of content can then betracked over the internet and logs can be kept about the identify in fingersChanging role of Libraries and Librarian The librarian has to assume greater responsibility in this information age. They have toconcentrate on the managerial role, marketing their libraries and information products andactors negotiator to transfer the information as for as the technology to their clients. The otherskills included inter personal skills, planning skill and IT skills. ‘Dougherty Hughes ‘1991have rightly identified that, “libraries and library services are no longer individual universityproblems and that, a collective approach is now absolutely essential”. The environment of the libraries becoming more IT oriented as it is a dynamicresources for global sharing as the cost of information is minimum and sources does notexhausted even with unlimited use.Conclusion IPR is a knowledge based economy .Adequate and effective protection of industrialproperty rights is essential for ensuring the technological, industrial and commercialdevelopment of a country. The establishment of a rigorous industrial property system is apowerful tool for economic growth. Librarians play an important role in protecting the rightsof copyright holders, patents holders, and trademarks. Librarians should continue to work ascatalyst for the free flow of information between the owners of copyright and the users of theinformation. In the digital environment, the librarians have the same responsibility to collectinformation and help the readers by giving it even if the form is electronic information.Librarians should keep themselves aware with the latest changes in the intellectual proprietyrights then only the society will protect from contravention and cyber crimes.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 180
  • 194. ReferencesCain, M., “Managing Technology: Being a Library of Record in a Digital Age”, Journal ofAcademic Librarianship 29:6, 2003.Crews, K.D., Copyright law for librarians and educators, Indiana publishing, New Delhi. 2009Marshall, B., “Preserving Digital Information.”. Information Today. 2002Oppenheim, C., Copyright in electronic age world information report, UNESCO. 1997.Satarkar, S.P., Intellectual property rights and copyright, ESS ESS publication, New Delhi.2003.Sochi , M.S., Use of MIS technology in library science , Adhyayan publication , Delhi. 2006.Srivastava P.L., Copyright in academic libraries in digital environment, ESS ESS publication,New Delhi. 2008.Teper, T. H., "Where Next? Long-Term Considerations for Digital Initiatives." KentuckyLibraries 65(212-18. 2001.Upadhyaya., Intellectual property rights in the digital age NACLIN 25 IIT Chennai. Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 181
  • 195. Role of Intellectual Property Right in the age of Digital Environment Prashant Kumar and Anvita Srivastava Abstract The advent and spread of Internet technologies pose new challenges in front of custodian of Information in maintaining a balance between the free flow of information over the Internet while still protecting intellectual property rights. The application of the fair use doctrine is one way courts endeavor to strike a proper balance. Digital library environment makes the copyright protection a difficult task. It is easy to create digital or digitised copies of material including text, photographs, music and video. In comparison to printed information, electronic information is not so permanent: it is highly vulnerable to manipulation, deletions, revision and modifications without leaving any resemblance to the original its ownership is non- ascertainable and at times can be questionable. Although efforts have been made to prevent fraudulent acts in digital library environment, infringements are becoming quite common due to difficulty in their detection. To control these issues Digital Right Management came in to the force. DRM restrict the unauthorized access of digital content bring out by publishers or creator of the document. Keywords: IPR, Digital environment, Internet, e-books, Digital Rights ManagementIntroduction Digital libraries came into existence because of large network of World Wide Web.Creating, publishing and distributing information have become many times easier and fasteras compared to the past decade. But it can also bring those together who take advantage of theproperties of digital information to copy, distribute, and use information illegally. Theexistence of virtual library has increased the violation of copyright and data security hazards,there are many obstacles and problems hindering digital resources in libraries. Existingcopyright laws have not caught up with the technological developments in cyberspace. Manytimes, there is no clarity as whether the content of electronic resources is free one or priced.Intellectual Property Right Before going for the Intellectual Property Right people must understand what isIntellectual Property. The term intellectual property generally refers to the creation of thehuman intelligence. Intellectual property rights protect the interests of creators by giving themproperty rights over their creations. It is generally understood that IP includes rights relatingto the following: • Literary, artistic and scientific works • Performances of performing artists, phonograms, and broadcasts • Inventions in all fields of human endeavor • Scientific discoveries • Industrial designs • Marks and commercial names and designations • Protection against unfair competition • All other rights resulting from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary, and artistic fieldsNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 182
  • 196. It is a generic term covering patents, trademark, copyright, industrial property, registereddesign, trade secrets, layout of integrated circuits, geographical indicators and anti-competitive practices in contractual licenses The first step regarding the protection ofintellectual property was first recognized in the Paris Convention for the Protection ofIndustrial Property in 1883 and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary andArtistic Works in 1886. Both treaties are administered by the World Intellectual PropertyOrganization (WIPO). Nations generally have laws to protect intellectual property hasfollowing main reasons. • Give statutory expression to the moral and economic rights of creators in their creations • To promote creativity and the dissemination and application of its results, and • To encourage fair trade, which would contribute to economic and social developmentPatent A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to an inventor or their assigneefor a limited period of time in exchange for a public disclosure of an invention. The procedurefor granting patents, the requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusiverights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements.Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims defining theinvention which must be new, non-obvious, and useful or industrially applicable. In manycountries, certain subject areas are excluded from patents, such as business methods,treatment of the human body and mental acts.Trademark A trademark is a word, symbol, phrase or design, or a combination thereof, thatidentifies and distinguishes the source of the products or services from those of other entities.The term trademark is also used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which anindividual is readily identified. When a trademark is used in relation to services rather thanproducts, it may sometimes be called a service mark. There is also a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories,such as those based on color, smell, or sound.Copyright Copyright refers to the legal protection of original works of authorship. Workscovered by copyright include, but are not limited to: novels, poems, plays, reference works,newspapers, computer programs, databases, films, musical compositions, choreography,paintings, drawings, photographs, sculpture, architecture, advertisements, maps, and technicaldrawings. Copyright does not cover the ideas expressed in such works. But it covers the wayideas are expressed. Copyright protections are automatically provided to the author of bothpublished and unpublished works at the moment they are affixed in a tangible medium. Thecopyright holder has the exclusive right to the following with his/her work: • To reproduce the work • To prepare derivative works • To sell, lend, distribute copies or transfer ownershipNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 183
  • 197. • To perform the work publicly • To display the copyrighted work publiclyIndustrial Property Industrial property shall be understood in the broadest sense and shall apply not onlyto industry and commerce proper, but likewise to agricultural and extractive industries and toall manufactured or natural products, for example, wines, grain, tobacco leaf, fruit, cattle,minerals, mineral waters, beer, flowers, and flour.” Industrial property include patents toprotect inventions; and industrial designs, which are aesthetic creations determining theappearance of industrial products. Industrial property also covers trademarks, service marks,layout-designs of integrated circuits, commercial names and designations, as well asgeographical indications, and protection against unfair competition. In some of these, theaspect of intellectual creation, although existent, is less clearly defined. What counts here isthat the object of industrial property typically consists of signs transmitting information, inparticular to consumers, as regards products and services offered on the market. Protection isdirected against unauthorized use of such signs likely to mislead consumers, and againstmisleading practices in general.Registered Design Design is all about the way an object looks: its shape, its visual appeal. Designs lookafter the physical appearance and visual appeal of products - from the shape of glass mug tothe body of a motor-cycle. It is a legal right which protects the overall visual appearance of aproduct or a part of a product in the country or countries you register it. For the purposes ofregistration, a design is legally defined as being "the appearance of the whole or part of aproduct resulting from the features of, in particular, the lines, colours, shape, texture ormaterials of the product or ornamentation." This means that protection is given to the way aproduct looks. The appearance of your product may result from a combination of elementssuch as shapes, colours and materials.Trade secrets To protect a trade secrets user can’t go through an application process. A trade secretrequires user to actively keep the information secret. User should consider keeping somethingas a trade secret if: • it is not appropriate for intellectual property (IP) protection • if the user want to keep it secret or • user want protection to extend beyond the term of a patent If it would be difficult to copy the process, construction or formulation from yourproduct itself, a trade secret may give you the protection you need. However, a trade secretdoes not stop anyone from inventing the same process or product independently, and can bedifficult to keep. Theoretically trade secret protection could last forever if the secret iscarefully maintained. For example, user inventions and processes that do not meetpatentability criteria can be protected under trade secret law. The advantage of a trade secretis that as long as the secret is properly maintained, the secret cannot be used by businesscompetitors. One of the most famous examples is the Coca Cola formula that has now beenkept secret for more than 100 years.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 184
  • 198. IPR in Digital Environment Each and every country has accomplished laws to protect intellectual property right ofits creator or owner; instead of this many infringements take place and end up in legalInstitution. The vital implementation of information and communication technologies madethe situation much intimidating. To cope up with current situation different countries madethe different laws to protect intellectual property of the owner. USA is the first country amongothers who take the initiative and implement the Digital Millennium Copyright Act in 1998,followed by the Australia and India named as Digital Agenda Act and InformationTechnology Act in 2000 respectively. Another laws implemented by the Indian Governmentfor the easy access of information and promote transparency in Public authorities are Freedomof Information Act 2002 and Right to Information Act 20005.Digital Rights Management Digital rights management is a term used to restrict the unauthorised access of digitalcontent bring out by publishers, copyright holders and individual. It poses one of the greatestchallenges for content communities in this digital age. Traditional rights management ofphysical materials benefited from the materials physicality as this provided some barrier tounauthorized exploitation of content. Digital rights management is a systematic approach of copyright protection for digitalmedia. The main purpose of digital rights management is to prevent unlawful redistribution ofdigital media and restrict the ways users can copy content theyve purchased. DRM productswere developed in response to the rapid increase in online piracy of commercially marketedmaterial, which proliferated through the widespread use file exchange programs. TypicallyDRM is implemented by embedding code that prevents copying, specifies a time period inwhich the content can be accessed or limits the number of devices the media can be installedon. Although digital content is protected by copyright laws, policing the Web and catchinglaw-breakers is very difficult. DRM technology focuses on making it impossible to stealcontent, However, today we already see serious breaches of copyright law because of the easewith which digital files can be copied and transmitted, however, today we already see seriousbreaches of copyright law because of the ease with which digital files can be copied andtransmitted. Initially, Digital Rights Management focused on security and encryption that is, lockthe content and limit its distribution to only those who pay for it. The first-generation of DRMsubstantially narrow the real and broader capabilities of DRM. The next generation of DRMcovers the description, identification, trading, protection, monitoring and tracking of all formsof rights usages over both tangible and intangible assets including management of rightsholders relationships. Additionally, it is important to note that DRM is the "digitalmanagement of rights" and not the "management of digital rights". DRM technologies have enabled publishers to enforce access policies that not onlydisallow copyright infringements, but also prevent lawful fair use of copyrighted works, oreven implement use constraints on non-copyrighted works that they distribute. DRM is a copyprotection tool generally used by the eBook publishers to restrict the user to converting theireBooks format from one to another and limit them to copying, printing, and sharing of e-books. When we consider eBooks format we must keep in mind that each of these formatsthere are at least two versions of each format: a “secure” version that has some kind of DRM(Digital Rights Management) attached to it and a non-DRM version, i.e., Adobe Secure/DRMNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 185
  • 199. PDF, secure EPUB, etc. There are several different DRM schemes. eBooks with one DRMscheme can’t be read on a device that uses a different DRM scheme. Some DRM schemeslimit eBooks to one device only, so if the user want to read that eBook on a different device,it’s necessary to download the eBook again. One question regarding e-books is normally arises that which e-books can be read onwhich e-reader device. E-books from Amazon, Barnes & Noble, and other vendors can comein different file formats, and Kindles, Sony Readers, Nooks, Kobos, and other e-readers mayread certain e-book formats and not others. So if DRM as attached with the e books it restrictthe users from converting a MOBI e-book you bought from Amazon to the ePub format toread on a Barnes & Noble and vice versa. The situation gets even worst when it prevents e-books from being read on a different e-book reader — even one that reads the same format!So, while Nooks and Sony eReaders both read the ePub file format, an e-book bought fromB&N that has DRM attached can’t be read on the Sony eReaders.There are a few exceptions,but generally e-books with DRM attached that are bought from one retailer can only be readby that retailer’s corresponding e-book device: • e-book store: Kindle e-reader • Barnes e-book store: Nook e-reader • Sony eReader Store: Sony eReaders • e-book store: Kobo e-reader • Apple iBook Store: Apple iPad, iPhone, & iPod There are several eBooks format are available in the digital market but PDF, ePub andMOBI are the most used eBook format. EPUB / .epub – This is the proposed “universal” format from the IDPF that is havingtrouble taking hold with dedicated readers and mass-market book retailers. In 2009, Sonystarted supporting EPUB and discontinued its own DRM format. Some retailers have startedoffering books in secure EPUB, but it is not widespread. ePub is the closest we have to anindustry standard e-book format, as it’s used by Barnes & Noble, Sony, Kobo, Apple, andothers — pretty much everyone other than Amazon. ePub is based on HTML, and allows forre-flowable text and other e-book features. Adobe eBook (EPUB) – Adobe eBook EPUB files are often synonymous with AdobeDigital Editions which is actually a software offered by Adobe that is used to read EPUBfiles. DRM is almost always involved. The format is readable on several different ereaderdevices, including the Nook and several iPhone applications. Google adopted Adobe EPUB inDec. 2010 for its eBook store. PDF/.pdf – PDF is a file format you may already be familiar with; it’s not specific toe-books, but was designed by Adobe as a “Portable Document Format” that retains formattingand can be read on many different kinds of computers or other devices. It is available in bothsecure and non-secure formats. It’s useful because PDFs can be read on almost any computeror e-book reader, and because the formatting and any pictures or charts should be wellpreserved. However, it’s not an ideal format for e-books because it doesn’t normally allow forre-flowable text: a PDF is like a photograph of a printed book page, so you can’t adjust thefont size or style. eReader/.pdb – Originally developed by Palm, eReader software is available for a tonof devices including the iPhone/iTouch. eReader/Fictionwise was bought by Barnes&Noble in2009, and the eReader format is the basis of the books that are delivered to the B&N Nook.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 186
  • 200. Mobipocket/.prc/.mobi – Mobi is the other big e-book file format, and may be themost popular of all since it’s the format used by Amazon and read by the Kindle — the mostpopular e-book platform. MOBI, also called PRC, is quite similar to ePub, as it’s also basedon HTML and has many of the same features, like re-flowable text. Mobipocket is availableto be read on several devices. Microsoft Reader/.lit – Microsoft’s ebook format which is readable on several typesof devices. This format seems more or less dead in the water.Device-specific formats Kindle/.azw is based on Mobipocket technology. Since March 2009 Kindle books canalso be read on the iPhone (below) and in November 2009, you can read Kindle books onyour PC, too. Both options are available without having to actually buy a Kindle. Sony Reader/.lrx/.lrf format works as imaginable, with Sony Readers. (see noteabove in EPUB re: Sony format)Non-Commercial Formats: • Text/.txt: no special formatting available, these files are plain text with line breaks. Some use CAPS or special characters (**) to help with readability. • Rich Text/.rtf: more formatting available than plain text. • HTML/.html: can be read in web-browsers, and some special formatting can be used. The concept of pages is not easily embedded or utilized with HTML ebook files. • Others: Windows Word Document .doc, JPG Image .jpg, Portable Network Graphics / .png, Bitmap / .bmp Reading eBooks on devices are basically classified in to the three categoriescomputers, dedicated eReaders and smart phones. Computers: If you are using the computer than almost all eBook formats haveassociated software that is installable on Windows and Mac operating systems. While it isvery uncomfortable sit in front of computer for hours to read a book. Ultraportable computeror netbooks are the better option to read. Dedicated E-book readers: There are a lot of e-Book devices out on the marketplacenow. The feature that characterizes these devices is that most of them are utilize E Inktechnology, which is a non-backlit electronic display that simulates text printed on paper –here are a few of the most well-known: • Apple iPad: Apple iPad is an eBook reader but it does so much more. It is often cited as an eBook reader and most iPhone apps to read eBooks also work on the iPad. • Amazon Kindle: Kindle keeps getting better looking, cheaper and with more storage inside. It is appreciated above all for the ability to buy and download books wirelessly. In October 2009, a Kindle International version was made available for use outside the U.S.A. A large selection of books is available in the Kindle format mentioned above, with support for other non-DRM/secure formats like HTML and TXT.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 187
  • 201. • Sony Reader: It offered in both a pocket and regular version, it displays Sony’s ebook format BBeB (.lrx / .lrf), PDF, and EPUB in both secure/DRM and non- DRM formats; and other non-secure formats like HTML and TXT. Sony and Google will make a half million public domain books available for the Sony Reader. • Barnes & Noble “Nook”: B&N, who bought eReader in 2009, first released the Nook in October 2009. It’s color touch screen, with 2GB space and expandable for more, it supports eReader formats and EPUB, both in DRM and non-DRM formats. Kudos to B&N for not only supporting an existing format but for supporting EPUB, too. • eBookwise is one of the first dedicated readers, though it does not use electronic ink technology and therefore has a backlit screen. Formats include Rocket Book (.rb) files and other non-secure formats like HTML, .doc and text. • Foxit eSlick Reader: One of the cheaper options available using e Ink (under $300), it seems to only support PDF and TXT formats. • Smartphone: Smart phones are the most interesting because now-a-days Almost every user have a smart phone and it will take very little to be set up to read eBooks. Blackberry, iPhone and iPod are all examples of Smart phones.Conclusion From books to bytes, the library & information centres have faced amazingchallenges and we should be proud of our accomplishments. We’re waist-deep in theinformation age and all of the challenges that come along with it, including intellectualproperty rights should be welcomed. From the scholarly work and beyond, IP rights are aboutrespect and value. On many levels this is a very complex issue. Still, it should be obvious that,we have a lot to lose by ignoring it. To not ignore it is to develop awareness, encourageeducation and discussion. We’ll be protecting ourselves now as well as investing in ourfuture—a future ideally that continues to build on our tradition of “helping each other to besuccessful for each other.” That, by the way, is one of the means that allowed us to surviveover the last two decades and, interestingly enough, is the very spirit of what IP rights areabout.ReferencesCopyright and the fair use. Available at:, Rahul. What aspects of intellectual property were covered by the Paris Convention forthe protection of industrial property? What significance does this treaty have in relation withinternational patents? Available at: ip_india/paris_convention.pdfRoss. S. (2009). How to Read an ebook: Formats, Devices, Dedicated Readers and iPhoneApplications. Available at: Intellectual Property Organization (2011). What is intellectual property? Available at:http://www.wipo. int/about-ip/en/National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 188
  • 202. Indian Information Law and its Implementation Policy Umesh Kumar Agarwal and Prakash Chandra Vijayvargiya Abstract This paper attempts to provide an overview of Indian Information Law, its important features and some suggestions for its effective implementation in the networked digital environment. Keywords: Indian Information Law, IT Act, Internet, National Policy on Library and Information System, WTOIntroduction An International Conference of Library Science was held in India in 1992 for the firsttime in the Sire Fort Auditorium. Shri Arjun Singh, the then Minister of Human Resourcesinaugurated the Conference. Before the representatives of many countries he said that soon aNational Policy on Library and Information System will be announced. It is a good thatNational Literacy Mission was also adopted in India on the guideline of UNESCO. As aresult, government planned for the fulfillment of much rural education in our country. In the6th (1982-87), 7th (1987-92) and 8th (1992 -97) five year plans funds were provided with quickpromotion of satellite Telecommunication, computer networks through satellite andestablishment of national libraries. But before 1998, the required result was not obtained.When the BJP led central government came into power the task force on InformationTechnology was formed by establishing of public libraries and achieved vast developments inInformation Technology within a period of ten years. In the first half of 1998, according tothe central government publication, the rate of income of software technology is 8%. It isreally a great achievement in respect of Free Trade. In the year 1998, the Task Force hadsubmitted a plan of 108 projects to the central government. The government had accepted allthe recommended projects and had constituted an advisory committee with eight eminentpersons to guide the task force. This committee of eminent persons of global vision group will supervise theconstruction of Info super Highway throughout India. As presumed in a meeting ofCabinet Committee of Central government in the second half of 1999 a bill was passed in theparliament in which it was expected that the increase in e-commerce will be @ 20% by theend of 2000. There it is felt to pass a cyber laws according to the recommendation of theWTO and thus the unauthorised business of hardware and software will be stopped. Theagenda of FID Conference in Bracillia (World Conference) is Bracillia knowledge withoutfrontiers; a fundamental right for the new millenium.The shape and nature of information The information DATA is a chart of particular knowledge. The utility of knowledge isendless in the new millenium in the field unlimited expansion of knowledge. The informationis the guide of law. Stifen Parker, the working Director General of FID has compared theinformation with water. One can collect “DATA” and store like water and supply them. Hehas also said an important thing regarding the storage and supply of DATA, like water theNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 189
  • 203. data may be stolen and false. Therefore, one should be very careful. There are two sides inhis speech;1) When storing the data, it should be well planned and technology based.2) When supplying the same one should be very careful in respect of the safety of common people. So safety must be there. For the safeguard of the society the majority of the population must participateactively. No planned industrialization, employment health, food and house construction havebeen developed though more than half century has passed after independence. Infact, in theinterest of the 15% population the labour and money of 85% of the population has been spent.For this, the President of India had to alert the ruling community of this country in his speechof the adoption of constitution on the 50th anniversary. On the other hand, in the meeting ofWTO is seatile in U.S.A, the ministers of the global countries had to face agitation. Therefore,it is now the time has come for reconsideration of present laws and plans of the WTO.Refixation of the formulae’sThe demand of present society is to consider the following points;1) IT based society: To build an IT based society we should not depend on WTO andMultinational companies, but to bring the majority population of all countries. According to the constitution, the fundamental right to information, which has beenadopted in all the nations of the world. In this regard, the Treaties of UNESCO; WTO; FAO;UNICEF and other international treaties should be mentioned. On the context of the above discussion we can consider the ways of building a taskforce in the government of BJP led government in 1998. The BJP lead government had comeinto power on 13th of May 1998 and within two days a task force had been established. Thereare sufficient doubts to build a task force so quickly though the work is very important. Tobuild up a task force with the approval of cabinet only it was bitter to discuss the things in theparliamentary committee. To change the chair person of the committee within a fortnight isalso questionable. Jaswant Singh, the then chair person had to go to the foreign ministry within afortnight. In the government circular it was stated that 16 members have been included; butactually 18 members were there. Those who were included in the 4th tuskforce committeewere industrialists only and therefore their interest was to make more profits than to takesocial beneficial works. Laterv mon keeping in mind of the criticism of the other oppositionparties another five beaurocrats were included. But were we able to fulfill the experts of IT. Though in USA, MNC’s are controlling 86% of IT markets. In spite of IT we canstate the technology of Biotech. In the 1992, Earth Summit of Reo de genoro, the progress ofIndia is very high. It was stated in the summit, the duty of the task force is to provide food,clothes, house, medical facilities and jobs of the majority of the population. Rupees sevenhundred to be spent every year to built a Corpus Fund just to check the computer hazards ofY2K. To promote a digital library under the taskforce the government organisations havebeen selected such as IIT, CSIR, NCITE, IIM, IIIT, NIC, NASSCOM, IR, NPGC, ONGC,GAIL, SAIL, PAIL, Airport Authority of India. But the private business houses want tocapture the finance of the above government institutions in view of the privatisation policy ofthe government of India.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 190
  • 204. IT Action PlanUnder IT Action Plan following policy was framed1) All the district headquarters will be connected with internet facility by 26th January 2000. For that the DOT must take appropriate steps.2) For the advancement of Software Technology, the government concerned should simplify the laws.3) CVG, Data circuits and cellular services will be introduced instead of two tier DOT services.4) Permission should be given to the private parties within two weeks if they demand to have the channels of services available in VSNL.5) Side by side, central subscribers will also be there if required.6) DOT COM IN should be introduced along with services of DOT.7) In the case of private INTERNET SERVICE, there should not be any tax for the first five year and Rs. 1.00 (Rupee one) should be charged.8) The exclusive right of the VSNL to international internet service should be restricted and private internet service should be introduced with the permission of the defense department.9) To built up Fibre Optics Telecommunication, the department of Railway Defense National Power Grid Corporation, Oil and Natural Gas Company, Gas Authority of India, Steel Authority of India etc. The Central Government departments have a particular role. Therefore, when the question of Dot Com expansion comes, the above Central Government Departments cannot be neglected.10) The government and non government organisations should have equal right to use the services of INET provided by Dot Com.11) The authorised cable TV operators should have free access to INTERNET.12) The IT based government or non-government organization should be allowed to use the Fiber Optics Cables without any change. So that the distant end of this vast country should have a communication quickly.13) To establish public wireless technical unit in different parts of this country; so that the law breakers should be punished.14) With the help of the Department of Telecom, E-commerce should be established quickly.15) To establish multi purpose information centres the services of ISD, N Service, Remote Database Access, Desktop UDO Conference Internet and Web Access should be taken.16) DOT should establish various communications services including Fax etc.17) The central government must start the PC & Internet service without any charges.18) To establish more advanced IT industries by the year 2008. With the experts of information experience, so that the amount of export should be 50 billion dollars.19) There should be no excise duty that are producing the software.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 191
  • 205. 20) In the meeting of WTO world-wide conference of ministers level, the export and import duties have been reallocated.21) Tax should be imposed on media only not Siridom, Optical disc, Magnetic media because these are not text books.22) Legislation under 9/19 all restrictions should be removed from the imported goods.23) Information should treat as a product of IT industry.24) To expand the IT knowledge industry the system of physical and bonded system must be abolished.25) Service tax should be abolished from Computer Software Development Industry and CBEC26) The restrictions should be removed from the ministry of transport in the IT industrial good from one place to another.27) The profit earned from the software industry should be exempted from income tax under section 8 GEE.28) Relief should be given to the IT software industries and Section 10 (15) (4) of the IT Act.29) Relief should also be given in the property tax just to maintain and expand the IT industry.30) Relief should also be given under Section 88 of IT, if a person purchases a computer.31) To purchase a PC upto the price of Rs. 30,000.00, exemption of income tax should also be given to seller and purchaser both.32) The time limit of two years should be extended in respect of repaying the loan.33) The nature of IT industry is quite different from other industries. So, the rule of the Reserve Bank of India should be changed when calculating the amount of working capital.34) IOP priority should be given to the IT industry so that easy access of finance is available from banks.35) The working capital must be raised to 1200 crores instead of the present 400 crores.36) The Reserve Bank of India should be advised to sanction loans easily in case of export oriented IT management.37) The nationalized banks should be advised to purchase 5% more shares of the IT industries.38) The State Bank of India, UTI Bank, Industrial Development Bank, ICICI Banks should be advised to establish joint venture of IT industries.39) It is required to change the company law of 1956 specially the sec. 56 in which the definition of sweat equity is defined.40) The circulars of the finance ministry should be more meaningful in respect of ADR and GDR.41) The provision of Sec. 19 A&B should be changed so that the linked stocks may come under income tax only at the time of selling.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 192
  • 206. 42) The technology is changing fast at this age of scientific advancement. Therefore preference should be given to the advanced IT foreign companies to come to our country and establish business centres.43) 100% export oriented firms should be allowed to export goods without any internal checking.44) The limit of the price of the PC’s should be Rs. 70,000/- instead of present Rs. 1,50,000/-.45) There should be relief in the import duty while importing the machines from other parts of the world.46) The ministry of industries should provide loans at low interest for a longer period for such industry.47) The Visa Act should be modified so that the on sight information technology may have free access.48) The income should be increased in respect of Indian and Foreign Software development Companies.49) The central government should contact the foreign export and take necessary steps so that the companies working in India may survive in this age of competition.50) All restrictions must be removed in the case of companies who are willing to install software in India.51) Similary in the case of renowned foreign software company willing to establish a unit in India, restrictions should be withdrawn.52) CORPUSPUND OF Rs. 700 crores should be provided in case of emergency like Y2k.53) There should be cooperation to export in Russia (ESC) alongwith the Mega website software and IT items.54) The permission should be given to export the IT software by ESC by Rupee exchange trade to Russia.55) There should be all facility in respect of establishing the IT unit.56) Preference should be given to sell the Indian softwares.57) Software Technology Parks should be established for private companies.58) The central government should recognize the IT technology as an advanced one and operation knowledge should be included in syllabus.59) All the high schools, colleges, polytechnics, universities and hospitals should be provided with computers by the year 2003.60) The quality of education should be improved in respect of distant educational universities.61) The production of IT should be three times in respect of IIT & IISC.62) A national centre for IT (NCITE) should be established in which the representation of industrialists and teachers should be included. There should be training centre for the teachers under 3 T (Teach the Te )63) The IT should be a compulsory subject in post graduate education.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 193
  • 207. 64) Indian IT units should be established very quickly so that the benefits may be realized by the societies.65) Model information technology system should be introduced in the universities of developing countries.66) Special efforts should be done to improve the standard of IT in the IIMS.67) The IT should be included in schools also just to compete in the 21st century.68) To establish an institute of computer professional like Indian Institute of Chartered Accountants.69) The central government should give special attention to educate the employees of all departments of government specially the defence establishment.70) To improve the quality of education of the distant education centres of different parts of India, government should take appropriate steps.71) To improve the quality of IT in the remote villages the defence people should take part.72) The quality of IT should be improved in respect of diploma and degree education.73) A tuskforce should be established in national provincial level.74) A sound fort should be established to implement the various schemes.75) The district level IT centres should be given preference in training the IT staff76) To start a non- stop service the central government should take necessary steps so the services of electronic kioslks, telephone and smart card may be established.77) To convert the IT as mass movement, central government should take appropriate steps within two months.78) To use IT in the Indian languages the central government should take appropriate steps so that the IT terms can be used in the Department of Science, Technology, Commerce etc.79) To use the IT in agriculture and college developments, the Kolhapur district of Maharashtra is an example. This type of IT should be used throughout the country.80) The telecom internet service should be provided in the remote villages of India.81) The central government should take effection in implementing the programs recommended by the Export Promotion Board in respect of e-commerce, Airport Authority, Post Authority, Banks, Customs, Railway C Services and DGFT etc.82) All the saleable goods should be brought under barkoding within 5 years.83) The central government should allocate sufficient money to the remote villages so that they can have the facility of IT.84) The government of India and other provincial government must supply the data without any obstruction to the people.85) The common man must get the following information on demand :a) Courts information systemb) Parliament Information Systemc) NICNETNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 194
  • 208. 86) The public grievance cells should be reconstitute so that a common man must get the information quickly. It is, therefore, suggested that the government should introduce the official internet website “India Image”.87) The central government and the provincial governments should have a Five Years’ Plan so that all the government departments adopt IT Technology.88) The one- third amount of the yearly budget should have to spend for the IT purpose.89) In the national level NIC and in provincial level technical institutions should be given the right of purchasing hardware and software.90) The online facility adopted by the industrially advanced eight countries (G-8).91) The necessary laws should be promolgated quickly, so that the telecommunicating and management by objectives should be introduced.92) Various data of the government departments should be stored.93) The ministry of defence should take the initiative, so that, the recommendation of TG Committee should be implemented.94) There should be a national programme for educating the computer programming in each part of the country.95) The automatic electrical operation system should be preserved.96) In future, all the government vacancies should be taken under the preview of IT, a compulsory qualification.97) The Central Government should establish a permanent government department whose duty will be to look after the implementation of IT.98) There is a necessity of re-organizing the government departments, so that the IT is adopted smoothly.99) The unused portion of the government building should be alloted to private IT institutions at a nominal rents just to give training to vast number of entitled persons.100) The government must built up a national guideline of secrecy of documents after consultancy with SAG, JCBX, WESEE etc.101) The government should take appropriate steps by promulgating laws, so that the Cyber Corporation should work smoothly.102) Within six months, after accepting the report, the government should frame the laws.103) The ministry of law and company laws should frame such laws so that provision of punishments should be there who will break the laws.104) The central government should issue circulars to all the departments under defence ministry so that secrecy should be maintained in the defence.105) The technological parks should have the right to store the datas only for two months and after that those should be transferred to electronic medium.106) The Indian Telegraph Act (1885) and Indian Postal Act (1888) and Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act (1993) should be revised quickly, so that the use of IT should come to the majority of the people.107) The duty of the government is to promulgate a cyber law within six months.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 195
  • 209. 108) All the ministry of the Central Government should be asked to implement the cyber law within three months.Cyber LawAccording to WTO declaration, the all countries under WTO should pass Cyber Law. Thefollowing points should be mentioned in the Cyber Law : 1) For the safety of e-commerce the INTERNET should be recognized. 2) The computer records must be recognized and stored in place of paper records. 3) Cyber Regulation Appellate Tribunal should be established with the same power as securities and Exchange Board of India. 4) One government post should be created to keep watch on the government circulars, advertisement and web pages. 5) In the case of commerce, e-commerce should be adopted. 6) The obstruction should be removed in implementing the e-commerce. 7) One post of officer should be created who can certify and attest the unattested documents. 8) There should be provision of sufficient computers, which will check the undesired e-mail. 9) There should be provision of punishment also to those who will misuse the electronic media.ReferencesAsian Recorder, 1993India: A Reference Annual, 1999Information Today & Tomorrow, 18: (4), 1999.FCD Review vol. L No. 2/3, 1999Ganashakti Magazine of 27th January 2000UTSA MANUS March & April, 1999National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 196
  • 210. An overview of E-Learning Technology Subhash Chandra Abstract With the advent of internet technology in the past decade, it is bringing a turbulent change in the education system. E-learning is efficient task relevant and just-in-time learning grown from the learning requirements of the new dynamically changing, distributed business world. In this paper, the aim is to thoroughly review the theories of learning, dimensions of learning, e-learning technology, styles, differences, advantages, etc. as a globally accepted standards. Keywords: e-learning, on-line, LMS, standards.CBT,Introduction The environment of higher education is evolving. Rising costs, shrinking budgets, andincreasing needs for distance education (New Media Consortium, 2007) are causingeducational institutions to reexamine the way that education is delivered. In response to thischanging environment, e-learning is being implemented more and more frequently in highereducation, creating new and exciting opportunities for both educational institutions andstudents. E- learning, or electronic learning, has been defined a number of different ways in theliterature. The American Society for Trainers and Development (ASTD) defines e-learning as“instructional content or learning experiences delivered or enabled by electronic technology.”Electronic technology encompasses everything from Computer-Based Training (CBT), tocompact disks (CDs), to web-based applications. However, e-learning has increasingly cometo mean “Web-enabled material deployed using the net.” In general, e-learning is theexpression broadly used to describe “instructional content or learning experience delivered orenabled by electronic technologies” (Ong, Lai and Wang, 2004). Some definitions of e-learning are more restrictive than this one, for example limiting e-learning to content deliveryvia the internet (Jones, 2003). The broader definition, which will be used for the purposes ofthis article, can include the use of the internet, intranets/extranets, audio-video tape, satellitebroadcast, interactive TV, and CD-ROM, not only for content delivery, but also forinteraction among participants. More recently, this definition can be further expanded toinclude mobile and wireless learning applications (Kinshuk, Suhonen, Sutinen, and Goh,2003). The e-learning models of higher education today find their roots in conventionaldistance education. Initially introduced to allow individuals in remote and rural areas to gainaccess to higher education, distance learning has evolved significantly over time.Technological advancement has been the major inspiration for change, beginning with theintegration of radio broadcasting in the 1920’s (Huynh, Umesh and Valachich, 2003). Morerecently, the advent of the Internet has enabled tremendous innovation in the delivery of postsecondary education (Gunasekaran, McNeil and Shaul, 2002; Teo and Gay, 2006). As timegoes by, more and more people gain access to the Internet, the cost of computer ownershipNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 197
  • 211. decreases, and overall computer literacy increases (Huynh et al., 2003). These trends provideeducational institutions an ideal channel for the delivery of educational content.Learning Theory e-learning associated with any learning that incorporated any form of technology. E-learning used synonymously in dialogue concerning flexible distance learning. However withthe recent surge to incorporate more computer technology into classrooms, at all levels. e-learning can be defined as all that activity utilizing information transfer andknowledge utilization during the learning process with particular attention to computer-basedtechnology involving learning activities in relation to primary school classroom environment.Research on flexible learning has been driven by what many are calling the “informationrevolution.” Research on flexible learning is becoming increasingly more visible as a part ofthe higher education family. But the research and literature reviewed indicate that the highereducation community has a lot to learn regarding how and in what ways technology canenhance the teaching learning process. A work on social cognition… has shown clearly thatinformation is processed in wondrous ways, few of which are replicate of the originalinformation… the gist of this work is roughly that individuals, alone or in organizations,transform and use research in highly selective and strategic ways (Huberman, 1987). Theperspectives on knowledge use described by Huberman draw from a learning theory known asconstructivism, which has moved to the forefront of education theory in recent years. A learning environment begins now to look more like a mix between the teachingstrategies based in a critical inquiry and the teaching conditions, which are thought to supportthe goals, which these strategies hope to achieve. While no learning environment is evercomplete, therefore the sense of its completion must derive less from a necessity to deliver allthat learners need and more from its ability to allow learners to integrate various models ofreality in ways that enable their meaningful management (Checkland, 1991).Dimensions of E-Learning The extent of e-learning technology use in course delivery varies widely. Thevariations in the configuration of e-learning offerings can be described through a number ofattributes as listed in table 1 below. These attributes can be classified into the dimensions ofsynchronicity, location, independence, and mode. An e-learning course component can bedescribed by indicating which one of the two attribute values from each dimension isapplicable. E-learning can be delivered in two ways: synchronously (real-time) andasynchronously (flex-time). Synchronous e-learning takes place “live”—a virtual classroomof sorts. It may feature real-time, web-based video conferencing, audio conferencing withpresentation material, and on-line chat. Some people refer to synchronous e-learning as“distance learning.” In contrast asynchronous e-learning may take place any time, and is selfpaced. Because of its lower cost of development, reusable components, and convenience tothe learner, asynchronous e-learning—sometimes called “distributed learning”—is receivingmore attention in the e-learning industry today.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 198
  • 212. Table 1: The dimensions of e-learning Dimension Attribute* Meaning ExampleSynchronicity Asynchronous content delivery occurs at a lecture module different time than receipt by delivered via email the student lecture delivery via Synchronous content delivery occurs at the web cast same time as receipt by the studentLocation Same place students use an application at using a GSS to solve a the same physical location as problem in a classroom other students and/or the instructor Distributed students use an application at using a GSS to solve a various physical locations, problem from separate from other students distributed locations and the instructorIndependence Individual students work independently students complete e- from one another to complete learning modules learning tasks autonomously students participate in Collaborative students work collaboratively discussion forums to with one another to complete share ideas learning tasksMode Electronically all content is delivered via an electronically only technology, there is no face-to- enabled distance face component learning course e-learning is used to in class lectures are Blended supplement traditional enhanced with hands- classroom learning on computer exercises * The definitions of these attributes are discussed in a variety of sources including(Ong et al., 2004), (Jack and Curt, 2001), and (Greenagel, 2002). It should be noted that a single course component will consist of a single attributevalues. For example, some components of a course may be delivered synchronously andothers asynchronously, or a course may involve some online components and some in-classcomponents.Differences between Training and E-Learning E-learning aims at replacing old-fashioned time/place/content predetermined learningwith a just-in-time/artwork-place/customized/on-demand process of learning. Table 2 showsthe characteristics of the standard training and the improvements achieved using the e-learning approach (Maurer and Sapper, 2001).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 199
  • 213. Table 2: Differences between training and e-learning Dimensions Training e-learning Push- Instructor determines Pull-Student determines agendaDelivery agenda Anticipatory- Assumes to Reactionary- Responds to problem atResponsiveness know the problem hand Linear- Has defined Non-Linear – Allows direct access toAccess progression of knowledge knowledge in whatever sequence makes sense to the situation at hand Asymmetric- Training occurs Symmetric- Learning occurs as anSymmetry as a separate activity integrated activity Discrete- Training takes place Continuous- Learning runs in theModality in dedicated chunks with parallel to business tasks and never stops defined starts and stops Centralised- Content is Distributed- Content comes from the selected from a library of interaction of the participants and theAuthority materials developed by the educators educator Mass produced- Content must Personalised- Content is determined byPersonalisation satisfy the needs of many the individual user’s needs and aims to satisfy the needs of every user Static- Content and Dynamic- Content changes constantly Organisation/taxonomy through user input, experiences, newAdaptivity remains in their originally practices, business rules and heuristics authored from without regard to environmental changesStyles of Learning It is argued that we all have different styles of learning and approach learning indifferent ways. Although this would seem self-evident, attempts to theorize and classify suchlearning styles are less than convincing... Personally, it may not think we have one particularlearning style but use different learning styles and different ‘intelligences’ in differentcontexts, different subjects and in different knowledge-domains and in response to differentlearning aims and goals. We might use a different style for solving a quick problem- say howto use Skype for pod cast- than for learning German. Notwithstanding the problems of thetheoretical debate on learning styles, it would appear likely that learners will have preferencesNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 200
  • 214. for different pedagogic approaches, in particular learning contexts. All educational software,implicitly or otherwise, either enhances or restrains certain pedagogic approaches to learning.There is no such thing as pedagogically neutral software. A Personal Learning Environmentcould allow a learner to configure and develop a learning environment to suit and enable theirown style of learning ( Technology Notable advancements in e-learning technology in the last some years have includedthe introduction of learning management systems and the development of standardspromoting “sharable learning content objects”, or “learning objects.”Learning Management Systems The learning management system (LMS) is “the operating system” for e-learning inthe enterprise. At a minimum, it automates the administration of training events: handlingcourse schedules and registrations; delivering learning content; facilitating communicationamong learners and between learners and instructors; and tracking and reporting on learners’progress and test scores. It is designed to handle courses from multiple providers. There are several companies offering server-based LMSs. Example of “pure play”providers (companies which do not develop content) are Saba, Blackboard, and Click2Learn.Companies providing content, in addition to their own LMS, include Digital Think and SmartForce. In addition to licensing software and servers, many LMS vendors also operate asapplication service providers (ASPs). While the perfect LMS is still evolving, W. R.Hambrecht & Company states that, in order to be successful, vendors must meet the marketdemand for functionality, scalability, interoperability, customizability, and flexibility. Systems are being developed which manage the actual content associated with e-learning. Specifically, they deliver and track the learning objects comprising courses orgrowing databases of “just-in-time” learning material. Some LMSs are being enhanced with“learning content management system” (LCMS) functionally. In other cases, the functionalityis being offered on a dedicated server. All providers of LCMS functionally are developingcompliance with the evolving content object standards, like AICC and SCORM. The next generation of LMSs is likely to contain some content assembly and authoringtools. “Adaptive learning” and “intelligent tutoring” functionality is also being graduallyincorporated. Adaptive learning dynamically adjusts instructional content and tests accordingto the learner’s proficiency. Still emerging, intelligent tutoring technology uses the science ofhuman cognition to develop complex models and rules-based systems intended to providemore in-depth instruction to learners, including answering the learner’s questions (Hambrecht,2001). Interface from LMSs to human resource information systems are enabling moreextensive evaluation and planning regarding employee learning and productivity. Tie-ins toenterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, like those from PeopleSoft and SAP, andcustomer resource management (CRM) systems, like Siebel, are also being developed. Inaddition, the future will see new interfaces with wireless and e-commerce applications.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 201
  • 215. Standards Several emerging standards are expected to dramatically advance the e-learningindustry. Central to these standards are the aforementioned learning objects (called“Assignable Units” or “lessons” within AICC’s model and “Sharable Content Objects” withinSCORM’s model). The smallest units of learning content tracked by LMSs or LCMSs,learning objects are labeled in a standardized way. The combined effect of the evolving e-learning standards will enable: • Learning objects to be easily reused, and handled interchangeably by various LMSs • The accessibility of learning objects developed by any authoring tool • Learning objects to be stored and easily accessed within databases • The rapid construction of courses through easy sequencing of content • New, more granular learner assessment models Notable standards are as follows: • SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) SCORM is the standard that has emerged with the most momentum, and many vendors are adopting it. Its specifications are offered by the U.S. Government’s Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL) initiative, an organization formed jointly in 1997 by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Department of Defense. SCORM describes the ways in which learning objects relate to each other, and is intended to foster the portability of those objects from one LMS to another. It has included the best of the AICC and IMS specifications in its structure; and is being substantially adopted by the IEEE LTSC (Warner, 2001) • IMS (Instructional Management System Global Learning Consortium Initiated by Educom and headquartered in Burlington, Massachusetts, the IMS Consortium has been developing open specifications for locating and using learning content, tracking and reporting learner progress, and exchanging records between LMSs. Its members are from educational, commercial, and government organizations worldwide. “Metadata tagging”—how content is identified and tagged—is the cornerstone of the IMS’s work ( • AICC (Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee) The AICC is an association of technology-based training professionals chartered over a decade ago with developing guidelines for the aviation industry. Because of its early leadership in e-learning, its guidelines have been adopted by makers of e- learning products serving many industries. Covering nine areas, these guidelines focus on how LMSs interface with learning objects and courses.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 202
  • 216. • IEEELTSC (Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineering’s Learning Technology Standard Committee) Many believe the IEEELTSC will have the final say as it endorses specific e- learning industry standards, and SCORM is one set of specifications receiving significant attention (Werner, 2001). IEEELTSC’s working groups cover topics like “learning object metadata” (tagging information used to describe data), student profiles, course sequencing, computer managed instruction, competency definitions, localization, and content packaging. In 2000, it initiated the move of this work to the full International Standards Organization (ISO) Joint Technical Committee1 (JTC1) Subcommittee 36 (SC36) on Learning Technology, for the highest level of global standards accreditation ( • XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language) XML is a metadata (data tagging) standard developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (WC3). Platform independent, it is becoming the foundation for communication among Web-based applications. Many of the e-learning specifications mentioned above build on XML.E-Learning Benefits Many of the benefits of e-learning drive directly from the drivers themselves, reach consistency of message and ability to learn anytime, anywhere. But e-learning inthe corporate environments offers other benefits as well. First, e-learning enables companiesto update materials and information across the entire enterprise, keeping content fresh andrelevant. This is especially important as product-development cycles continue to diminish,product modifications become more frequent, and company organizations and policiesbecome more volatile. Second, online training also creates a personalised learning experience. Instead ofdaylong or weeklong programmers, the typical e-learning course can be broken into one-hourmodules, offering flexibility around training. Employees can adapt training to their own livesand learning styles, accessing material whenever it is convenient to review course material. Third, e-learning is ideal for global corporations with people in multiple time zones,there is no need to coordinate travel and delivery schedules. Global companies, however, doneed to address language and localization issues. Forth, Internet-based training can reducecosts, with housing and travel costs accounting for the majority of the savings. Lostproductivity and revenue from classroom training can actually be higher if one considers timespent away from the office. Finally, there is evidence that e-learning benefits corporate operation, e-learning onthe whole, appears to offer many improvements, both in the tangible as well as the intangibleworld. Some of the other benefits can be summarized as shown in table 3 (Rosenberg, 2001).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 203
  • 217. Table 3: Benefits Benefits of e-learningInformation is consistent Everyone gets the same content, presented in the same way.or customized, depending Yet the programs can also be customized for differenton need learning needs or different groups of people.Content is more timely Because it was web-enabled, e-learning can be updatedand dependable instantaneously, making the information more accurate and useful for a longer period of time. The ability to upgrade e- learning content easily and quickly, and then immediately distribute the new information to users is extremely time efficient.Learning is 24/7 Students can access e-learning anywhere and at any time of the day. It’s ‘just in time-any time’ approach makes the learning process ubiquitous.Universality E-learning is web-enabled and takes advantage of the universal Internet protocols and browsers. Concern over differences in platforms and operating systems is rapidly fading. Everyone on the Web can receive virtually the same material in virtually the same time.Scalability E-learning solutions are highly scalable. Programs can move 10 participants to 100 or even more participants with little effort or incremental cost (as long as the infrastructure is in place).Build Communities The Web enables students to build enduring communities of practice where they can come together to share knowledge and insight. This can be a tremendous motivator for learning.E-learning lower costs Despite outward appearances, e-learning is often the most cost effective way to deliver instruction or information. It cuts travel expenses; it can also reduce teaching time, and significantly reduces the need for a classroom/teacher infrastructure.Conclusion E-learning is a large and growing market with great potential in higher education.With all the challenges that we are facing in education and training, e-learning provides manyanswers and needs to be addressed seriously by the planners, developers and the privateNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 204
  • 218. industry players. In the knowledge economy, the chief competitive advantage of nations is nottheir physical assets, be it land, natural resources or even oil, but quality and skill of theirpeople. If used effectively, e-learning can reach education to a large constituency that wouldotherwise not have access to it.ReferencesCheckland, P., “In Information Systems Research: Contemporary Approaches and EmergentTradition”, (Eds, Nissen, H. – E., Klein, H. K. and Hirschheim, R. A.) North-Holland,Amsterdam, pp. 397-403. 1991.Greenagel, F. L., The illusion of e-learning: why we’re missing out on the promise oftechnology, retrieved on 20th Oct. 2011 from www.guidedlearning .com/illusions.pdf. 2002.Gunasekaran, A., McNeil, R. D. & Shaul, D., E-learning: research and applications, Industrialand Commercial Training, 34 (2), pp. 44-53. 2002.Hambrecht, W. R., E-learning: Outlook for the Learning Management System Market, pp. 20-22. 2001.Huberman, A. M., Steps toward an Integrated Model of Research Utilization, Knowledge, pp.586-588. 1987.Huynh, M. Q., Umesh, U. N. and Valachich, J., E-learning as an Emerging EntrepreneurialEnterprise in Universities and Firms, Communications of the AIS, 12, pp. 48-68. 2003Jack, Z., &Curt, U., Why blended will win, Training and Development, 55 (8), pp. 54-56.2001.Jones, A. J., ICT and Future Teachers: Are we preparing for e-learning? Paper presented atthe IFIP Working Groups 3.1 and 3.3 Conference: ICT and the Teacher of the Future, Jan.27-31, 2003, Melbourne, Australia. 2003.Kinshuk, Suhonen, J., Sutinen, E., Goh, T., Mobile Technologies in Support of DistanceLearning, Asian Journal of Distance Education, 1 (1), pp. 60-68. 2003.Maurer, H., Sapper, M., E-Learning has to be seen as part of General KnowledgeManagement” Proc. Of ED-MEDIA 2001 World Conference on Educational Media,Hypermedia and Telecommunications, pp. 1249-1253. 2001.New Media Consortium., Horizon Report retrieved on 30th Oct. 2011 2007.Ong, C.-S., Lai, J.-Y., & Wang, Y.-S., Factors affecting engineers’ acceptance ofasynchronous e-learning systems in high-tech companies, Information & Management, 41 (6),pp. 795-796. 2004.Rosenberg, M., E-learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age, USA,McGraw-Hill, pp. 39-40. 2001Werner, T., Getting Up to Speed on E-Learning, Brandon Hall pub. p.12.s retrieved on retrieved on 16.11.2011.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 205
  • 219. A Study on Emerging Library and Information Technologies about Virtual Learning J. Thangam and S.Surianarayanan Abstract There has been a sea change in the ways how education is provided with the application of new ICTs. Providing LIS Education in Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) has become an issue today. Delivery of library services has also been inexistence such an environment. As such it is a big issue and challenges before the LIS Schools and Libraries. The present paper highlights VLE, Virtual Community, Characteristic features, objectives, Issues, Essentialities, Choice of content etc of, LIS Education in VLE, etc emphasizes on the American Experience, IGNOU initiatives in India concluded that Indian LIS Schools should adopt virtual learning system. Keywords: Virtual learning Environment; objectives, LIS Education; Libraries; Issues and challenges.Introduction The rapid strides made in the field of ICT have also led to a paradigm shift ineducation and training in all fields and the borderless library plays a vital role. More and moreindividuals are taking courses to distance education to relish their dreams. To cater to thislarge segment of learners, a number of institutions including the virtual institutions havestarted offering a wide range of courses on the web called web-based education tutorials oronline courses or virtual courses. The web collects and creates knowledge resources from anyplace any time. Thus, it acts as collaborator between the creators and users of knowledge andbecome a part of the global knowledge network. Again the emergence of Open SourceSoftware (OSS) has also brought a drastic change the way how information is delivered andaccessible freely. Such advancements in ICTs in the web era have enabled the LIS Schools toprovide education by adopting maximum Modern library systems are also coming up to deliver their services in such anenvironment. • Virtual learning environment (VLE) • The information space has been designed. • Educational interactions occur in the environment, turning Spaces into places. • The information/social space is explicitly represented. The representation varies from text to 3D immersive worlds. • Students are not only active, but also actors. They co-construct the virtual space. • Virtual learning environments are not restricted to distance education. They also enrich classroom activities. • Virtual learning environments integrate heterogeneous Technologies and multiple pedagogical approaches. • Most virtual environments overlap with physical environments.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 206
  • 220. • Virtual leaning environments are not restricted to distance education. Web-based education is often associated to distance education, while - in the practice-it is also widely used to support prudential learning. Actually, the difference betweendistances Education and presentable education is fading for several reasons. Many distance education students do not live far away from the physical school buthave tight time constraints (often they work). Asynchronous communication provides themwith time flexibility, a growing concern in our society.A Virtual Learning Environment Integrates Multiple Tools A physical learning environment generally integrates courses, resources (libraries),and formal Communication (boards) and informal communication (cafeteria), anadministration. Similarly, a virtual learning environment integrates a variety of toolssupporting multiple functions: information, communication, collaboration, learning andmanagement. The very idea of environment includes this notion of integration.The Virtual Environment Overlaps with the Physical Environment Virtual learning environments do not only integrate a variety of software tools but alsointegrate all the physical tools that can be found in a classroom. Of course, there exist some‘pure’ virtual environments; designed for curricula that are completely at distance (Studentsnever go to the school, never meet,). But, most virtual learning environments include: • Avariety of non- computerized learning resources: concrete manipulation tools, instruments,books, ....• A variety of interactions that are not computer-mediated: face-to-face discussionamong students, lectures by the teacher, group discussions,..., plus traditional media such asletters, TV, phone and fax. A variety of activities that are not computer-based: field trips, roleplaying.What are the affordances of virtual learning environments? • Social interactions • Access to information • The integration of technology • Collaborative learningBefore “Is it more effective than?” teachers ask “does it work?”The effect of virtual learning environments may be less a matter of effectiveness than as spacefor innovationWill virtual learning environments improve education? Potentially yes, but probably not. It would not be honest to claim that virtual learningenvironments will improve the quality of education or reduce the costs of educationalsystems. These environments have some potential effects, described in this document.However, the past tells us that it is very difficult to set up the conditions that turn potentialinto actual effects. Anyway, even if there were no proof of superiority in terms of learning outcomes, the evolution would not stop. Media have no intrinsic effects, but include affordances.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 207
  • 221. What are the affordances of virtual learning environments? • Social interactions • Access to information • The integration of technology • Collaborative learningBefore “Is it more effective than?” , teachers ask “does it work?”.The effect of virtual learning environments may be less a matter of effectiveness than as spacefor innovation. Virtual interactions do not have to imitate face-to-face Communication inorder to be effective. Virtual space designers do not necessarily try to imitate physical space, they look forcreating new affordances. In the same spirit, the most relevant mode of communication is notnecessarily the one that imitates face-to-face conversations. The comparison is not the keyissue. Shlager et al. showed that, by about the 3rd meeting, online real-time meetingsfollowed similar patterns as face-to-face meetings.Building virtual communities When groups of users interact intensively through some medium, they progressivelyconstitute a community. The community feeling does not automatically emerge becausegroups use electronic communication; it takes a lot of time, a lot of interactions. It requiressharing goals and, whatever that means, sharing experiences. How do feelings such asmembership and group identity appear in virtual learning environments? These factors are notwell known and more research is needed to understand how designers may favor theemergence of a community. Building teacher communities. Teaching has always been an individual work: teachersdo not collaborate a lot, they rarely attend to each other lectures, do not much exchangeteaching material and so forth. The challenge is to turn teaching into a collective performance.Some very large running experiments specifically foster the creation of communities forteacher professional development.Building larger educational professional communities. The improvement of educational systems should only rely on teachers. Many teachersreported (whether this is true or not) that one of their difficulties was the fact that schoolsdirectors or inspectors know much less than themselves regarding to how to use Internet.Some experiences start to integrate more parents in virtual communities.Unlimited access to information VLE is a term that contains the online learning services. This is also called learning Platform that organizes and provides access to online learning services for the studentsteachers and administrators. These services include access control, provision of learningContent, e-learning tools and administration of user groups. In much literature, differentterminologies have been used for the term “virtual learning” as: • Internet learningNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 208
  • 222. • Distributed learning • Network learning • Online learning • Tele learning • E-learning • Computer assisted learning • Distance learning • Web-based learning • Federated learningCharacteristic Features • The characteristic features of the web based VLE are: • It facilitates self learning at the learner’s convenient time and place. • Electronic publication is cheaper and faster. • It facilitates faster and cheaper delivery of the material. • It promotes better teacher-student interactivity. • It enables to update learning materials speedily.LIS Education in VLE The scope for LIS Education has undergone changes with the rapid expansion ofknowledge and development of research activities, particularly in the area of ICT. Forqualitative improvement of LIS education in VLE , there is need to introduce new coursesbased on ICTs in different LIS schools to face the challenges .In fact ICT has not onlyaffected operations of library services but also LIS education. As such there is a need tointegrate the qualitative changes in the LIS Education: • to increase quality of LIS students • to meet demands of the market in e-environment • to face the challenges due to fast development of ICT and its impact on LIS Education • to suit increasing demands for trained LIS professionals • to increase job opportunities for LIS professionals • to use internet based e-courses which are increasing day-by-day • to adopt e-publishing which is being increasingly accepted by the users • to transform traditional mode of LIS education in India. Proper utilization of educational technology for imparting courses can produce betterresults. It has become essential to consider the utilization of virtual learning environment inthe LIS education.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 209
  • 223. Objectives • The general objectives of providing LIS education in VLE are: • To have a broad perspectives on the core principles of LIS and its applicability in • the new environment; • To understand the managerial activities of the libraries and Information systems in • the modern context. • To comprehend the principles of knowledge organization, retrieval, management, • delivery, etc; • To enhance practical skills in new virtual environment to face the challenges; • To meet the current demands of the new digital era; • To train the learners suitably in the tune of the market demand; • To provide on-line information skills; etc.Essentialities • To boost the ICT based LIS Education it is essential to adopt: • Intensive and rigorous short term training courses • Continuing education programmer • workshops/conference/seminars • In-service training • project based learning • Computer assisted instruction • Developing intelligence learning technology by having self teaching guides or do it yourself series.Issues The LIS education system is not able to effectively cater to the needs of the emergingmarket for the LIS professionals. The web based teaching and learning system may solveproblems to a great extent. For effective implementation of the web based LIS education, it ishowever, necessary to consider the following issues. Changing the Learning Culture: Migrating to the electronic learning environmentcalls for a change in the attitude of learners. The learners need to be trained in handTraining of Teachers: Teachers need to upgrade their skills in developing and delivering thecourse content through networks. Training programmer for the LIS teachers in web pagedesigning, multimedia courseware production, HTML document preparation, etc is essential. Courseware/software Development: Web based learning does not refer toNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 210
  • 224. just putting the learning material on the network. The material should be relevant, interactive,user-friendly, and able to facilitate the self-learning process. Trained manpower is requiredwith the knowledge and skills both in software development as well as in LIS. Equal Access to Technology: It must be assured that learners have equal access tothe material provided on the net, immaterial of where they live or placed. Ling of the newmedia.Content Choice • The content choices for the Digital library Education fall into the following category: • Systems, networks, and technology • Collection and resources in various media; • Representation, organization and operability; • Storage and searching; • Functionality, access and use; • Institutions and services, and finally • User community and related applications. • These can be applied in case of VLE too.Benefits of VL Learning without restriction as to time or space Courses based on modules withflexible time schemes which take individual learning needs into account. Greaterresponsibility taken by students in the learning processWeb Accessibility in LIS Schools and Libraries Access to web resources is the most important activity concerning learning in virtualenvironment. Today various institutions around the world are made accessible to the web andlibraries and LIS Schools are not exception to this. In a recent study on web accessibilitytrends in university libraries and LIS Schools in Canada and US, many clues have beenestablished in this regard which have a great impact on the virtual learning environment in theprocess of LIS education and delivery of library and information services • Canadian web sites were more accessible than the US sites. • US sites showed a random like up and down movement in accessibility status between 2002 and 2006. • The 2006 data for institutions in the USA show that, on the average, 47 percent • of the web pages met accessibility criteria checked by Bobby (a software based accessibility checker which can investigate conformance to the 1999 Web Accessibility Guidelines). For home pages, this percentage is slightly lower at 41 percent.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 211
  • 225. • The seven Canadian LIS schools performed much better on the Bobby –tested variables. Of the pages, 68 percent were Bobby approved and 86 percent had approved home pages. • For the US libraries studied, 60 percent of the web pages were Bobby approved. • Of the homepages, 55 percent were accessible. For libraries, the superiority of Canadian web over US web sites was less pronounced than it was for LIS Schools. • Among both LIS schools and libraries, the percentage of accessible web pages ranged from recent to 100 percent. Such a wide range was found for both the US And Canadian web sites.American Experience Many library schools around the world have already introduced e-learning as a tool forcontinuous learning in LIS. In US, there has been a fast adoption of e-learning techniques inthe LIS schools to render education in a VLE which has benefited the students and teachers.The first online LIS Education in US was started in 1993 by Syracuse University, New York.12 LIS schools accredited to ALA organizing online programmers in thefield have been using variety of learning technologies .In most of the Schools, theprogrammer Participants need not to visit the school campus .All the schools ranging from 4-24 hours daily provide online technical help.IGNOU Initiatives in IndiaE-Gyankosh It is a digital repository initiated by IGNOU to enhance the accessibility of knowledgeto share its valuable resources with educational institutions and learners internationally.Thisnational Digital Repository acts as a podium to store, index, preserve and share theDigital learning resources developed by the Open and Distance Learning Institutions in thecountryNodlinet The Library and Documentation Division of IGNOU has started giving efforts to takehigher education to the doorsteps of the hitherto un-reached through its various modes ofInformation and Document Delivery Services. NODLINET (National Open and DistanceLearners’ Library and Information Network) is a recent initiative taken up by IGNOU toprovide a platform for libraries and information centres of the open and distance learningsystem of the country that will provide access to all electronic and digital; resources from theleading publishers and vendors across the globe to its stockholders from anywhere at anytimeusing advanced technologies to enhance the quality of education at par with the conventionaleducation system.IATLIS RecommendationsThe Joint National Conference of IATLIS and Association of Government Libraries andInformation Specialists held at Hyderabad in 1997 on IT have recommended that:National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 212
  • 226. • IT and its byproducts such as internet, CD-ROM and E-mail should be increasingly and effectively used in LIS education. • LIS students may have internship in libraries which have IT environment for gaining practical experience and confidence. • LIS students should acquire multimedia technology which has vast potential and utility for teaching LIS subjects. • IT environment might be created in all types of Library and Information Centres in the country LIS should adopt IT in the management and offer value added services to the community. • Short term and long term programmers such as seminars, symposia and workshops be organize at regular intervals by agencies like DST, NIC, NISCAIR, INFLIBNET, Library Schools, Library Associations for the LIS teachers as continuing education programme. • Realizing the greater impact of IT on Library and Information Services and to prepare the competent manpower and considering the impact of ever-growing Educational Technology on teaching and research, the XXII IATLIS National Conference -2005 also recommended that: • The UGC should take appropriate steps regularly to revise the LIS Curriculum at different levels. • UGC may take necessary steps to initiate and provide on-line learning facilities by exploring the possibility of using the newly launched EDUSAT, both for formal and distance students.Conclusion As an impact of the globalization and ICT revolution as well, there is generally anagreed implication that education and training in LIS should go in the tune of the same. LISschools all over the world, as such, are accepting the new technologies. In this regard, India islagging behind in comparison with other advanced counties like, US, UK, etc. The establishment of the Indian Training and Education Network for Development(INTEND) by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India is a goodapproach of the government. The initiatives taken up by IGNOU are a good signal in thecountry. Web-based mode of teaching has become an important component of LIS Educationin India. The use of new ICT by the Indian LIS Schools should be encouraged to produceprofessionals to manage knowledge resources in the VLE.ReferencesArora, S.K.Concept Note NODLINET, 2007.Available at, accessed on 29/11/2008.IGNOU IUC Report, 2008 Available at accessed on 29/11/2008. accessed on 20/11/2008.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 213
  • 227. An Introduction to MARC 21 Bibliographical formats Subarna Kr. Das Abstract MARC is an acronym, used in the field of library science that stands for Machine-Readable Cataloging. The MARC standards consist of the MARC formats, which are standards for the representation and communication of bibliographic and related information in machine-readable form, and related documentation The five MARC 21 communication formats, MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data, MARC 21 Format for Authority Data, MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data, MARC 21 Format for Classification Data, and MARC 21 Format for Community Information, are widely used standards for the representation and exchange of bibliographic, authority, holdings, classification, and community information data in machine-readable form. Present paper attempts to highlights that the fundamentals of MARC 21 bibliographical format along with some suitable examples. Keyword: MARC, MARC 21, Leader, Directory, Bibliographical formatsIntroduction A MARC record is a Machine-Readable Cataloging record. "Machine-readable"means that one particular type of machine, a computer, can read and interpret the data in thecataloging record. “MARC 21 is a result of the combination of the United States andCanadian MARC formats (USMARC and CAN/MARC). MARC21 is based on the ANSIstandard Z39.2, which allows users of different software products to communicate with eachother and to exchange data. MARC 21 was designed to redefine the original MARC recordformat for the 21st century and to make it more accessible to the international community.Cataloging record" means a bibliographic record, or the information traditionally shown on acatalog card. The record includes (not necessarily in this order): 1) A description of the item,2) Main entry and added entries, 3) Subject headings, and 4) The classification or callnumber. Following elements are the key components of MARC 21 bibliographical formats1 MARC Terms and Their Definitions • A field: Each bibliographic record is divided logically into fields. There is a field for the author, a field for title information, and so on. These fields are subdivided into one or more "subfields." They are represented by 3-digit tags. • A tag: Each field is associated with a 3-digit number called a "tag." A tag identifies the field -- the kind of data -- that follows. The tag is always the first 3 digits. Here the number 100 is the tag  100 1# $a Pirsig, Robert M. • Indicators: Two character positions follow each tag (with the exception of Fields 001 through 009). One or both of these character positions may be used for indicators. When an indicator position is not used, that indicator is referred to as "undefined" and the position is left blank. It is the convention to represent a blank, or undefined, indicator position by the character "#".National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 214
  • 228. Leader (NR) • There are 24 positions in the Leader, numbered from 00 to 23. • 00-04 - Record length • 05 - Record status – a - Increase in encoding level c - Corrected or revised – d – Deleted n - New • 06 - Type of record – a - Language material c - Notated music – d - Manuscript notated music e - Cartographic material – f - Manuscript cartographic material g - Projected medium – i - Nonmusical sound recording j - Musical sound recording • 07 - Bibliographic level – a - Monographic component part b - Serial component part – c – Collection d - Subunit – i - Integrating resource m - Monograph/Item – s - Serial 08 - Type of control • # - No specified type a - Archival • 09 - Character coding scheme – # - MARC-8 a - UCS/Unicode • 10 - Indicator count – 2 - Number of character positions used for indicators • 11 - Subfield code count – 2 - Number of character positions used for a subfield code • 12-16 - Base address of data – [number] - Length of Leader and Directory • 17 - Encoding level – # - Full level 1 - Full level, material not examined – 2 - Less-than-full level, material not examined3 - Abbreviated level – 4 - Core level 5 - Partial (preliminary) level – 7 - Minimal level 8 - Prepublication level • 18 - Descriptive cataloging form – # - Non-ISBD a - AACR 2 – c - ISBD punctuation omitted i - ISBD punctuation included – u - UnknownNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 215
  • 229. • 19 - Multipart resource record level – # - Not specified or not applicable – a - Set – b - Part with independent title – c - Part with dependent title • 20 - Length of the length-of-field portion – 4 - Number of characters in the length-of-field portion of a Directory entry • 21 - Length of the starting-character-position portion – 5 - Number of characters in the starting-character-position portion of a Directory entry • 22 - Length of the implementation-defined portion – 0 - Number of characters in the implementation-defined portion of a Directory entry • 23 - Undefined 0 - UndefinedField 008 for Books • Field 008 is used for Fixed Length Data Elements ("Fixed Field Codes"). There are 40 character positions in field 008, numbered from 00-39. Undefined positions must contain either a blank (#) or a fill character (|). Positions 00-17 and 35-39 are defined the same way for all media.2 MARC 21 Communication FormatsThere are five communication formats • MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data • MARC 21 Format for Authority Data • MARC 21 Format for Holdings Data • MARC 21 Format for Classification Data • MARC 21 Format for Community Information3 MARC 21 Formats for Bibliographic Data MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data is designed to be a carrier for bibliographicinformation about printed and manuscript textual materials, computer files, maps, music,continuing resources, visual materials, and mixed materials. Bibliographic data commonlyincludes titles, names, subjects, notes, publication data, and information about the physicaldescription of an item. The bibliographic format contains data elements for the followingtypes of material • Books (BK)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 216
  • 230. • Continuing resources (CR) • Computer files (CF) • Maps (MP) • Music (MU) • Visual materials (VM) • Mixed materials (MX)The tags used most frequently are: 010 tagmarks the Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) 020 tag marks the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) 100 tag marks a personal name main entry (author) 245 tag marks the title information (which includes the title, other Title information and the statement of responsibility) 250 tag marks the edition260 tag marks the publication Information 300 tag marks the physical description (often referred to as the "Collation" when describing books) 490 tag marks the series statement 520 tag marks the annotation or summary note 650 tag marks a topical subject heading 700 tag marks a personal name added entry (joint author, editor, or Illustrator) 4 Main Entry Fields • 100 - Main Entry - Personal Name (NR) • 110 - Main Entry - Corporate Name (NR) • 111 - Main Entry - Meeting Name (NR) • 130 - Main Entry - Uniform Title (NR)130 - Main Entry-Uniform Title (NR)First Indicator Second Indicator0-9 – No. of non-filing character # UndefinedSubfield Codes$a - Uniform title (NR)$d - Date of treaty signing (R)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 217
  • 231. $f - Date of a work (NR)$g - Miscellaneous information (NR)$h - Medium (NR)$k - Form subheading (R)$l - Language of a work (NR)$m - Medium of performance for music (R)$n - Number of part/section of a work (R)$o - Arranged statement for music (NR)$p - Name of part/section of a work (R)$r - Key for music (NR)$s - Version (NR)$t - Title of a work (NR)$0 - Authority record control number (R)$6 - Linkage (NR)$8 - Field link and sequence number (R)245 - Title Statement (NR)First Indicator Second Indicator 0 – No adder entry 0 – No nonfiling character 1 – Added entry 0-9 – no. of non filing character250 - Edition Statement (NR)First Indicator Second Indicator# - Undefined # - UndefinedSubfield Codes$a - Edition statement (NR)$b - Remainder of edition statement (NR)$6 - Linkage (NR)$8 - Field link and sequence number (R)260 - Publication, Distribution, etc. (Imprint) (R)First Indicator Second Indicator # - Not applicable # - Undefined 2 – Intervening publisher 3 – Current or latest publisherNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 218
  • 232. 300 – Physical Description (R)First Indicator Second Indicator # - Undefined # - UndefinedSubfield Codes$a - Extent (R)$b - Other physical details (NR)$c - Dimensions (R)$e - Accompanying material (NR)$f - Type of unit (R)$g - Size of unit (R)$3 - Materials specified (NR)$6 - Linkage (NR)$8 - Field link and sequence number (R)310 - Current Publication Frequency (NR)First Indicator Second Indicator# - Undefined # - Undefined362 - Dates of Publication and/or Sequential Designation (R)First Indicator Second Indicator0 – Formatted style # - Undefined1 – Unformatted note8 Series Statement Fields 490 - Series Statement (R) (Formerly 440) First Indicator Second Indicator 0 – Formatted style # - Undefined 1 – Unformatted note10 Subject Access Fields-General Information • 600 - Subject Added Entry - Personal Name (R) • 610 - Subject Added Entry - Corporate Name (R) • 611 - Subject Added Entry - Meeting Name (R) • 630 - Subject Added Entry - Uniform Title (R) • 648 - Subject Added Entry - Chronological Term (R) • 650 - Subject Added Entry - Topical Term (R) • 651 - Subject Added Entry - Geographic Name (R) • 653 - Index Term - Uncontrolled (R)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 219
  • 233. • 654 - Subject Added Entry - Faceted Topical Terms (R) • 655 - Index Term - Genre/Form (R) • 656 - Index Term - Occupation (R) • 657 - Index Term - Function (R) • 658 - Index Term - Curriculum Objective (R) • 662 - Subject Added Entry - Hierarchical Place Name (R) • 69X - Local Subject Access Fields (R)11 700- 750 - Added Entry Fields - General Information • 700 - Added Entry - Personal Name (R) • 710 - Added Entry - Corporate Name (R) • 711 - Added Entry - Meeting Name (R) • 720 - Added Entry - Uncontrolled Name (R) • 730 - Added Entry - Uniform Title (R) • 740 - Added Entry - Uncontrolled Related/Analytical Title (R) • 751 - Added Entry - Geographic Name (R) • 752 - Added Entry - Hierarchical Place Name (R) • 753 - System Details Access to Computer Files (R) • 754 - Added Entry - Taxonomic Identification (R)12 760-780 - Linking Entries-General Information • 760 - Main Series Entry (R) • 762 - Sub series Entry (R) • 765 - Original Language Entry (R) • 767 - Translation Entry (R) • 770 - Supplement/Special Issue Entry (R) • 772 - Supplement Parent Entry (R) • 773 - Host Item Entry (R) • 774 - Constituent Unit Entry (R) • 775 - Other Edition Entry (R) • 776 - Additional Physical Form Entry (R) • 777 - Issued With Entry (R) • 780 - Preceding Entry (R) • 785 - Succeeding Entry (R) • 786 - Data Source Entry (R) • 787 - Other Relationship Entry (R)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 220
  • 234. 13 800-830 - Series Added Entry Fields • 800 - Series Added Entry - Personal Name (R) • 811 - Series Added Entry - Meeting Name (R) • 830 - Series Added Entry - Uniform Title (R) Control Subfields Subfield Codes • $w - Bibliographic record control number • $0 - Authority record control number or standard number • $5 - Institution to which field applies • $6 - Linkage • $8 - Field link and sequence numberConclusion MARC 21 Bibliographical format is very convenient and flexible for electronicrecords. MARC 21 format is being used in the National Libraries, as well as variousUniversity libraries, IIT, IIM, IISC, NIT, special libraries and other type of libraries in Indiaas well as world to exchange their bibliographical data. MARC 21 Format is updating time totime to satisfy the demand of online catalogue. Some Open Source software and Automationsoftware like KOHA and LIBSYS supports MARC 21 bibliographical format. Any librarycan use MARC 21 format and develop a new MARC 21 format according to theirrequirements. Now it’s been obvious that MARC 21 is a revolution in the present scenario (Visited on 24/9/2011) on 12/10/2011) (Visited on 14/10/2011) (Visited on 15/10/2011) on 16/10/2011) on 18/10/2011) on 20/10/2011) (Visited on 2/10/2011) (Visited on 25/10/2011)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 221
  • 235. New Techniques of Information Technology T. Prabakaran Abstract This paper highlights the components of IT that facilitate innovation, free of information creative expression, and effective management. In education information technology has tremendously increased because of it provides enhanced satisfaction, cost effectiveness, faster and simpler programmes, rapid responses and easier operational procedures. The rapid growth of technological changes, information explosion has created problems for proper processing and dissemination of information, which can only be solved with the help of this information technology. Keywords: Information Technology, Effective Management, EducationIntroduction Information technology includes computer hardware and software, operating system,web-based information and application, telephones, and other telecommunication products,video equipment and multimedia products, information kiosks, and office products such asphotocopies and fax machines. Gresco defines information technology as “scientific technology and engineeringdisciplines and the management techniques used in information handling and processing theirinteraction, with men and machines and associated social, economic and cultural matters”.According to ILA glossary information technology is “the application of the computers andother technologies to the acquisition, organizing, storage, retrieval and dissemination ofinformation”.Objective of information technology The objective of information technology is to promote and encourage interactionsamong professional from practice and research and advancement of investigation of concepts,methods, techniques, tools, and issues related to information systems in organizations.Importance of information Technology • Production and manipulation of sensitive information. • Cultural development and communication. • Streamlining of business processes and timely upgradation. • Administration of entire systemsMerits Globalization - The world has developed into a global village due to the help ofinformation technology allowing countries like Chile and Japan who are not only separated bydistance but also by language to shares ideas and information with each other.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 222
  • 236. Communication - Communicate with anyone around the globe by simply textmessaging them or sending them an email for an almost instantaneous response. Cost effectiveness - Information technology has helped to computerize the businessprocess in turn increases productivity which ultimately gives rise to profits that means betterpay and less strenuous working conditions. Bridging the cultural gap - people from different cultures to communicate with oneanother, and allow for the exchange of views and ideas, thus increasing awareness andreducing prejudice. More time - business can be open anytime anywhere, making purchases from differentcountries easier and more convenient. Creation of new jobs - Employment opportunities are created with the help of IT.Demerits Unemployment - While information technology may have streamlined the businessprocess it has also created job redundancies, downsizing and outsourcing. Privacy - Though information technology may have made communication quicker,easier and more convenient, it has also bought along privacy issues. Lack of job security - Industry experts believe that the internet has made job security abig issue as since technology keeps on changing with each day. Dominant culture - While information technology may have made the world a globalvillage, it has also contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one.Tools and equipments • Computer Systems ,Routers ,Modems , Satellite , Television, Radio Set, Internet , G.S.M. , Fax Machines , Ethernet, Mobile phones equipments are used to enhance communication. • Editor, Assembler, Linker and loader, Compiler, Interpreter, Synthesizer, Simulator, Emulator are IT tools.Components of Information TechnologyInformation Technology can be broadly grouped under the following major areas:Reprographic Technology Reprographic means the reproduction of graphic materials which may be handwritten,typed or printed, several process and techniques have been developed to reproduce a faithfulreplica of an original document. The better known processes ar electrostatic process,diazographic process thremographic processes and silver halide processes. Photocopying ofdocuments is known as xerography . There are five operational steps involved in makingxerox copies such as charging,exposing,developing,transferring and fixing on paper.Normally plain bond-weight and dust-free paper is used for making photocopies. Because thephoto-conductive plates/drums,toner,ink and papre are sensitive to hat,humidity and dust ,theyoperated in air-conditioned rooms.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 223
  • 237. Database Technology There was a growing demand among the users for more information to be provided bythe computer relating to the day to day running of the organisation as well to planning andcontrol processes. A database can be conceived as a system whose base, is simply aparticularly way of handling data. Objective of a database is to record and maintaininformation. It is defined as a collection of interrelated data stored ,it may be accessed byauthorised users with simpler user friendly dialogues. Sharing of information throughe-mail, FTP, TELELET, GOPHER, online facilities or terminal is possible if data is present.It is an organised, integrated and logically interrelated collection of digital data, records, fileor information and used to avoid duplication of data.Satellite communication Technology A communication satellite can be thought of as a big microwave repeater in the sky. Itcontains several transponders, each of which listens to some portion of the spectrum,amplifies the incoming signal and then rebroadcasts it at another frequent to avoidinterference with the incoming signals. The down word beams can be board, covering asubstantial fraction of the earth’s or narrowing an area only hundred of kilometer in diameter.Many of the current satellites are in geosynchronous orbit. They rotate around at the earth at6,900 miles/hour. Geosynchronous satellite can achieve worldwide coverage with threesatellites spaced at 120 degree intervals from one another.CD-ROM Technology It is an abbreviation of compact disc read only memory. It has brought about a radicalchange in the storage and retrieval of information is the major task in libraries, holds hugeamount of data/information with amazing speed of retrieval the information. It reduces shelfspace, maintenance cost and high data security .The CD drives are also relatively inexpensive.The entire collection of back volumes of journals, technical reports, standards, patents,conference reports, etc, can be captured on CD-ROM.Digital Technology Digital technology is a base two process. Digitized information is recorded in binarycode of combinations of the digits 0 and 1, also called bits, which represent words andimages. Digital technology enables immense amounts of information to be compressed onsmall storage devices that can be easily preserved and transported. Digitization also quickensdata transmission speeds. Digital technology has transformed how people communicate, learn,and work. Telecommunications has relied on digital methods to transmit messages. Digitaltechnology replaced analog signals for many telecommunication forms, particularly cellulartelephone and cable systems. Digital printing with electro photographic and formatted datatechnologies have altered how books and magazines are published. By the early 2000s, digitalcameras had transformed photography by recording color and light intensities with pixels.Also, digital compression of images and video was achieved by Joint Photographic ExpertsGroup (JPEG) and the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) codes. Animation had oftenbeen digitized with some films and cartoons being created entirely with computers.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 224
  • 238. RFID Technology for Libraries RFID can be used library circulation operations and theft detection systems. RFID-based systems move beyond security to become tracking systems that combine security withmore efficient tracking of materials throughout the library, including easier and faster chargeand discharge, inventorying, and materials handling .It helps librarians reduce valuable stafftime spent scanning barcodes while charging and discharging items. RFID is a combination ofradio -frequency-based technology and microchip technology. The Components of an RFIDsystem RFID tags that are electronically programmed with unique information, readers orsensors to query the tags, antenna, server on which the software that interfaces with theintegrated library software is loaded.Barcode Technology Barcode is an automatic identification technology. It is a predefined format of darkbars and white spaces. It allows real-time data to be collected accurately and rapidly.Combination of barcode technology with computer and application software improvesperformance, productivity and profitability. This technology is frequently used to check ,storeand transact speedy their items with the customers. In the library barcodes are us ed in thecirculation counter such as reservation, issue/return, renewal, stock verification. In busy hoursof transaction these activities have to be done efficiently and effectively.Bar coding in librariesEffective library needs each document bar coded • Two labels preferably • Label to contain- accession number equivalent bar code, call number,institution symbol advantageous • ISBN bar code could be usedSmart Card Technology Smart cards are like a wallet-sized plastic card with a small chip embedded into it, thatintern interfaces with networked terminal device these cards are programmable and dividedinto three areas such as data carriers, identification and financial details. It designed with ahigh level of security, namely protecting the hardware from probing and also forcryptography. The chip on the smart card is covered in epoxy resin. In library, the smart cardsare replaced in the library cards. in the transaction counter, along with the user details,photograph of the user also appear on the computer along with the transaction details whichhelps the library professional to identify the user and to transact more efficiently theseapplication in libraries are limited with regard to financial aspect such as find collection, lostbook recovery charges or printing charges.Biometrics Technology Biometrics is automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological orbehavioral characteristic. Among the features measured are face, fingerprints, hand geometry,handwriting, iris, retinal, vein, and voice. Biometric technologies are becoming the foundationof an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions. As thelevel of security breaches and transaction fraud increases. The need for biometrics can befound in federal, state and local governments, in the military, and in commercial applications.Enterprise-wide network security infrastructures, government IDs, secure electronic banking,investing and other financial transactions, retail sales, law enforcement, and health and socialservices are already benefiting from these technologies.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 225
  • 239. Electronic Article Surveillance Technology Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) is a technology used to identify items as theypass through a gated area. Typically this identification is used to alert someone of theunauthorized removal of items from a store, library, or data center. There are several types ofEAS systems. In each case, the EAS tag or label is affixed to an item. The tag is thendeactivated when the item is purchased or legally borrowed at the checkout desk. When theitem is moved through the gates, it is able to sense if the tag is active or deactivated and soundan alarm if necessary.EAS systems are used anywhere there is a chance of theft from smallitems to large. By placing an EAS tag on an item, it is not necessary to hide the item behindlocked doors and so makes it easier for the consumer to review the product. Todays EASsource tagging, where the tag is built into the product at the point of manufacture orpackaging, has become commonplace. This makes the labeling of goods unnecessary, savingtime and money at the store.Conclusion It can be concluded that above new information technology will enable theprofessionals, students to meet the challenge, improve knowledge and provide betterinformation at any time from any where. With the up gradation of new technology are makingpeople still closer and provide better information to each and every member of the society.and also for the library to reduce the man power and it should be converted to the digital form.With the rapid changes each and every library professional update the knowledge to accessthe digitized information in an efficient way.ReferencesCompaine, B. M., The Digital Divide: Facing a Crisis or Creating a Myth? Cambridge,Mass.: MIT Press. 2001.Couch, L. W., Digital and Analog Communication Systems. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.:Prentice Hall. 1997.Jain,V.K., Information technology for digital library management and automation, Atlanticpublication, New Delhi. 2009.Lal.C., Information Literacy in the digital age,Ess Ess Punlications,New Delhi. 2008.Sodhi.M.S., Use of MIS Techmology in Library Science,Adhyayan publications,Delhi. 2006.Sooryanarayanan, P.S. & Mahesh, V.M., Communication technology Its on library andinformation science, ESS ESS Publication, New Delhi. 2000Subba Rao. P.V, Library And Information Technology,Sonali publications ,New Delhi. 2005.Williams, G. E., .Digital Technology. 3rd ed. Chicago: Science Research Associates. 1986.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 226
  • 240. Emergence of Technological Trajectories in copyright landscape and its impact on Public Domain of knowledge – An analysis of intellectual property issues in library and information centres S. Jasimudeen, E.R. Jayaram and M. Maghesh Rajan Abstract The emergence and expansion of new information and communication technologies have radically changed the way in which literary and artistic works are created and diffused. The information explosion has been brought to the control over the advent of new technologies like e-books, e-journals, online information sources, digital archives with “turn the page” level etc. Publishers are very much concerned about the violation of copy rights by clients. Many new attempted legislative enactments with an objective of handling the untamed growth of technological terrain also confronted with major short comings. This paper provides an overview of various aspects of IPR and its relevance to Library and Information Centres. Keywords: TPM, IPR and Copy Right, Digital Rights Management, Licensing Digital Content, TRIPS, WIPO, E-Books and TPM, Soft and Hard Restrictions. Library e-Book archrivals, E- Book agreements.Introduction The proliferation of digital information sources paved the way for a paradigm shift inthe outlook about the frontiers of fair use privileges of digital information sources. Copyrightfalls under the broad arena of Intellectual property rights and is one among the most debatedissues by library and information science professionals. Copyright is a bundle of monopolyrights granted to the owner of a work for a statutorily limited fixed term. Copyright law2 isconcerned with the protection and exploitation of the expression of ideas in a tangible form.Copyright has evolved over several centuries keeping pace with changing ideas aboutcreativity and respect for new modes and Media of communication. In the modern world, thelaw of copyright provides the legal framework not only for the protection of the traditionalbeneficiaries of copyright ,the individual author, composer or artist, but also for theinvestment required for the creation of works by major cultural industries, the publishing,film; broadcasting and recording industries; and the computer and software industries.3 Copyright refers to “a bundle of exclusive rights conferred by law on authors/creatorsof original works for commercially exploiting the work”. The central right in which lawconfers is to prevent unauthorized persons from copying a work. Copyright also confers, bythe doctrine of fair use, a privilege in others, than the owner of the copyright to use thecopyrighted material in a reasonable manner without his permission. By the application of thedoctrine of fair use, the law of copyright balances private and public interests.4 The newdevelopments in IPR regime is in confrontation with fair use privileges and is mitigatingcustomer rights .IPR and Public Domain of Knowledge Enriching the public domain should the primary goals of the intellectual propertyrights. In the case of patents, patent policies are designed to bring inventions into the publicdomain for the public benefit. The emergence and expansion of new information andNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 227
  • 241. communication technologies have radically changed the way in which literary and artisticworks are created and diffused. New and old creations can now be digitalized and diffusedvery easily. Traditional intellectual property system is failing to catch up with therevolutionary technological changes and new changes were required to handle thetechnological advancements due to digitalization of copyrighted materials. In order to have a better understanding of the present day controversy one must firsthave a brief analysis of intellectual property (IP) philosophy. The IP philosophy comprises ofmultidimensional arguments. If we take the example of Patent system, the justifications forgrating an exclusive right over the innovations itself have many different points of views. Thetraditional patent system views patent right as an incentive for innovation.5 whereas the otherside of the argument is that the owner of an invention must have a right over what he inventedand must be allowed to recoup the time and money he has expended6as his natural right.However, we can see that, the patent regime is granting this monopoly right to the inventornot merely as a personal right but as an incentive for disclosing the invention. “Its inducementis directed to disclosure of advances in knowledge which will be beneficial to society; it is nota certificate of merit, but an incentive to disclosure”.7 Patent and copyright laws are designedto deliver privately held information into public hands. Intellectual property rights are basically a reciprocal arrangement between the rightholder and the society. Exclusive right granted for the work is for a limited period of time forkeeping the work in the public domain. Legal protection for the products of humanintellectual effort and ingenuity is granted not because of a moral commitment tocompensating creators or innovators, but rather because the products they create enrich asociety’s culture and knowledge and thus increase its welfare8 The most well-known manifestation of this approach is The Intellectual PropertyClause of the United States Constitution9, -“To promote the progress of science and usefularts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to theirrespective writings and discoveries." United States Supreme Court explained in 1945 that,“the primary purpose of our patent system is not reward of the individual but the advancementof the arts and sciences. It is an inducement directed to disclosure the advances in knowledgewhich will be beneficial to society; it is not a certificate of merit, but an incentive todisclosure.10 Though the objective of granting monopoly to the inventor is for stimulating theinnovation he can use it as a means to restrict others from working on the area of researchitself.11 Economist Joan Robinson commented on the patent system; Since it is rooted in contradiction, there can be no such thing as an ideally beneficialpatent system, and it is bound to produce negative results in particular instances, impedingprogress unnecessarily even if its general effect is favorable on the balance.12 This is what exactly happening as a result of the new technological trajectoriesimposing access restriction to the public domain of knowledge. The basic concept ofintellectual property is to reward the creator for encouraging innovation. Article 27 of theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights, (UDHR) which guarantees to everyone " (1)Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy thearts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits." Whereas the sub clause (2) statesthat “Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resultingfrom any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author”.13 We can see thatthe UDHR is rightfully upholding the interest of the society ensuring protection to the creator.Hence it can be seen that intellectual property rights are based on a perfectly balancingreciprocal arrangement between the creator of the work and the society. The introduction ofNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 228
  • 242. Digital Rights Management (DRM) devises to prevent the use of copy righted materials bydenying the initial access have caused many concerns regarding the free and equitable accessto library and information centers.Copy protection measures (DRMs) The term commonly used to describe a wide range of technical measures that arelicensed for controlling, measuring and enabling use of copyright protected digital content istermed as Digital Rights Management Systems- DRMs. Such systems cover a range of technologies with different purposes such as: • Systems to identify owners rights and give information on licensing , e.g. to enable collecting societies to accurately pay royalties - Rights management Information (RMI) • Copy protection systems to prevent unauthorized copying, e.g. may prevent consumers from transferring films stored on DVD to a computer hard drive - Technical Protection Measures (TPM).14 There exists a claim that DRM is necessary to fight copyright infringement online andkeep consumers safe from viruses. But it is evident that theres no substantial proof that DRMhelps fight either of those. Actually DRM helps big business stifle innovation and competitionby making it easy to quash "unauthorized" uses of media and technology. DRM hasproliferated thanks to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 (DMCA) which soughtto outlaw any attempt to bypass DRM. 15TPM — Technological Protection MeasuresTypes of restrictions Eschenfelder categorizes TPMs under two heads, soft and hard.16 Soft restrictions are “configurations of hardware or software that make certain usessuch as printing, saving, copy/pasting, or e-mailing more difficult — but not impossible — toachieve.” The soft restrictions have been divided into the following subtypes: • extent of use – page print limits; PDF download limits; data export limits; suspicious use tracking • obfuscation – need to select items before options become available • omission – not providing buttons or links to enact users • decomposition – saving document results in many files, making recreating or e- mailing the document difficult • frustration – page chunking in e-books • warning – copyright warnings; end-user licenses on start up. Hard restrictions are “configurations of software or hardware that strictly prevent certainuses.” The hard restrictions have been divided into the following subtypes: • restricted copy and paste OCR – OCR exposed for searching, but not for copying and pasting of text • secure container TPM – use rights vary by resourceNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 229
  • 243. Mahatma Gandhi University Mahatma Gandhi University established in 1983 is one of the affiliating universities inKerala and is the premier educational institution that strives to fulfil the higher educationalneeds of the people of Central Kerala. It has seven satellite campuses in parts of Kottayamand the neighbouring districts. It offers a range of programmes at the undergraduate,postgraduate, M Phil and Doctoral levels through its 18 Teaching Departments, 4 InterUniversity Centers, 3 Academic Centers, 252 recognized Research Institutes and 170affiliated colleges. The University has also made its educational presence felt outside theterritorial jurisdiction through its Off Campus Centers in and outside the country. MahatmaGandhi University is one among the 30 universities in India selected by the Department ofScience and Technology recently for funding under the DST-PURSE programme. Theuniversity has been placed eighth among the 30 top Indian universities selected under thisprogramme based on its h-index (a measure to assess the quality of research in science).Mahatma Gandhi University had an h-index of 35.TPMs: Mahatma Gandhi University’s E-book access issues Mahatma Gandhi University subscribes for perpetual access to some e-bookcollections. In the beginning stage of subscription there were no TPMs in those collectionswhich prevented the user access. But when one of those e-book providers revamped theirwebsite (they claims that the website has modified to give the users more user friendliness andaccess options) the problems started to begin. In the initial stages of subscription the user wasable to copy/download etc without restrictions. But as of now, the user is finding it verydifficult to access items from the collection. Many of soft restrictions explained byEschenfelder in his paper began to shore up. The university authorities are in touch with theproviders to remove all those TPMs in order to have the unrestricted access to those items.The screen shot of one such access restrictions is shown below. Figure 1National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 230
  • 244. The License Agreement terms The wordings of the License agreement of one e-book provider and Mahatma GandhiUniversity is given below. • Subject always to any specific restrictions appearing within the licensed work, the licensee and the authorised users may: electronically save short extracts from licensed works print out single copies of short extracts from the licensed works… This is an ample example of how license agreements are very important beforeprocuring e-book collections. The above mentioned provider is imposing so many restrictionsand on the other hand another provider gives the client the right of archiving the licensedmaterial.Licensing Electronic Content Some facts that should keep in mind regarding the licensing of electronic content arelisted below. • Not all licenses are negotiable: Almost every licence is negotiable. Negotiate in such a way that you will have a licence that meets your needs. • Licenses must be in Understandable language: Use plain English in your licenses and not technical or legal language. • Librarian is the foremost lawyer: Very often content owners and users know more about digital licensing than lawyers. So it is necessary to do well with your legal skills. • Opt for automatic renewal clause: Lengthy durations for license agreements may not be appropriate, so the need for an automatic renewal clause may be considered to provide that both parties are satisfied with how the license is working out for them and provided each side has an opportunity to positively opt-in to the renewal. • Controlling users: Do not agree, or expect the other party, to police the subsequent users of licensed content. But do educate staff and researchers about legally using licensed content, and obligate any user licensing your content to do the same. • Fair use or fair dealing: fair use should be permissible to licensed content. • Standard licenses: It helps to avoid costly and time-draining negotiations • Negotiations: it should be always in a “win-win” manner.Steps before implementing e-BOOK COLLECTIONS17 Collection Development Strategy • The determination of acquisition strategy is very important. Whether it should be “pick and choose” or “package” model. • Evaluation of Business Models • Selecting a vendor with the smallest possible amount of DRM will increase user satisfaction and content usage. The Libraries should seek out providers with no user.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 231
  • 245. Limitations: Availability of MARC records should be checked. Librarians should seekout publishers who provide the same level of content ownership found in the printed bookworld. Libraries should retain day-to-day and long-term access to e-Book content, regardlessof changes in a publisher’s status. To fulfil these requirements, publishers should provideperpetual content access to libraries in business agreements and participate in an archivingprogram such as LOCKSS , CLOCKSS or PORTICO to ensure that content persists. As thenature of libraries is different from one another, the librarians should seek out publishers whoare willing to provide flexible package arrangements. Gains Internal Support • Institutions should create widespread under-standing and acceptance of e-Books within their library community before releasing new initiatives to users. Plan Plicy Changes with Subject Specialists/Librarian Liaisons • Before implementing an e-Book strategy, institutions should invite all relevant personnel to discuss what changes need to be made in connection with the library procedures and policies for acquiring e-Books versus print books. Choose Collections and Vendors Librarians should select their collections and vendors by balancing: • Collection size and breadth • Availability of MARC records • Packaged content versus a pick and choose model • Archive access • Unlimited usage and ownership Discussion, Coordination and implementation with technical staff • After establishing business needs, libraries should enlist their IT or cataloguing departments, or perhaps, their consortia to discuss requirements and time lines for loading MARC records into the library environment so that end users will find the texts they need. Link e-Books to the OPAC The information regarding availability/access of e-books can be obtained by the user through the OPAC system of the Library and preferably in the Web-OPAC. Communicate to Users • The resources are very expensive so when we buy them we want them to be used as much as possible. So it is the library’s responsibility as well to promote this new acquisition through orientation and training. The marketing of information services and products including the e-book consortia will enrich the effective use. Download Usage Statistics • Periodic evaluation is inevitable regarding usage statistics. • The feedback should consist of the subject wise search. • The most hit areas should be developed with additional collection development. • The new proposals for the adding items and deleting items which are not at allNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 232
  • 246. accessed by the users so that you can substitute the resources. • The download user statistics identifies the real user and serious research scholars. • Review / Renew • Librarians should interview users and evaluate their future needs.Questions to be asked to E-book Vendors • What is your e-book business model? Perpetual access, subscription, etc? • Do you allow for individual title selection or purchase? • Are libraries allowed to fulfil an ILL e-book request? • How many simultaneous users can there be? Is there any limit? • Is there an annual hosting fee in addition to the purchase or subscription price? • Can citation information be exported to citation managers, such as RefWorks, EndNote, or Zotero? • Do you include the most up-to-date editions of titles? • Are titles in the collection updated? If so, do you send out a notification of the update? • Is the Library notified in advance of the deletions of titles? • Are users able to download e-books to their mobile devices? • How many pages can users print? • Is short term lease possible for reserve titles? • Are usage statistics available? Are they COUNTER/SUSHI compliant? • Do you offer Patron on Demand Acquisition (PDA)? • Are MARC records available? For free or at a cost?New legislative enactments Many new attempted legislative enactments with an objective of handling the untamedgrowth of technological terrain also confronted with major short comings. The DigitalMillennium Copyright Act 18 (DMCA) is one of such initiative to handle the technologicalchallenges in the sphere of copyright. The DCMA provides more stringent measures toprotect of digitally copyrighted work. DMCA further prohibits circumvention of accesscontrol technologies used by copyright owners to protect their works19 specifically, subsection1201(a) (1) (A) provides, that "no person shall circumvent a technological measure thateffectively controls access to a work protected under this title”. However the overzealousprotections like, access protection measures have impeded the legitimate use copy rightedwork claiming fair use exception. These issues raised many public accountability and humanrights concern. Further this new development has endangered the public domain ofknowledge. When DRM measures are adopted to restrict access, people tend to adoptcircumvention technologies to bypass DRM. However accesses to digitally encryptedcopyrighted works are currently prohibited under the anti-circumvention and anti-traffickingNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 233
  • 247. provisions. DMCA subsection 1201(a)(1)(A) provides, that "no person shall circumvent atechnological measure that effectively controls access to a work protected under this title."Interestingly one of the conflicting provision of DMCA is section 1201(c)(1) whichexpressly states that the anti-circumvention and anti-trafficking is not intended to affect fairuse rights. Which means that, the DMCA recognize the legal right granted under fair usedefenceConclusion Global Initiative for free and fair access and distribution knowledge: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) acknowledges the right of everyoneto share in scientific advancement and its benefits. Although the Declaration is not bindingper se. Another notable initiative is International Covenant on Economic, Social and CulturalRights (ICESCR) which recognizes the right of everyone “to enjoy the benefits of scientificprogress and its applications”, requiring member States to take steps “to achieve the fullrealization of this right, including those necessary for the conservation, the development andthe diffusion of science and culture.20 The new DRM technologies are going directly againstthese concept envisioned by the international treaties. Another notable initiative to produce a draft of a treaty on access to knowledge (A2K)is currently being led by a coalition of civil society actors, proposed by World IntellectualProperty Organization (WIPO) development agenda. The proposed A2K treaty was initiatedby Argentina and Brazil before WIPO General Assembly in 2004. The draft treaty wasprepared by members including Brazil, India, United States, the United Kingdom, and otherdeveloped and developing countries21. All these initiatives are justifying the human rightperspective of access right. The new trend of imposing DRM in library sector for protectingthe digital rights is signalling to a much harder enclosure movement in contravention to thebasic concept of intellectual property as a public good.ReferencesFed. Trade Comm’n, To Promote Innovation: The Proper Balance of Competition and PatentLaw and Policy, Executive Summary, at 4–7 (2003), last visited on 12-february 2009Part II,section 1,TRIPS.the copyright Act,1957 regulates this area of law in IndiaP.Narayan, Law of copyright and Industrial design,4th Ed.,Eastern LawHouse,Kolkata,2007,p.1.Theberge v.Galerie D’art Dupetit Champlain Inc.,2002 SCC 34 (Canada)Study report by Prof.Dietmar Harhoff, Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Unified andIntegrated European Patent Litigation System Institute for Innovation Research, TechnologyManagement and Entrepreneurship (INNO-tec) p47.2009Ulrich Schatz, Patentability of Genetic Engineering Inventions in European Patent OfficePractice, 29 Intl Rev. Indus. Prop. & Copyright L. 2, 2-3 (1998).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 234
  • 248. Sinclair & Carroll Co. v. Interchemical Corp., 325 U.S. 327, 330-31 (1945).Ibid United States Constitution, Article 1, Section 8.Edwin C. Hettinger, Justifying Intellectual Property Rights, 18 PHIL. & PUB. AFF. 31, 48(1989). accessed on September 22 2011 accessed on September 10 2011 accessed 0n 10 June U.S.C. § 1201 (2000).Section 1201(a)(1)(A) provides that "no person shall circumvent a technological measure thateffectively controls access to a work protected under this title." Traditional exceptionsallowed under the Copyright Act such as fair use are not exempted under this languageUN General Assembly, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16December 1966, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 993, p. 3, available at: W. Opderbeck, The Penguins Paradox: The Political Economy Of InternationalIntellectual Property And The Paradox of Open Intellectual Property Models, 18 Stan. L. &Poly Rev 101, p.107(2007)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 235
  • 249. E- Learning and Information Literacy in Higher Education Institutions and University Libraries: A Study Suresh Kumar T.V, Maghesh Rajan M and Jasimudeen S Abstract The influence of higher education in various sectors has been creating to be overcautious to meet unpredictable barriers. Due to the policy of government of India, the fund allocation and resource accumulation has also been increased to cater the scholars, teachers and students. In era of information explosion and technology out break can not be explicated in a rigid way. Necessary alternatives should be developed to meet the both ends. The technology can manage the information explosion but the technology out break should be overcome by the e-learning to handle best access and provide easy understanding to make alternative arrangements. The e- learning is the kind of social tool to be educated right from the preliminary education so as to over come the technological out break. The effective delivery of services and resources should acknowledge through e-learning. The authors of this paper investigated the role of e-learning in the higher education and best use of services and resources. The role of university libraries in e-learning has been studied in detail. Key words: Effective delivery, Easy Access, Teacher-less delivery Model, Growing need for Higher Education, Proposals to be followed by University Libraries.Introduction The development of ICT in the various branches of discipline has been a positiveimpact over the speedy transmission and retrieval of information to solve problems, learningtowards research and to make decision making. Even though information has been anunmined mineral wealth has no value until extracted, processed and utilized, the access to theright information is a nightmare in the field of information explosion. The problem relating toits generation from the raw type, storage, process, analyse and disseminate in the systematicway and the knowledge to access the information has been a long dismay. Here the concept ofaccess techniques is inevitably needed to introduce. The e-learning is one of the techniquesused to the best access to the right information and to ensure the various informationresources, agents and institutions provide such information, and to understand the recentenvironment in the area of one’s study. The computer Aided Video Instructions, Hypermedia,CD ROMs, LANs, Internet connections, Collaborative Software Environment are some of thetools used to make success the e-learning. The need for e-learning in the higher educationsector like colleges and universities become compulsory as the information resources andservices on the other side has been increased rapidly. The higher education bodies likeUGC,AICTE, CSIR, etc allocate sufficient fund to have a information resource repositories,databases, international network sharing facilities and archives in order to enhance theresource deposition to the students, teachers, and scholars in the higher education sector. Theabundant resource deposition needs the use technique as these resources are technology based.The e-learning techniques alone will overcome this barrier and bring out a better platform inthe long run. The e-learning is the new alternative tool for the academic community to have aconcept of a teacher-less delivery model. The future system of academic community of bothNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 236
  • 250. students and teachers will be technologically better equipped to meet any type ofproblem/barrier relating to electronic information technology.Growing Need for Higher Education: The higher education system was introduced in 1780’s in India by the then Britishto impart the education and research. The College education and university education werealso brought to reconstruct the educational system in India. After Independence, the highereducation bodies like UGC, CSIR etc were established to construct the curriculum, fundingand research proposals as the part of higher education in India. Even though there are 449universities and other institutions which accommodate 4.5 million students for the highereducation, about 450000 applications for the admission to the higher education are foundquestionable as not to provide admission in the class room teaching category. Other thanhumanities and science subjects, the subjects like medicine, engineering, oceanography,mining, chemical and nano- engineering, biosciences, etc are coming under the highereducation, and need and thrust of getting admission has been increasing nationally andglobally due to employability and voyage.E-Learning The term was first introduced by William D Graziadei in 1993 as an on line computerdelivered lecture, tutorial and assignment projects using electronic mail. In 1997 along withhis colleagues described in the article ‘Building Asynchronous and synchronous Teaching –learning Environments” that the technology based development and management in teaching -learning is emphasized the products to use, maintain, portable, explicable, scalable, andimmediately affordable with less cost and durability. The e-learning is an approach to facilitate and enhance the learning through bothcomputer and communications technology. E-learning today allows users to get fully involvedin interactive and collaborative learning processes through the use of Internet- may be throughasynchronous activities like e-mail, discussion forum, bogs, wikis or through asynchronousactivities like choice sessions, video conferencing etc. Hence e-learning is education via the Internet, network, or standalone computers. It isessentially the network-enabled to transfer of skills and knowledge. It is the process ofelectronic application to learn and the application includes Web based learning, computerbased learning, virtual classroom learning and digital collaboration. A web based leaningmanagement system allows students to have access to rich digital content in multiple formatsand try out different things with the inbuilt high level of interactivity features and makes thelearning community based through the access to teachers and fellow learners.E-learning Modalities Individualized self-paced e-learning on-line refers to situations where an individuallearner is accessing learning resources such as database or course content online via Internetor the Intranet. Individual self-paced e-learning off-line refers to an individual learner is usinglearning resources such as database or a computer assisted learning packages off-line.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 237
  • 251. Group-based e-learning synchronously refers to the group of learners are workingtogether in real time via an Internet or the Intranet on text- based conferencing, two-wayaudio and video conferencing. Group-based e-learning asynchronously refers to group oflearners are working over an Internet or Intranet where exchanges among participant occurwith a time delay- on-line discussion via e-mailing lists, text based conferencing etc.Need for e-learning • Learning is self paced and gives the users a chance to speed up to slow down necessary • Learning is self-directed; users allow selecting the content, act according to their needs and skills levels. • It is possible to use variety of learning tools and delivery methods according to taste of users • Learning process has to be designed around the learners. • The learners are not geographically identical which can be eliminated • Accessibility makes scheduling easy and greater number of students can be participated so that the time-delay and travel-time are eliminated/ reduced. • The over all cost of users is comparatively less. • Lower cost makes potential training for the users and providers. • Fast and clever interaction and collaboration of the users can be seen • Teacher- student relation and contact is very fast and productive • Enhances computer, on-line web skills and Internet skills. • E-learning has got a hundreds of logic of pedagogical base. • It drawn a greater attention over the university works, collections, services, on-line services like registration for degree course, CAP, resources sharing, e-books, e- journals, other employment and jobs etc. The above needs emphasize the implementation of e-education in the higher educationinstitutions as the globalization and increased longing for higher studies require the e-education. The Computer skills, knowledge acquisition, Critical thinking, informationanalysis, synthesizing skills etc are the basic qualities of most of the students from a corporatelevel than the ordinary students so the need for e-education is important to along with the e-learning. E-learning Tools for the e-leaning system • Internet Chat, servers, Net meeting, P P Networks • VRML, Audio visual EffectsNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 238
  • 252. • Web, HTML, HTTP, CGI • Broad Band, High Speed Network, VSAT, ISDN, WAN, LAN, Wi-Fi • Digital Library, virtual Library, E-book, CD-ROM • Latest Computers with Multimedia, Network SupportE-learning in Universities and Libraries Talking about the higher education institutions like Universities the services providedand the resources deposited are varied from other bodies and institutions. The universityoffers, in general, many services to its clients and scholars, and its sub organism, the library,provides various services based on the resources deposited. The conventional type of servicescan be viewed to the scholars on the basis of Orientation, but the modern technology orientedweb based services should be brought to the knowledge of the users through e-learning. Thee-learning in the university is divided into two categories as far as this paper is concerned. 1.e- services rendered by the university and 2. e- Services of the University Library.E-learning in the University The University normally provides various services in general but to the point of e-learning, the following services can be identified. • Courses offered service needs creation of Course Modules: Along with the formal course, the on-line courses should be arranged with the presentation of on-line modules in a powerful manner to access, easy to use the tools, reliable pedagogical strategies should be adopted. • The course modules should be managed efficiently with innovative database management practice for revision, faster sharing of author and programs, addition, and query- answer formula • Delivery of course modules should be available on-line, formula for interaction between the students and instructions. • Delivery support services like advising services, library services, technical support services, etc should be entrusted along with the access to the e-learning environment. • On-line mode of e-correspondence of registration, fee remittance, certificate issuance, mark list issuance, other grievances on-line, examination, result and related grievances should be facilitated. • Access to virtual classroom in the website for collaborative learning experience by chat, discussion forum, e-white board and e-mail. • Semester wise interactive course ware CD with necessary platform • Optical Short duration contact program • Access to library resources • Facility to create personal web page to post the opinion, questions and related problems. • CAP services for admission to the UG and PG Courses with necessary direction and related platform etc should be added.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 239
  • 253. E-learning Vs. University Library Resources and Services. The University Libraries are the place of deposition of traditional documents andmodern information repositories. They act both the traditional as well as moderntechnological way in an effective manner. The resources like books, journals, back volumesof journals and periodicals, popular periodicals, theses and dissertations, reference collectionsetc. The modern information web resources like Internet resources, web resources, opensources, full text content archival, national and international networks sharing, electronicdocument delivery, e-these and dissertations (ETDs), e-journals services, on-line print andphotocopying services, other value added services are the most computer based serviceswhich enable the users to best use, easy access, and effective use without spend much time. The sources and services available in the university library should be properlyinculcated to the user to ensure the best use through the marketing of information sources andservices. Above and all, the e-learning is an important aspect in which the user/ scholar shouldbe well known to use the services. If the user is unable to use the resources and serviceseffectively then the perishable nature of services and sources will be futile. Hence the need forthe e-learning is essential. The coordinate with the concept of e-learning, the library systemhas to undertake the following responsibilities to make the venture success.  Build a transparent library web site where navigation to help tools is easy and direct.  Populate the help pages with the guides that support the learning pf individual tools, interconnection between information tools, and context of these tools within a discipline.  Methods of identifying information should be addressed in the best and easy way with necessary tools. The tool should be core one rather than long list of subject wise.  Create Library Portal on each course-specific web page. A standard template should be designed for course tool module the websites is being populated.  The home page of the library home page should have description of key tool consists of links to database, links to electronic reserve readings, bibliographies, reference guides, and the contact information etc.  Design on-line interactive information literacy modules to encourage the students to use of research tools. Hence the need for the information literacy is essential and develops a module for the ILP.  The web 2.0 application should be encouraged as the users depend mostly on the visual and sound based, than the text based presentations. Camtasia, Captivate, Viewlet builder, Flash etc, are advisable.  Design virtual classes for teaching and learning.  Participate in a collaborative team to enhance a course with some aspects of learning technology.  Formulate a cooperative learning technology team with the librarian, teachers, scholars, information technologists, and instructional developer etc to solve a problem.  Create library website with multimedia resources that should integrate with the e- learning modules in the class room.  Create a collection of videos in the library through the open sources on various fields of subjects for the e-learning teaching purpose.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 240
  • 254.  Design information modules for specific on-line face -to- face course. Necessary activities may be carried out to support the content and extend information finding, analysis, and evaluation in a particular subject area.  Create a course of instruction for on-line instructors that brings together the key elements for teaching and learning in an on-line environment.  Librarians are the expertise in the collection of resources and locating learning materials across the electronic landscape. So they should construct a resource based assignments that promote understanding of content and develop independent thinking skills.Conclusion: The librarians are logical contributors to the development of e-learninginitiatives. They are the experts, technology pioneers and best organizers of library relatedsocial activities. As far as the e-learning is concerned, the librarians are the apt persons inorganizing learning resources from print to multimedia, data to digital learning object. Hencethe libraries play an important role than other institutions to cater the e-learning to enrich thehigher education.ReferenceAdali, Terin (2009). Accreditation in e-learning: North Cyprus Higher Education Learning.Procedia. Social and Behavioural Sciences, 1(1), 2077-2080Bannam R.B (2002). Computer-medicate Communication,E-Learning and interactivity:AReview of the research. [Electronic Version]. Quarterly Review of Distance Education,3(2),161-179Cook. J (2004). Beyond formal learning: Informal Community E-Learning. Computers andeducation, 42(2), 35-47Donnellt R (2007). What now? Evaluating E-learning CPD practice in Irish third leveleducation. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 31(1), 31-40 ( ERIC DoctEbner, Martin. (2010). Micro blogs in Higher Education: A chance to facilitate informal andprocess -oriented learning computers & Education, 55(1),92-100.Henry. A (2007). Evaluating language learners response to Web-based, Data driven, Genreteaching materials. English for Specific Purpose, 26 (4), 462-484.Torres, Ana Lusia Matens Oliveira (2011). Understanding and intervening in E-Learning inHigher Education Institution. Prodedia- Social Behavioural Sciences, 15(2011), 756-760Tu C. (2002). E-Learning communities. [ Electronic Version].Quarterly Review of DistanceEducation, 3(2), 207-218.White, Shirley A and Sadanandan Nair K. (2004). Participatory communication: Workingwith change and Development. London: Sage Publication Ltd.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 241
  • 255. E-learning among Postgraduate Students: A Comparative Study Vahida Beegam, Mahjabeen Aydeed and V. Jalaja Abstract E-learning is a gate way into a new realm of information. It offers obvious advantages for e-learners making access to educational resource at any time or at any place. With the development of e -learning technologies, learners can be provided more effective learning environment to optimize their learning. The purpose of the study is to compare the e-learning habits of postgraduate students between two universities. Keywords: e-learning Technologies, Environment, e-learningIntroduction The web-based information management has facilitated cross-disciplinary approach tolearning. Continuous efforts are made for developing tools and methods for searchingrelevant, precise, and accurate information from the web. E- learning is an area which is fastgaining momentum in education circles and gained acceptance among wide range ofstakeholders. It has provided a new platform for education and training. Information andCommunication Technology (ICT) in general and e-learning in particular provide anopportunity to enhance participatory teaching and learning from anywhere, anytime.E-learning facilitates group work, encourages self study methods, and enables the students tomaintain an electronic portfolio of what they have studied; giving them a chance forcontinuous improvement. It also removes the barrier of non-availability of informationresources.E learning E-learning, an umbrella term describing any type of learning that depends upon on oris enhanced by electronic communication online using the latest information andcommunication technologies (ICT).E-learning is the convergence of learning and internet andit has brought about profound changes world over in the way people learn and train ,allowingthem to do it anywhere, any time. It would incorporate all educational activities that arecarried out by individuals or groups working online or offline, and synchronously orasynchronously via networked or standalone computers and other electronic devices. -learningincludes the use of web-based teaching materials (hypermedia in general), multimedia CD-ROMs, websites, discussion boards, collaborative software, e-mail, blogs, wikis, text chat,computer-aided assessment, educational animation, simulations, games, learning managementsoftware, electronic voting systems etc. with possibly a combination of different methodsbeing used It is often extended to include the use of mobile technologies such as PDAs andMP3 players. According to Kaplan-Leiserson, e-learning covers a wide set of applications andprocesses such as web-based learning, computer – based learning, virtual learning andelectronic class rooms and collaboration. It includes the delivery of content via Internet,Intranet/Extranet (LAN/WAN), audio-and videotape, satellite broadcast, interactive TV, andCD-ROM.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 242
  • 256. Usefulness of e-learning • E-learning is convenient for instructors and learners to access resources at any time and any place • Learners may have the option to select learning materials that meets their level of knowledge and interest • Geographical barriers are eliminated, opening up broader education options. • 24/7 accessibility makes scheduling easy and allows a greater number of people to attend classes. • E-learning can accommodate different learning styles and facilitate leaning through a variety of activities. • Students can study anywhere they have access to computer internet connection. • Develops knowledge of the internet and computers skills that will help learners throughout their lives and carriers. • Reduces travel cost and time to and from school self placed learning module allows students to work at their own place. • Successfully completing online or computer builds self knowledge and self confidence and encourages students to take responsibility for their learning. • Flexibility to join discussion in the bulletin board, discussion areas at any hour, or visit with classmates and instructors remoting in chat rooms.Limitations of e-Learning  Learners need to have computer skills with programs such as word processing, internet browsers, and e-mail. Without these skills and software, it is not possible for the learner to succeed in e-learning  Slow Internet connections or older computers may make accessing course materials difficult  E learning may also become bored with no interaction  Students may feel isolated and unsupported while learning  Instructors may not always be available on demand,  Slow or unreliable Internet connections can be frustrating  Some courses such as traditional hands-on courses can be difficult to simulateObjectives  To determine the purpose of e- learning among postgraduate students.  To analyse the level of satisfaction among the students while accessing e-resources.  To compare the e-learning habits of postgraduate students of two Universities  To find out the problems faced by the students in e-learningMethodology of the Study The study is conducted on a sample of 140 students of Calicut and Kannuruniversities. A structured questionnaire was specially drafted for the study to compare the elearning habits of postgraduate students of two universities. For the study purpose theNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 243
  • 257. investigator selected two universities, namely Calicut University and Kannur University. Thequestionnaire was distributed randomly among 70students of Calicut and 70 students ofKannur universities. After having received the filled in questionnaires, the data was tabulatedand analysed to arrive at the valued findings .The percentage of the total users covered in thestudy is 91.54. Table 1: The Breakup of the Population Category Questionnaire distributed Questionnaire received Percentage Calicut university 70 63 90 Kannur university 70 59 84.3 Total 140 122 87.17 The total number of 140 questionnaires were distributed among the post graduatestudents, in which 70 questionnaires were distributed among Calicut University students and70 questionnaires among Kannur University students .Only 63questionnaires were returnedfrom Calicut University students out of 70 and 59 from students of Kannur University out of70 questionnaires.So the sample consists of 122 students.Analysis The responses obtained from the postgraduate students of the Calicut University andKannur university are presented in the following tables and figures. Percentage methods havebeen used for analysing the responses Table 1: Mode of learning Category of Students Opinion Total Calicut University Kannur university 5 2 7 E-learning (7.94) (3.39) (5.74) Classroom learning - - - 58 57 115 E-learning with Class room e-learning (92.06) (96.61) (94.26) 63 59 122 Total (100) (100) (100) Table 1 shows that 92.06 per cent of Calicut university and 96.61 per cent of theKannur university post graduate students are of the opinion that e-learning with class roomlearning is most preferred mode of learning.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 244
  • 258. Table 2: Awareness about e- learning Students Opinion Calicut Kannur Total University University 63 59 122 Yes (100) (100) (100) No - - - 63 59 122 Total (100) (100) (100) Table 2 provides data about the awareness of post graduate students about e-learning.It shows that cent per cent of postgraduate students in Calicut University and KannurUniversity are aware about e-learning . Table 3: Use of e-learning Platform Category of Students Opinion Calicut Kannur Total University University 63 59 122 Yes (100) (100) (100) No - - - 63 59 122 Total (100) (100) (100) Table 3 reveals that cent per cent of the Calicut University and Kannur Universitypostgraduate students are using platforms of e-learning. Table 4: Preference of e-learning Category of Students Opinion Total Calicut university Kannur university 3 4 7 Time saving (4.76) (6.78) (5.74) 33 26 59 Availability of current information (52.38) (44.07) (48.36) 2 2 Less expensive - (3.18) (1.64) 25 29 54 Exhaustive information (39.68) (49.15) (44.26) 63 59 122 Total (100) (100) (100)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 245
  • 259. Table 4 shows why e-learning is preferred by the students than other learning methodsMajority of the Calicut university PG students (52.38%) prefer e learning for getting currentinformation. In the case of Kannur university PG students (49.15%), they prefer e-learningmore for getting exhaustive information. Table 5: Purpose of accessing e- resources Opinion Category of Students Total Calicut University Kannur University Search for class related 30 28 56 material (47.62) (47.46) (45.90) 18 5 23 Searching subject database (28.57) (8.47) (18.85) 11 26 39 Accessing e-documents (17.46) (44.07) (31.97) 4 4 Programs/file downloading - (6.35) (3.28) Total 63(100) 59(100) 122(100) Table 5 demonstrates the various purposes of accessing e-resources. Among these thesearch for class related material is the major purpose in both Calicut (47.62%) and KannurUniversities (47.46%), for accessing e-resources Figure 1: Purpose of accessing e- resources 60 50 40 30 Calicut university 20 10 0 arch for class related material database Searching subject Accessing e-journals downloading Programs/fileNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 246
  • 260. Table 6: Use of search engine Search Engines Category of Students Total Calicut university Kannur university Google 47(74.60) 44(74.58) 91(74.59) 8 Yahoo 7(11.11) 15(12.3) (13.56) Altavista 2(3.17) 3(5.08) 5(4.1) MSN 6(9.53) 4(6.78) 10(8.19) others 1(1.59) - 1(0.82) Total 63(100) 59(100) 122(100) Table 6 reveals that various search engines that are used by the students .A goodnumber of Calicut University (74.60%) and Kannur University (74.58%) postgraduatestudents use Google. Figure 2: Use of search engine 80 70 60 50 Calicut university 40 Kannur university 30 20 10 0 Google Yahoo Altavista MSN othersNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 247
  • 261. Table 7. Preference of e- learning platform for academic purpose Opinion Category of Students Total Calicut university Kannur university 17 13 30 Blog (26.98) (22.03) (24.59) 15 19 34 Wikis (23.81) (32.20) (27.87) E-mail 11(17.46) 8(13.56) 19(15.57) 9 5 14 Messenger (14.29) (8.48) (11.48) 11 25 Webforum 14(23.73) (17.46) (20.49) 63 Total 59(100) 122(100) (100) Table 7 reveals that 26.98 per cent of Calicut university postgraduate students preferblog for academic purpose where as 32.20 per cent of Kannur University postgraduatestudents prefer wikis for academic purpose. Figure 3: Preference of e- learning platform for academic purpose 35 30 25 20 Calicut university Kannur university 15 10 5 0 Blog Wikis E-mail Messenger WebforumNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 248
  • 262. Table 8. Preference among various e resources Category of Students Opinion Total Calicut university Kannur university 19 16 35 E-journals (30.16) (27.12) (28.69) 13 5 22 E-books (20.64) (8.48) (18.04) 23 E-theses 10(15.87) 13(22.03) (18.85) 27 Conference proceedings 13(20.63) 14(23.73) (22.13) 8 15 Technical Report 11(18.64) (12.7) (12.29) Total 63(100) 59(100) 122(100) From the table 8 it is clear that both Calicut University(30.16 %) and KannurUniversity(27.12%) mainly depend on e-journals among the various e resources. Figure 4: Preference among various e resources 35 30 25 20 Calicut university Kannur university 15 10 5 0 E-journals E-books E-theses Conf erence Technical proceedings ReportNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 249
  • 263. Table 9: Frequency of e learning usage Category of Students Opinion Total Calicut university Kannur university 5 6 11Daily (7.94) (10.17) (9.02) 37 39 483-4 times in a week (58.73) (66.11) (39.34) 20 11 59 Once in a week (31.75) (18.64) (48.36) 1 3 4As and when required (1.58) (5.08) (3.28) 63 59 122 Total (100) (100) (100) Table 9 reveals the frequency of e learning among students. A good number of Calicutuniversity (58.73 per cent) and good number of (66.11 per cent) Kannur UniversityPostgraduate students are engaged in e learning 3-4 times in a week. Figure 5: Frequency of e learning usage 70 60 50 40 Calicut university Kannur university 30 20 10 0 Daily 3-4 times in a Once in a As and when week week requiredNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 250
  • 264. Table 10. Preferred place for accessing e- resources Opinion Category of Students Total Calicut university Kannur university 19 27 46 Home (30.16) (45.76) (37.7) 25 14 39 Institution (39.68) (23.73) (31.97) 4 5 9 Cafe (6.35) (8.48) (7.38 15 13 28 Library (23.81) (22.03) (22.95) 63 59 122 Total (100) (100) (100) Table 10 shows that among Calicut University students 39.68 per cent access eresources from the institution where as 45.76 per cent of Kannur University students access e-resources from the home itself. Figure 6: Preferred place for accessing e- resources 50 45 40 35 30 Calicut university 25 Kannur university 20 15 10 5 0 Home Institution Caf e LibraryNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 251
  • 265. Table 11: Level of satisfaction Category of Students Opinion Total Calicut university Kannur university 2 4 6Fully satisfied (3.17) (6.78) (4.92) 46 44 90Partially Satisfied (73.02) (74.58) (73.77) 15 10 25Least satisfied (23.81) (16.95) (20.49) 1No - 1(1.69) (0.82) 63 59 122 Total (100) (100) (100) Table11 shows the level of satisfaction derived through e -learning. A large majorityof Calicut University (73.02%) and Kannur University (74.58%) students are partiallysatisfied with e -resources available for e-learning. Table 12.Problems of e-learning Category of Students Opinion Total Calicut university Kannur universityLack of required 23 20 43database (36.51) (33.90) (35.25) 2 2Unawareness to use - (3.39) (1.64)Difficulty in finding 19 24 43relevant information (30.16) (40.68) (35.25) 21 13 34Slow accessibility (33.33) (22.03) (27.868) Total 63 59 122 Table 12 reveals the various problems in using e learning platforms. It can beobserved from the table that lack of required data base is the main problem faced by the postgraduate students in Calicut University(36.51%) where as difficulty in finding relevantinformation is the main problem faced by the postgraduate students in KannurUniversity(40.68%).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 252
  • 266. Figure 7: Problems of e-learning 45 40 35 30 25 Calicut university 20 Kannur university 15 10 5 0 Lack of required Unawareness to Dif ficulty in Slow database use f inding relevant accessibility inf ormationMajor Findings of the Study  Majority of the postgraduate students are of the opinion that e-learning with class room learning is more preferred mode of learning.  All the postgraduate students are fully aware about e-learning.  All the postgraduate students are using platforms of e-learning.  A good number of postgraduate students in Calicut University prefer e-learning for getting current information where as Kannur University students are considered, e - learning is preferred because it provides exhaustive information.  About half of the postgraduate students of Calicut University and Kannur University use e- resources mainly for searching class related material.  A good number of Calicut University and Kannur University postgraduate students use Google as their search engine.  A few of Calicut university postgraduate students prefer blog for academic purpose and Kannur University postgraduate students prefer wikis for academic purpose.  Both Calicut University and Kannur University postgraduate students mainly depend on e-journals among the various e resources.  A good number of Calicut University and Kannur University Postgraduate students are engaged in e learning 3-4 times in a week.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 253
  • 267.  About half of the Calicut University students access e resources from the institution where as about half of Kannur University students access e- resources from the home itself.  A large majority of Calicut University and Kannur University students are partially satisfied with e -resources available for e-learning.  Lack of required data base is the main problem faced by the post graduate students in Calicut University where as difficulty in finding relevant information is the main problem faced by the postgraduate students in Kannur University.Conclusion In the present scenario of education e-learning is a rapidly developing fieldpredominantly by fluidity and change at every step. The utilization of ICTs for the purposeof education, itself is e-learning. E-learning is a complex phenomenon with social, technical,economic, administrative, managerial, and political considerations and consequences. E-learning presents reduced cost of course production, large scope of expansion of potentialmarket, quality improvement and several other benefits. It has given a new path of learning tothose who could not access higher education in colleges, universities, business andtechnological institutions.ReferencesGeorgieva, Eugeniya and Trifonova, Anna. The influence of the usage of e-learning on thestudents expectations about m-learning. The Turkish Journal of educational technology-TOJET 2008.90-95.Mahabaleshwara, Rao; Mudhol ,Mahesh V. and Shivananda,Bhat K .E-learning-a supporttool for teaching and learning:a Manipal university initiative.2009.Srels journal ofinformation management.46(1),3-16Satyajaya, Satapathi.(2007). E-learning: potential and perspective. In Ramaiah, L.S.,Sankara Reddy and Hemant Kumar (Ed.), E-libraries: Problems and perspectives. Delhi:Allied, 402-412.Thakur, D. S. (2007). E-learning and libraries. In Ramaiah, L.S., Sankara Reddy andHemant Kumar (Ed.), E-libraries: Problems and perspectives. Delhi: Allied, 548-567.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 254
  • 268. Information Literacy Models – An Overview M.Sithi Jagannara, P.Sivaraman and Nagaraja Abstract Information Literacy has become a buzzword in the present knowledge era and can be used by authors in different ways as information competence, info – literacy, information handling skills, information problem solving skills, information empowerment etc. This paper highlights and discusses the different models, significance of information literacy and their implementation in higher education. Keywords: Information Literacy, Different Literacy Models, Significance of IL.Introduction In Today’s information driven World, there is a need to move from “Information forAll” to “Information literacy for All”. The nature of information is changing the nature of theworld’s economy. Now plenty of information is available online than print. But it creates astress full situation to users’ as they are finding it difficult to select the right and authenticinformation due to lack of knowledge of information search skills. Information Literacybridges this information gap by pursuing resources and skills amongst users. InformationLiteracy is the key competency that empowers one with the required “knowledge aboutinformation, its nature and available formats; skills to fetch the relevant information byshifting the irrelevant and attitude for consuming and sharing information by ethical meansand practices. The Alexandria proclamation adopted by the High Level Colloquium on InformationLiteracy and lifelong learning in November 2005 defines information Literacy as a mean to“empower people in all walks of life to seek, evaluate, use and create information effectivelyto achieve their personal, social, occupational and educational goals. UNESCO’s Information For All Programme (IFAP) - 2006 accentuates, “Everybodyshould have the opportunity to acquire the information skills in order to understand,participate actively and benefit fully from the emerging knowledge societies.” In this contextseveral information Literacy models and standards have been developed by manyorganizations for strengthening the IL program. In this paper, authors made an attempt to examine the existing IL models andstandards and mechanism to be used in implementing the same.Information Literacy: Concept, Definition and ComponentsIL Concept Literacy is to literate or the ability to read and write or to train. Information Literacy isthe ability to identify, evaluate, organize and use the information in a ethical way. The terminformation literacy first coined by Paul Zurkowski in the year of 1974. In simple words ILNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 255
  • 269. means to know, to find, to evaluate and use of information. As stated ALA “InformationLiteracy is a survival skill in the information age.Definition Paul Zurkowski is supposed to be first, who defined information literacy during 1970sas “People trained in the application of Information resources to their work can be calledinformation literates” They have learned techniques and skills for using the wide range ofinformation tools as well as primary sources in molding information solution to theirproblems” (Jayaprakash and Gupta, 2005). Information Literacy as an individual’s ability to; recognize a need for information;identify and locate appropriate information sources; know how to gain access to theinformation contained in those sources; evaluate the quality of information obtained; organizethe information; and use the information effectively. (Doyle, 1992) “Information Literacy is the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyse and useinformation” (American Library Association, 2003). So, Information Literacy is the ability to identify what information is needed and theability to locate, evaluate and use information in solving problems and composing discourse.Components of IL Information Literacy has a bunch of various literacy’s in terms of components whichincludes- Basic Literacy, Library Literacy, Media Literacy, Computer Literacy, ICT(Information and Communication Technology) Literacy, Visual Literacy, Tool Literacy,Resource Literacy, Social- Structural Literacy ,Research Literacy, Publishing Literacy,Emerging technology Resource Literacy, Digital Literacy, Network Literacy ScientificLiteracy, etc. Fig -1National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 256
  • 270. Need for Information Literacy Information is the basic requirement for every human activity and it is important asfood, air and water. Information in itself has no value, but its value lies in its communicationand use. The need of information literacy may be essential due to the following reasons. • Rapid increase in the stream of information due to information revolution; • Advent of information and communication technologies; • Vast variety of information sources; • Changing shape of libraries; • Wide dispersal of information; • Increase in number of users; and • Research on complex and interdisciplinary topics.Significance of Information Literacy in Higher EducationIL is essential to successful Lifelong learning. Life long learning means “learning that continues through a Life time. It enablesstudents to attain their goals and to take advantage of emerging opportunities in the evolvingglobal environment for shared benefit.IL is a core competency in the information age Students can easily acquire large amount of information but they don’t know how theinformation authentic, valid and reliable .It is a challenge for students in evaluating,understanding and using information in ethical way. IL as core competency helps students tolocate needed information and evaluate it critically in order to face the new challenges of theinformation age.IL contributes to the improvement of learning and teaching. It rejects traditional teacher centred learning model, rather IL is based on activelearning model in which the student at the centre of learning environment IL programmesprovide learners with self directed, independent and constructive learning opportunities.IL is one of the most critical literacy for an educated person in the 21 st century. The ability to read is a basic skill, but the ability to get the right information is thesurvival skill in the 21 st century. The higher education sector has an urgent obligation toexplore the concept of information Literacy and to change its knowledge transfer processaccordingly. Universities and colleges throughout the world are aware of the importance ofinformation literacy and have been actively engaged in providing training and other kinds ofsupport to students so that they can maintain a competitive edge.Information Literacy Models Information Literacy Models are like a road map through information seeking process.These show a perfect path to us how to find, analyze and use information and serve as aguideline for developing information skills among the students community. Some of theinformation literacy models developed by experts and organizations are as follow:National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 257
  • 271. • The Big 6 model • DIALOGUE model • SCONUL seven pillars model • EMPOWERING 8 IL model • 8Ws IL model • The Research Cycle • The Alberta model • Kuhlthau Model • Action learning Model • Super 3 model • Follet’s Information Skills model • 3 Doors Model • Student research Guide etcThe Big 6 Model The Big 6 information problem – solving approach is an information literacy model developed by Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz, USA, 2001 It is widely used model to teach information technology skills in the world. It is used in thousands of K-12 schools, higher education institutions, corporate and adult training programs. It integrates information search and use skills along with technology tools in a systematic process to find, use, apply and evaluate information for specific needs and tasks. It is applicable for all subject areas across the full range of grade levels. Students can use skills whenever they need information to solve a problem, make a decision or complete a task. The Big 6 skills are best learned when integrated with classroom curriculum and activities. Table -1: Six stages and sub stages of the Big 6 modelStep Stages Sub stages1 Task Definition 1.1. Define the information problem 1.2. Identify information needed2 Information Seeking 2.1. Determine all possible sources Strategies 2.2. Select the best sources3 Location and Access 3.1 Locate sources (intellectually and physically) 3.2 Find information within sources4 Use of Information 4.1 Engage (e.g., read, hear, view, touch) 4.2 Extract relevant information5 Synthesis 5.1 Organize from multiple sources 5.2 Present the information6 Evaluation 6.1 Judge the product (effectiveness) 6.2 Judge the process (efficiency)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 258
  • 272. Empowering 8 Il Model Empowering 8 IL model was developed at an IFLA-ALP sponsored InformationLiteracy workshop hosted by National Institute of Library and Information Sciences (NILIS),university of Colombo Sri Lanka in 2004 specifically for the stakeholders in the Asia-PacificRegion. This model can be used to solve any information problem effectively using eightstages with several sub –stages under each component. It’s not necessary to complete thesestages in a linear order, but one can enter the cycle from any point and proceed in a cyclicalmanner. However, one is taken through all stages in a successful information problem solvingsituation. Two arrow lines denote the teacher and the teacher librarian getting involved in theprocess. The process and skills of this model is suitable to all subject areas across the full rangeof levels from kindergarten to postgraduate Figure 2. The Eight components of Empowering 8 IL modelStep Empowering 8 The student will be able to demonstrate ability to. components1 Identify Define the topic/subject Determine and understand the audience Identify the key words Plan a search strategy Identify different types of resources where information may be found2 Explore Locate resources appropriate to the chosen topic Find information appropriate to the chosen topic Do interviews, field trips or other outside research3 Select Choose relevant information Determine which sources are too easy, too hard, or just right Record relevant information through note making orNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 259
  • 273. making a visual organizer such as a chart, graph, or outline, etc Identify the stages in the process Collect appropriate citations4 Organize Sort the information Distinguish between fact, opinion, and fiction Check for bias in the sources Sequence the information in a logical order5 Create Prepare information in their own words in a meaningful way Revise and edit, alone or with a peer Finalize the bibliographic format6 Present Practice for presentation activity Share the information with an appropriate audience Display the information in an appropriate format to suit the audience Set up and use equipment properly7 Assess Accept feedback from other students Self assess ones performance in response to the teacher’s assessment of the work Determine if new skills were learned Consider what could be done better next time8 Apply Review the feedback and assessment provided Use the feedback and assessment for the next learning activity / task Endeavour to use the knowledge gained in a variety of new situations Determine in what other subjects these skills can now be used Table- 28Ws MODEL This model was developed by Annette lamb in the early 1990s. It is an eight – phasemodel for project and community based earning on the web. A project and community basedlearning environment involves wondering about a topic, wigging through information andweaving elements together. This was used to stimulate student interest and focus on thestudent’s perspective in information inquiry on the web.The Eight Phases of this model are as follows: • Watching: (Exploring). It states that students to explore and become observers of their environment to know about world around.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 260
  • 274. • Wondering: (Questioning). It states that students to focus on brainstorming options, discussing ideas, identifying problems and developing questions • Webbing: (Searching). It directs students to locate, search and connect ideas and information. Students select those resources that are relevant and organize them into meaningful clusters. • Wiggling: (Evaluating). It is often the toughest phase for students and involves evaluating content, along with twisting and turning information looking for clues, ideas and perspectives. • Weaving: (Synthesizing). It involves organizing ideas, creating models and formulating plans. It focuses on the application, analysis and synthesis of information. • Wrapping: (Creating). It involves creating and packaging ideas and solutions. • Waving: (Communicating). It deals with communicating ideas to others through presenting, publishing, and sharing. • Wishing: (Assessing). It is concerned assessing, evaluating, and reflecting on the process and product. Students begin thinking about how the project went and consider possibilities for the future.Sconul Seven Pillars Model This model was developed by SCONUL (The society of college, national andUniversity Libraries) Advisory committee on information literacy, 1999, UK and makes thestudents as information literate persons in higher education institutions. It has seven pillars ofbasic library and IT skills and as given below.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 261
  • 275. FIG -3. SCONUL Seven Pillars Model FIG -4.New model –SCONUL Seven pillars-2011• Scope : A researcher can assess their current knowledge and identify gaps• Plan : A researcher can construct strategies for locating information and data• Indentify : A researcher is able to identify a need for information to address the research question• Gathering: A researcher can locate and access the information and data they need• Present : A researcher can apply the knowledge gained: presenting the results of their research, synthesizing new and old information and data to create new knowledge , disseminating it in a variety of ways• Evaluate : A researcher can review the research process and compare and evaluate information and data• Manage : A researcher can organize information professionally and ethically The model is conceived as a three dimensional circular “building”, founded on anInformation Landscape which comprises the information world as it appears to a researcher atthat point in time. The picture is also colored by a researcher’s personal information literacylandscape, in other words, their aptitude, background and experiences, which will affect howthey respond to any information literacy development. The circular nature of the model demonstrates that becoming information literate isnot a linear process; a researcher can be developing within several pillars simultaneously andindependently, although in practice they are often closely linked.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 262
  • 276. Implementation of Information literacy in higher education Information Literacy can be effectively implemented in isolation. In the past, IL waspromoted only for Librarians, but now with the explosion of the Internet and other new formsof information sharing, there is an increased emphasize on it by other professionals. Thecompetency standard (ACRL 2000) state that incorporating information literacy acrosscurricula,in all programs and services and throughout the administrative life of the university,requires collaborative efforts of faculty, librarians and administration. Some important methods for implementing information Literacy in higher educationinstitutions are given below. • Implementing information literacy to the fresh users. • Implementing information literacy in the general education. • Integration of information literacy across the curriculum at all levels. • Collaborating faculty, librarians and other staff to promote information literacy program. • Carrying out surveys and studies on the usefulness of information literacy • Forming a national information literacy forum. • Frequently conducting the workshops/seminars for training the trainers in order to upgrade the information literacy knowledge and skills of both librarians and faculty. • Preparing a modular curriculum for information literacy, targeting teacher’s education programs. • Designing the National information literacy policies, standards and guidelinesConclusion Information literacy is a powerful weapon for life-long learning. It is common to alldisciplines, to all learning environment and to all levels of education. It enables the learners tomaster of the content and extend their investigations, become more self directed and assumegreater control over their on learning.The higher education sector has an immediate obligationto explore the concept of information Literacy and to change its knowledge transfer processaccordingly. Universities and colleges should aware of the importance of InformationLiteracy and actively engage themselves in providing training and other kinds of support tostudents so that they can able to face the challenges in the present competitive era.ReferencesBig 6 Model (Retrieved on 20 Nov,2011)Doyle, C.S. Outcome Measures for Information Literacy within the Nation Education Goalsof 1990. Final Report to National Forum on Information Literacy Summary of Findings.ERIC Digest No. 351033, 1992Jayaprakash, A. and Gupta, V.U. Information Literacy: Need to Promote the Use of DigitalInformation Services in Digital Era. In R. Chandra edited ‘Libraries, Information Literacy andLifelong Learning. Indian Library Association, Delhi. Pp. 292-301, 2005The Association College and Research Libraries (ACRL). Information Literacy Competencystandards for Higher Education, Chicago, IL, The ACRL, 2000National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 263
  • 277. Impact of E-Resources in the Modern Library A. Seeran and A.Kavitha Abstract The paper describes Impact of E-Resources in the modern library and development and use of electronic resources in libraries. The availability of E-resources in education institutes & universities is quite common nowadays. E-resources are the products of internet and web world. It’s a new mode of scholarly communication, delivering knowledge in leaner’s desktop. Knowledge at anywhere anytime is quite possible with E-resources among the users of the Learning Resource Centre. Instant access is quite possible with E-resources with no time. Acquiring knowledge through E-Books, E-Journals, Online resources, CD-ROM, WEB resources, OPAC & Internet with related Databases are the impact of E-Resources. Electronic form of materials is the backbone of E-Resources. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact & usage of E-resources over LIM & ICT functions, which highlights the importance of online E-resources among the faculties and learners of the Academics. It also further explores to Library of ICT literacy among the users and information providers in modern library. Keywords: e-Resources, Modern Library, Internet, e-books, e-journals, CD-ROM, Web resources, OPAC, ICT.Introduction As Education in 21st century has rapid changes between faculties and students, onlineinformation plays an important role. Even faculties are turned in to learning guide & studentsare turned in to learners, whereas book traditional system converted in to online study. Allthese online access are carried out through E-resources. Current Libraries of EducationInstitutions are converted in to learning resources centre, which has to support teaching &learning process along with research co-ordination. Learning Resources centers has to supportof “E-Library”, which is capable of accessing information’s through Electronic systems andLibrary networks.E-Resources E-Resources are those electronic products that delivers a collection of data, be it textreferring to full text basis, e-journal, image collection, other multimedia products andnumerical, graphical or time based, as a commercially available till has been published withan aim to being marketed. These may be delivered on CD-ROM, on tape via the Internet andso on. According to Barker, there are three types of documents used in digital resources. a) Static – Static are the most basic, they contain fixed information and never change their form (such as traditional online data) b) Dynamic – Dynamic documents also contain fixed information but also able to change their outward form, the way embedded materials is presented to users (such as multimedia CD-ROMs)National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 264
  • 278. Why to Adopt E-Resources Electronic publishing has lead to new era of communications and information sharing.It creates opportunities for users as well as authors and publishers. Many of the electronicbooks or electronic publisher’s web site freely permit and encourage readers to providefeedback on works, often directly to the author rather to the publisher. Nevertheless users mayestablish their own accounts, charge services to credit cards or to pay by prearranged method,and have requested material delivered directly to them by fax, e-mail, etc. today, libraries ofall kinds have been spending larger and larger shares of their budgets to adopt or gain accessto electronic resources from publishers and vendors. This is due the fact that e-resources haveenabled libraries to improve services in a variety of ways. First, most e-resources comeequipped with powerful search and retrieval tools that allow users to perform literaturesearches more effectively and efficiently. Moreover, since most relevant e-resources are nowavailable through the web, users can have desktop access to them 24 hours a day.Selection of E-Resources The selection process should be done in relevant with the demands of users,committee, focus group, users recommendation etc. Apart from this, it should taken intoconsideration the following steps: • to identify library needs; • to identify content and scope of the e-resources; • to evaluate quality of that particular resources and search capabilities; • to estimate the cost; • to check either subscription based or web based when acquiring; • to evaluate the systems and technical support; • to review licensing agreements; • to evaluate application software and installation, updated sporadically or in regular schedule; • and to check the facilities for educational support and training.Evaluation of E-Resources Evaluation of resources assumes a greater importance due to large e-resources such ase-journals, database, e-text, etc available on the net. Authority currency, intended audience,ease of use accuracy etc are some responsible criteria for evaluation of e-resources. Moreover,extensiveness of the content, accessibility, quality of technical support, cost, conditions oflicensing agreement are also other responsible factors which should taken in to account.Organisation of E-Resources In any Library Information System (either traditional or modern library system),organisation of resources is also one of the important and crucial works to function smoothlythe library services. In a modern digital library information systems, the professional shouldhave skills like computing, database management, networking, and other management skillsNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 265
  • 279. relating to IT environment. Therefore, system manager should keep in mind the followingspoints while organizing the e-resources. • To include those resources either in OPAC or to make difference list for browsing; • To organised accessing either by alphabetical or under specific subject headings: • To provide access the e-resources within the context of other resources and website; • To check the method of access to e-resources, abstracting of full, since most of the users search the resources under subject heading predominantly, organisation of e- resources should be in a such a way that the users could be able to retrieve different sets of information records.Challenges faced with E-Resources management The adoption of e-resources has made great advantage over the library services. Infact,most of the users are satisfied with such facilities since he can easily retrieve their requiredinformation within a short period of time. Preservation – Though the e-resources are enabling information to be created,manipulated, disseminated and located with increasing ease, preserving access to thisinformation possess a great challenge. Unless, preservation of digital information is activelytaken, the information will become inaccessible due to changing technology platform andmedia instability. Lack of professional skills – Due to lack of management and technical skills, thelibrary professionals is not able to handle the e-resources. The professional staffs are requiredto constantly update their own knowledge and skill base so as to work in today’s rapidlychanging digital environment. Inadequate library fund – Most of the libraries have inadequate fund acquiring e-resources and so the users do not get their needy information at the right time. Technical infrastructure – in a digital information service systems, infrastructure suchas software, hardware, internet facilities and other physical equipments are required toprovide easier, faster and comprehensive access to information. Lack of co-operation of staff members- The support and co-operative of staffmembers, programmers and technical staff are very essential to provide effective service in adigital environment.Consortia Subscription to E-Resources It is known that libraries and information centers are not able to procure, organize anddisseminate vast amount of information due to lack of adequate fund and budget. Now a days,consortia subscription to e-resources through consortia of libraries is a viable solution toincrease the access to e-resources at a lower cost. Library consortia refer to co-operation, co-ordination and collaboration among the libraries or institution for the purpose of resourcessharing. The libraries all over the world are forming consortia faster and most cost effectiveways of providing e-resources to the information seekers. The collective strength of consortiamember’s facilities to get the benefit of wider access to electronic resources at affordable costand at the bests terms and conditions.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 266
  • 280. E-Resources Development Although information in electronic format was created with the advent of thecomputer in the 1950s, electronic resources began to have a major impact on selectionpractices in libraries in 1988. Many of the first CD-ROM products offered to libraries wereversions of large online databases and were supplied on a subscription basis with ownershipof the data remaining with the publisher/producer. As librarians grappled with these technological advances, they continued to makecareful selection decisions for these high cost products. Most typically, a group that includedsubject specialist, reference librarians, instruction librarians, and technical staff made theselection decisions. However, just when librarians appeared to have mainstreamed theselection of electronic materials as they had audio visual materials, another new technologyarrived –the World Wide Web.Conclusion With the rapid advancement in computer technology along with informationtechnology, libraries and information centers have been blessed with electronic materials andtherefore the libraries are gradually shifting towards the electronic libraries with electronicresources. As such, libraries therefore are now increasingly involved in creating and acquiringe-resources. The availability of IT based electronic resources has exerted ever-increasingpressures on libraries and there is no dough that e-resources are expanding rapidly. However,in order to meet the ever increasing demand of the user community in a digital environment,libraries have to develop ways to manage access to materials available in electronic formatand to effectively share them much as they have shared print resources for over a centurythrough inter library lending.ReferencesBhatt, R.K. and Madhusudhan, M. University Libraries in India and e-journal; The role ofconsortia –based subscription of e-journal for effective use of financial resources, Caliber2004 Feb 11-13, 2004, New Delhi.Kochtanek, T.R and Mathews, J.R.Library Information System, libraries unlimited, Westport,2004.Pandey, S.K.Encyclopedia of library Automation System and Networking Series, AlmondPublication, New Delhi.Venkadesam.S et al.Stratergic planning and policy for collection development of e-resourcesto satisfy users requirements: A case study of JRD Tata Memorial Library. Caliber 2004, Feb11-13, 2004, New Delhi.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 267
  • 281. Customer Relationship Management in the Perspective of Library Reader Service J.Arumugam, G.Rathinasabapathy and L.Rajendran Abstract Libraries are currently facing their greatest challenge. For more than a decade, Libraries have been under the pressure to change its way of operation and management due to the tight of budget and appearance of online resources. These situations cause the libraries to value their development of resources and application of business marketing to better service. How to return and grow uses through enhancement of service becomes the great concern by library managers.CRM (Customer Relationship Management) is not a tactical or functional approach but a key strategic process. A comprehensive CRM will highlight the preference and learning needs of readers individually for cost saving and enhance the retention and loyalty. Keywords: Operation and Management, Business Marketing, CRMIntroduction A Library is created to provide service to users. It has been transformed a lot in library servicefeatures by the effect of digital and networked environment change. The ubiquity of the internet isused extensively in library surroundings and has a profound effect on library users. Users in everygeneration and every stage have always wanted access to library resources. It has been important toknow that libraries were there to be used when required, although it was not necessary to visit themvery often. The question facing us today is whether the mission libraries have performed in the part isstill relevant in today’s world. The proliferation of information Technology brings users needs for timelier, convenient,speedy information delivery in recent years. Libraries have to harness the technological change anduse it to fulfill their mission to provide access to information when people need it. The main use ofInformation Technology also can help libraries to know what their users need and provide rightinformation to the right user with plenty of resources. Library plays as an interactive role to encourageusers to use resources and establish a relationship with library. IT INTERNET USERS LIBRARY Two way connections between users and library According to Huang “Library service is a kind of invisible product and it is important toobtain reader’s discontent information for improvement of the service.Reader’s perceptive Reader is the key subject that to be defined due to its association with library operation anddevelopment. The requirement for library supporting the teaching and research by academic readers isdifferent from citizen to public library. Readers want to use not only the local online catalogue butalso the catalogue for other libraries, carry materials away from the stacks to read at tables or chargethem out for use elsewhere, all of which needs a physical spice and interactions.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 268
  • 282. In 1980’s, book availability was the only subject addressed by both library and users.However with the pragmatic electronic resources are ubiquitous. It in today’s age, user needs becamea comprehensive situation customer wants and needs have but more importance on service since the21st Century.Hindrances between Librarians and Customers • Lack of appropriate interaction, absence of goal and communication, • Lack of personal contact, • Gaps between library and customer expectation, • Lack of Communication with Users, • Library needs redesign a better integration of space for collections and computers, • A danger in a shift of resource allocation and customers loyalty • Difficult of retain customers, • Systems do not provide sufficient info when multiple patrons share the same login/password • Lack of human side of service • Satisfaction with the information product received and service used to retrieve the info product, • Lack of proper methods and strategies in dealing with customer case Most of readers know little about e-resources, to obtain printed documents.Solutions • Segments of customer, strategies for narrowing gaps, • Need intelligence assistance (personal relationship) • Establish benchmarks among organization • Building relevant collections and design appropriate service, • Plan strategy that integrates digital and print collection. • Listen to the voices of customers and develop benchmark partnership • Improve service quality • Develop strategy of one to one relationship management • Friendly and helpful and professional guidance • Well developed library management method • Develop identified customer care strategies, technology utility call center, sales and marketing. • Teacher or students needs for e-resources are different. Satisfying customer expectations and caring for the individual needs require a throughunderstanding of strategic direction and CRM concepts. It is the best method to assist library toachieve the goals. Customer satisfaction represents the degree to which a library has met the user’s needs andexpectation. Readers are encouraged to use product and services which are offered by library.Reader’s satisfaction is considered as library success but there still exists complaining behavior.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 269
  • 283. Library manager should ponder these problems and solve some hiding situation which is usually ofneglect.CRM in library service Libraries pondered how to operate and manage reader service in an effective and efficientway. CRM highlight the customer centric approach and builds relationship with customers to conformto the customer focus in library operation and management both in physical or virtual times. Leating and Hatner addressed the business model that can be applied to libraries and developstrategy of one-to-one relationship management that provides the libraries with capabilities to changethe delivery and role of the library. The development of Library operation and service aiming at thegoals of customer focus is very important to library managers. CRM is the practice of analyzing and utilizing marketing databases and leveragingcommunication technologies to determine corporate practices and methods that will maximize thelifetime value of each individual customer to the organization. CRM is used popularly in library service and library manager need to concern them selveswith collection design in that they arrange their holdings and services in a way that will attractcustomers to the library. Creating a relationship between how customer expects to use a library is setting as frontburner. A relationship is a bond or connection between the organization and its customers. By emphasizing the application of CRM issues in library, researchers use data mining on bookrecommendation and library marketing, resources usage efficiency, acquisition and cataloguing;reader’s service and CRM software in e-journal access. Without appropriate CRM, library may misunderstand their reader’s service requests and beunable to meet reader expectations. Some libraries have established outreach program in an attempt toget to know users better while also providing them with a greater amount of information about libraryprogram and services. Library manager know that libraries are well applicable in the age of internet and endeavor tocatch up the trend. Readers will always be the critical focus of a library and is eager to buildrelationship with them related to interactive and customer oriented service such as circulation desk,website, reference inquiry and personalized service.4S in Library Reader Service Organizational Library Reader Service PerformanceSCOPE SITE SYNERGY SYSTEMAct on a strategic Provide a Gain Loyalty for Support indirection for suitable channel readers library use ofreaders for readers readersNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 270
  • 284. The scope is acted as a strategic direction for manager to ensure the whole staff follows theorganizational predefined goods and objectives. The “site” transforms a web required to evaluate how well the website’s presentation hadcompiled with the presetting functional requirements. Library website is the virtual front doors tocollections and services and as a powerful communication channel. “The “synergy” can be applied to all necessary organizational issues such as back andsupports or knowledge capability. The “system” can be used to examine whether library surroundings have the necessarytechnologies to support the technical related to library during the transactional model.Conclusion Libraries today must find ways to optimize operations, maximize resources, enhance services,extend market penetration and serve customers. Libraries play an essential non partisan role inproviding the information that allows citizens to make informed decision. User’s need and wants arethe core center of library service and development. Library administrator is conscious of the trends ofuser focus and eager to know if the outcome conforming to user’s expectations. The application ofCRM to understand more about user’s behavior, preference, interest and needs is getting moreemphasized by library manager. Librarians should realize that they are knowledge workers providesand creators not just information depository. The creation of new knowledge is a major challenge forall organization today.ReferencesBennett, S., Libraries designed for learning, Washington, D.C.: Council on Library and InformationResources, 2003C.A. Borchert , “ Untangling the jungle of e-journal access issues using CRM software”, LibraryCollections, Acquisitions and Technical Services, 2006, 30(3-4), pp. 224-237.C.H. Yen, “The Application of data mining in library marketing and customer relationshipmanagement”, Bulletin of Library and Information Science, 2002, 42 pp.58-68.M.B. Line, “ Requirements for library and information work and the role of library education”Education for Information, 2007,25,PP.27-39R. Huang, “ Study and analysis of information on the reader’s potential discontent in an academiclibrary”, Library Management, 2007, 28 (1/2), pp 27-35.Wang, M.Y. CRM and Library Reader Service , 2006, Taipei: ShowweX, Shi, P.J. Holahan, and M.P. Jurkat, “Satisfaction formation processes in library users:understanding multisource effects”, The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 2004, 30(2), pp.123-131National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 271
  • 285. Application of Six Sigma Tool in Library Management: A Bird’s Eye View R. Sevukan, N Suresh and R. Madasamy Abstract Six sigma is a quality improvement tool to measure the process outputs in the manufacturing sectors for error reducing system. This paper emphasises on how to implement the six sigma tool in library management for identifying the key functional areas to achieve the user’s satisfaction with continuous process. It also highlights the areas in which the six sigma tool can be applied to perform the high level satisfied functions towards the user’s satisfaction and enable the users to the optimum utilization of library resources. Keywords: Six sigma, library measurement tool, quality assessment, library quality managementIntroduction Modern library management lays great emphasis on objectives to be accomplished by thesystem. In library and information centres the first and foremost objective is to satisfy the need of itsusers. To achieve this goal proper library management based on scientific principles is very important.Six Sigma is a business management strategy is to improve the quality of process outputs byidentifying and removing the causes of defects and minimizing variability in manufacturing andbusiness processes. Therefore, the Six Sigma being the tool for assessing the quality as well as theproblem solving tool for corporate sectors may be applied in library management also.This paper suggests to implement Six Sigma in library management activities like Acquisition,Classification & cataloguing, Inter library loan, Stack Maintenance, etc. The aim of this study is toseek implementation of Six Sigma as a result of well-organized management. In addition it aims tolaunch information resources and quality service in the competitive world to improve the satisfactionof users.Definition In the term “Six Sigma”, Sigma (σ) denotes the standard deviation of a process and Sixsignifies that the nearest specification limit should be at least six sigma from the mean of the process.According to statistic, a process that fits Six Sigma between the process mean and the nearestspecification limit does not practically produce any defects. In Six Sigma, a defect means anythingthat does not satisfy customer’s specifications. Indeed, Six Sigma is a quality improvement method toeliminate defect in any process up to near perfection, to be more quantitatively, a six sigma processmust not produce more than 3.4 DPMO (Defects per Million Opportunities). Six Sigma is aphilosophy, a measure, and a methodology that provides businesses with the perspective and the toolsneeded to achieve high levels of performance for both product and service offerings (Basek and Roy,2005). Six Sigma stands for Six Standard Deviations (Sigma is the Greek letter used to representstandard deviation in statistics) from mean. It is statistically based methodology for improving productquality to meet the users’ needs. Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs byidentifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturingand business processes (Antony 2002).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 272
  • 286. Literature Review Yong kim, et al (2009) applied six sigma in library acquisition process and the results provedthat services of the library acquisition was good and better after implementing six sigma tool. ChitaKaushik., et al. (2007) applied six sigma in services sector particularly in library services withemphasis on necessary critical success factors and key performance indicators and it was found thatthere was a significant improvement in the quality of library services and the user’s satisfaction. SarahAnne Murphy (2009) implemented in Ohio state university library to analyse virtual reference servicesand state the benefits and limitations of deploying a lean six sigma with a library organisation. Dong –Suk Kuin (2010) implemented Six Sigma in Sungkyunwan University Library and determined itssuccess factors. Susan Kumi and Johan Morrow (2006) implemented the six sigma tools to improveself services at new castle university library.Features of Six Sigma ToolThe unique features of Six Sigma tool are as follows: • It follows DMAIC frame work. • It advocates “Top – down” approach. • It is customer focused. • It imparts elaborate training and certification process that result in Black Belt, Green belt, and so on.Advantages of Six Sigma Tool • Six Sigma helps understand and manage user needs • Line up the key process to achieve the needed requirements • Exploit accuracy in data analysis to minimize defects in the process • Bring fast development and continue improvement to management process. • Minimizing the effort and maximizing the users satisfaction • Helps to work smart rather than hard. • Bringing the efficiency among employees • Training is integral to the management systemDisadvantages of Six Sigma Tool • The quality standards should be according to specific task and measuring 3.4 defects per million as standard leads to more time spent in areas which are less profitable. • Six Sigma gives emphasis on the rigidity of the process which basically contradicts the innovation and kills the creativity. • Six Sigma is a bit gimmicky and simply a rebranding of the continuous improvement techniques and tools. • Implementation of Six Sigma constantly requires skilled man force. • While converting the theoretical concepts into practical applications there are lot to real time barriers which needs to be resolved.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 273
  • 287. Methodologies of Six Sigma Tool There are two types of methodologies in Six Sigma – DMAIC and DMADV. DMADVstands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Design and Verify, which is used to create new productdesigns or process designs. DMAIC stands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve andControl. DMAIC is used to improve an existing business process. In this study, the authors suggest DMAIC which is best suited to the libraryenvironment. The method insists to have continuous assessment, improvement, and guide tobring out excellent services to library users. There are five stages in DMAIC methodology toimprove the quality, service, and resources of the library.Application Areas of Six Sigma in Library Management FunctionsThe possible areas in which the Six Sigma tool could be applied are as follows: • Acquisition • Classification & Cataloguing. • Circulation • Stack Maintenance • Inter Library Loan • Reference serviceStaff Training While implementing a new system or tool, staff training is essential to make thesystem or the situation better. As far as the Six Sigma tool is concerned, staff need to beimparted training on the fundamental and practical knowledge of sigma. Starting from Chieflibrarian to lower level library attendants are to be trained. Many management institutionsoffer training and give certification with belts for ranking the hierarchy. There are four typesof belts in six sigma such as Master Black belt, Black Belt, Green belt and White belt.Hierarchy Structure of Six Sigma In Library In a college, Head of the institution i.e. Principal is the Champion, Chief Librarian isthe master black belt, Assistant Librarian is Black belt, Library Assistants are Green belt, andLibrary attendant is white Belt. Role and duty are assigned as per the hierarchy.DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) First emphasize is laid on “Define” the problems, the opportunity, the process, the projects,the goals and the users. The second one is “Measure”, which helps you to decide current level, currentprocess and decide customer needs and requirements. “Analyze” is the step which guides you todecide the origin and source of the defects. The fourth step “Improve” is to improve the process byeliminating defects / performance / current procedure / standard of work. At last the finest step is“Control”, which makes you to look and take control all the above acts. DMAIC cycle method shouldbe repeated again and again for continuous improvementNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 274
  • 288. Define – Draw up execution plan by using This is first and foremost stage where we have to start the process. The problem needsto be identified and define it clearly and analyze from where it starts. This phase helps us tomake “problem statement”. This problem statement will provide a clear description of theproblems and present significant details about the problems. This ‘define’ phase provides toknow the existing problems, makes us to have our own objectives and users’ needs anddemands. Based on their requirement we can define and set the objectives and goals to meettheir needs. In general we can raise the following problems in key library functions. i.e.acquisition, classification & cataloguing, inter library loan, and stack maintenance.Measure – Collect data, examine current level and target The second stage of DMAIC process is “measure”. The purpose of the stage is tocollect data and facts related to problems with users. Measurement will be done based on datacollection and analysis, mapping the process and understanding description of the process.Data collection is one of the important processes before analyzing the situation. While analyzing the existing library functions and process, there is a formula formeasuring the problem. The formula may be mathematically expressed as: Y = f(X)Where, X= Input variables; Y= Process output or outcome; and F = FrequencyAnalyze – Find out potential causes of problem Use process maps the data to determine which steps in the process need to be changed.This stage helps find the reasons for problems and work out the solution to problems.Improve – Perform pilot test and analyze the results This stage makes to improve the library condition from past to present and helps us todo better in future. In this phase, we can improve the procedure and try to find out new ideas,plans and thoughts. This phase will help the library to improve the efficiency of work.Ultimately library employees can save their time and improve their work as well as can servethe library users in the best possible manner. Efficient and systematic approach isindispensible to improve the library quality. This stage will fulfil this requirement. This phaseguides the library employees to work smart rather than work hard. Ultimately this enables alibrary to minimize the work and maximize service to the library users.Control – Monitoring the Process The ultimate stage of DMAIC is ‘control’. This stage helps review and update theprocess. It takes overall control of the above all stages or phases. Here it is mandatory todetermine the effectiveness, processes and implementations. There is a saying goes“prevention is better than cure”. In such a way, this phase controls the existing systems andpolicies to prevent the repetition of the problems. In this stage we learn to plan how to tackleNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 275
  • 289. the threat and danger in future. This process guides us to learn to control and eliminate thelibrary users’ complaints and also to improve the efficiency of library employees. Periodicallyunannounced audits will help improve accuracy.Five Laws of Library Science and Six Sigma Dr. S.R .Ranganathan, the Father of Library Science enunciated Five Laws of LibraryScience in 1931. Fundamental objective of five law of library science is user’s satisfaction.According to fifth law “Library is a growing organism”, the librarians should keep oninnovating new ideas and applying new tools and techniques in library services that wouldhelp towards the expansion of library services and resources. Therefore, application of sixsigma in library management provides quality services to the users by which the satisfactionof users can be achieved with the help of providing better and improved new services in thelibrary.Impact of Six Sigma • Continuous efforts will reduce process variation and help to achieve users needs and demands. • Six Sigma helps achieve short-term rather than long term performance. • It helps minimize library employees work effort and maximize the users needs. • It helps achieve users’ satisfaction and to improve the quality of the library. • Six Sigma guides the employee to work smart rather than work hard.Conclusion Library is the organisation which needs to focus on quality of service and usersatisfaction. Six Sigma is generally used in manufacturing sectors to minimize the wastagesand to assure this quality in such a way the same can be implemented in libraries to developthe process and improve the standard of the library to satisfy the users. It insists on continuousimprovement and development of the library as well as library staff members. The ultimategoal of the library is to satisfy its users. This can be achieved only by applying andexperimenting new tools and techniques available today for libraries. Therefore, it could beconcluded that Six Sigma is one of such tools which can be applied in libraries as it helpslibrary employees to have a better management to evaluate the services to library users.ReferencesAhmad Ali Al-Zubi, Imtiaz Basha., Six Sigma In Libraries: A Management Perspective,Canadian Journal on Computing in Mathematics Natural Sciences, Engineering & MedicineVol. 1, No. 3, April 2010 .Chitra Koushik, Et al., Six sigma application for library services, DESIDOC Bulletin ofinformation technology.Vol.27 No.5 September 2007.Coronado, R.B. and Antony, J., “Critical success factors for the successful implementation ofsix sigma projects in organizations”, The TQM Magazine, Vol. 14, No.2, pp 92 – 99. 2002.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 276
  • 290. Dong-Suk Kim., “Eliciting success factors of applying Six Sigma in an academic library: Acase study” Performance Management and Metrics, Vol.11, No.1, pp 25-38. 2010.El-Haik, B. and Roy, D.M., Service design for six sigma: a roadmap for excellence, JohnWiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken: New Jersey. 2005.Harry M. and Schroeder, R., Six sigma: the breakthrough management strategyrevolutionizing the world’s top corporations, 1st ed., Random House Inc., New York. 2000. (Accessed on21.10.2011). (Accessed on 21.10.2011).Sarah Anne Murphy., “Leveraging Lean Six Sigma to Culture, Nurture, and SustainAssessment and Change in the Academic Library Environment”, College and researchLibraries. May 2009.Suresh N. Application of Six sigma concept to effective academic library management andusers satisfaction ,National conference on future academic libraries challenges andopportunities 2011, Madurai Kamaraj university.Susan Kumi and John Morrow., “Improving self service the six sigma way at NewcastleUniversity Library”, Program: Electronic library and Information systems, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp123-136. 2006.Yong Kim et al., A Six Sigma-based method to renovate information services Focusing oninformation acquisition process. Library Hi Tech, Vol.28, No.4, pp 632-647. 2010.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 277
  • 291. “N-List: A Boon For College Libraries”: A Case Study Of SCN Library S. L Jadhav and Anil N. Chikate Abstract We academic library professional are at the forefront to accept that the slogan of 21st century ‘Knowledge Based Society ‘ and impact of ICT on libraries. Hence we are required to take initiative in this direction. Development of e-resources with due attention along with the print material has became necessary for all libraries. In present position, being the professionals of academic libraries we cannot bypass the concept of e- resources and services. Use e-resources and services have proved that it can fulfill the need of users effectively by providing latest and enough information within shortest possible time. N-List facility is one of such consortia to meet the need of users in effective manner. Resources included in this are recent and informative. Huge database of e-books, e-journals and other databases available in N-list is the unique facility of N-List and on the basis of feedback from users it is found that it is really boon for college libraries. Present paper deals with the case study of N-List facility in Science College Nanded Library. SCN library has enrolled its membership for N-List in October 2010. One year period is considered for this purpose . Attempts are made here to study and evaluate the N-List facility through various aspects such as subject wise analysis of e-journals and e-books, availability of access and feedback of users and library staff. In the study it is found that N-list is good and user friendly to where as there are certain limitations is accessing e-journals and e-books. In case of e-journals, ‘Annual reviews’ and in e-books of ‘ebrary’ are easy to operate as compare to others. Keywords: Consortia, e-resources, e-services, academic library, N-List.Introduction Keeping in view the impact of ICT, steady and continuous growth of e-Resource and e-Services in information centers and developed libraries academic libraries are forced to work in thisdirection and build up e-resources and e-services to meet the current demand of readers. Speciallylibraries of Sciences are expected to take lead in this line and accordingly libraries are working in thisdirection. At the same time it is not possible for any individual library to have all needed literature.Hence, consortia are the one of the best option to overcome the problem of shortage of literature atleast to some extent. It helps to develop variety of database in the concern subject and fulfill usersdemand effectively. This paper highlights case study of n-list database consortia in Science Collegelibrary.Consortia Meaning A consortium is an effective strategy to increase the buying power of individual libraries tomaximize opportunities for cooperative collection building and resource sharing. It is an attempt towork with other institution to meet the challenges of information.Information and Consortia Services UGC has started INFONET and N-List ambitious consortia’s (programmes) throughINFLIBNET to promote e-based resources and on-line database services to universities and Collegeslibraries. Basic purpose is provided education through ICT.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 278
  • 292. The UGC-INFONET mainly provides Internet bandwidth, a pre-requisite for delivery ofscholarly content subscribed through the UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium. The schemehas now been extended to 200 Universities and 6 Inter-University Centres of the UGC.N-LIST N-LIST (National Library and Information Services Infrastructure for ScholarlyContent), being jointly executed by the UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium,INFLIBNET Centre and the INDEST-AICTE Consortium. The N-LIST consortia provides access to e-resources to students, researchers andfaculty from colleges and other beneficiary institutions through server(s) installed at theINFLIBNET Centre. The authorized users from colleges can now access e-resources anddownload articles required by them directly from the publishers website once they are dulyauthenticated as authorized users through servers deployed at the INFLIBNET Centre. Thedetailed information about N-List is available on its website College, Nanded Science College Nanded (SCN) has established by the Nanded Education Society, Nanded inthe year 1950. The great visionary and freedom fighter of Hyderabad Mukti Sangram, Poojya SwamiRamanand Teerth was the founder member and first Chairman of the society. The college has beenaccredited by NAAC with ‘A’ grade. College run UG and PG level courses in five basic sciences Viz.Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Botany and Zoology and now PG in Computer Sci. and DisasterManagement started since 205-06 onwards. College is recognized research centre of SRTMUNanded. The college is also partner institute of IGNOU since 2008 - 09. College library is enrichedwith over 47644 books, 2315 Back Volumes and 265 CDs. Books includes world class references ofsciences and rare books are more than 300. Library subscribes 114 periodicals including 63 researchjournals. Provision of separate budget allocation has been made for development of e-resources fromlast two years (2008-09 ).National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 279
  • 293. Library computerization work process was started in the year 2003. All most Bar-Codingwork completed in 2005. Library uses SOUL software. Presently out of six modules three modules -viz. Circulation, Catalogue and OPAC are used in our library. From the year 2006 onwards library hasshifted its attention towards development of e-resources and e-services to some extent. Afterlaunching N-List facility in May, 2010, we have enrolled library membership for this from October2010 onwards.Objectives • To know the status of e-Resources in our library • To promote e-based resources and services • To help readers to update their knowledge in the concern subject. • To provide quick access to resources. • To improve the quality of library services.Scope and Limitations Scope of the study is limited N-List facility in SCN Library and one year period is covered forthe purpose.Analysis of study Access to 2100 e-journals and 51000 e-books is mentioned in N-List database presently thesenumbers are increased to 2137 e-journals and 71838 e-books. In addition to these there are otherresources which includes Bibliographic database – MathSciNet, e-resources for universities – web ofsciences , e- resources for technical institutions- Annual reviews , Projects and nature. Following e-journals are available.e-JournalsDetails are shown as under: S.No. Particulars Titles 1 American Institute o f Physics 18 2 American Physical Society 10 3 Annual Reviews 33 4 Cambridge University Press 224 5 Economic & Political Weekly 01 6 Indian Journals 150 7 Institute of Physics 46 8 Oxford University Press 206 9 Royal Society of Chemistry 29 10 H W Wilson 1420 Total 2137 There are 74 titles of Physics and 29 of Chemistry are given under individual heads, where asAmerican Reviews 33, Cambridge University Press 224, Oxford University Press 206, and IndianJournals 150 and H. W. Wilson 1420, includes titles of Science, Social Sci. Commerce andLanguages etc. and one title of Economic & Political Weekly is available in the subject ofEconomics.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 280
  • 294. e – Books: Particulars are shown as under S. No. Particulars Total 1 E-Brary 70000 2 Oxford Scholarship on line (Paid Jrl ) 902 3 EBSCO Host Net (paid Jrl ) 936 4 Net Library ( Paid Jrl ) --- 5 My Library Mc-Graw-Hill Pub ( Paid Jrl ) --- Total 71838Particulars of e-brary books Particulars Total S. No. 1 Life science 2068 2 Physical Science 1989 3 Language/literature 8780 Total 12837Users Last academic year ( 2010 – 11 ) N-List membership facility was provided to facultymembers, Research scholars, and P.G. second year students. Details are shown as under. S. N. Membership Total 1 Faculty Members 78 2 Research Scholars 22 3 PG – Students – Chemistry 60 4 PG – Students – Botany 30 Total 190 This year membership facility has extended to more number of readers. Membership status isshown as under.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 281
  • 295. S. N. Membership Total 1 Faculty Members 78 2 Research Scholars 22 3 P. G . Students 259 Total 357Advantages • e-resources provided in n-List database are of reputed publications. • e-Journals available in N-List are of standard & carries good impact factor. • e-journals of Annual Review are fully accessible easy to access and classified into three groups viz. Biomedical Sci. Physical Sci. and social sci. • In case of e-books, books of e-brary facilitate easy access through simple search such as key word, author, title and all subjects. • We have found that this facility is exclusively good to access latest journals and archives. • Research scholars use this facility moderately. • P. G. students makes maximum use of this facility in preparation of their projects. • Use of N-list database is convenient as it is not restricted to area and time. • N-list is user friendly. • Most of the e-journals and e-books in N-List are of science subjects.Problems • In N-list database more than 70% e-journals are not full text accessible, only abstract is given. • Most of the e-journals ask for subscription. • Download of books is lengthy procedure and in some cases one has to download one by one page. • Frequent interruption of electricity problem affects N-List use. • Lack of training among users. • e-Books are permitted to save on system and it remains in users account only and not possible to save on any other drives. • In case of e-books free access is not provided to e-Books of Oxford scholarship online, Springs Pub., Hindustan Books agency and EBSCO Host are not e-books,National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 282
  • 296. Conclusion and suggestions After using N-List database we feel that it is one the major source to meet the demandof readers and buildup the collection development. It provides lot of useful literature. Use ofn-list is the best option for academic libraries specially science subject. It would be better ifaccess is provided to all e-books mentioned in the list and also to e-journals.ReferencesChikate Anil , Hirwade Manggala and Bhelkar Ratnakar., Digital libraries initiatives andapplications in Indian Context, National Workshop, 3 January, 2010.Chikkamallaiah et al “Resource Sharing & Cooperative Acquistion of Electronic Inormation/resources through Consortia : A Case of III Libraries” during National Conference on‘Consortia Approach for Content Sharing among Libraries’, Organized by MangolareUniversity and ASSIST, Managalagangotri, 27-9 May 2002.Cholin,V.S and Karisiddappa, C R, ‘ Consortia approach for academic libraries : emergingsolution for optimum utilization’ during national conference on ‘ Consortia approach forcontent sharing among libraries organized by Magalore University and ASSIST,Mangalagangotri, 27-9 May 2002.Goudar I R N and Narayana Poornima ,Emerging pricing models for e-journals consortia andIndian Initiatives. Retrieved on 15.11.2011, from www. (Access on22.11.2011 )Gourdar, I R N “Consortia Approach for Accessing Commercial Electronic InforationSources” during Workshop on ‘Creation and Management of Digital Resources’ Organized byUNESCO-NISSAT, Unviersity of Mysore, 18-20 June 2001.Koul A., Science Education Through mass media, University News, 29 ( 44) P. No. 19-20.1991.Nanda V K, (1997), Science Education Today, Anmol Pub Pvt Ltd. , New Delhi.Osburn, C.B., The place of the journal in the scholarly communications system. LibraryResources and Technical Services, 28-315-324. 1984.Sanvile, T “ Use levels and new Models for Consortial purchasing of Electronic Journals,Library consortium Management – An International Journal. 1(3/4), 1999.Shafi Muzamil., Library Consortia : An overwhelming Technology, University News 46 (31)August 4-10, 2008, P. No. 14National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 283
  • 297. Growth of Engineering Institutions and their Libraries in Tamil Nadu L. Rajendran, V. Radhakrishnan and M.S. Premraj Abstract Since the early 1980s due to rapid industrialization and economic growth, there was a great demand for the Engineers and Scientists. As a result, engineering and technical education in this country have been developing faster than anywhere else in the world, and India now has the 2nd largest number of engineering students in the world. In the closing years of the 20th century, there is a boom in the development of digital technology that leads into the development of virtual libraries. But it is to understand that many of the libraries in developing nations are unable to cope up with either the Information Technology applications or the development of digital contents. In this context, this paper attempts to profile the growth of engineering institutions and their libraries in Tamil Nadu. Keywords: Engineering Institutions, Library, Self financing Colleges, Tamil Nadu Introduction The growth of engineering Institutions before independence in the country has been very slow. The number of engineering colleges 1947 was 44 and 43 respectively. Due to efforts and initiatives taken during successive five year plan and particularly due to policy changes in the eighties to allow participation of private and voluntary organizations in the setting up of technical institutions on self-financing basis, the grow of engineering institutions has been phenomenal. Libraries are as old as recorded information. Growing out of the need to protect and conserves limited information, the role of the library remained steady for centuries. With the advent of modern information technology however, the world changed radically. A lack of information has become an excess, with libraries adapting to a latest role. We have moved from collection to selecting, where quality versus quantity and ownership versus access is the new parameters of library stewardship. In spite of these changes, librarians continue to believe that knowledge is power and that knowledge is built upon the intelligent selection and use of information. Engineering institutions in India Region Engineering Institutions Central 112 Eastern 114 North 106 North-West 153 South 496 South-West 207 West 158National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 284
  • 298. While it is stated that such schools existed in Calcutta and Bombay as early as 1825,the first authentic account we have is that of an industrial school established at Gunidy,Madras, in 1842, attached to the gun carriage factory there. A school for the training ofoverseers was known to exist in Poona in 1854. The first engineering college was establishedin the U.P in 1847 for the training of civil engineers at Roorkee, which made use of the largeworkshops and public buildings there that were erected for the upper Ganges canal. TheRoorkee College was never affiliated to any university, but has been giving diplomas whichare considered to be equivalent to degrees. In pursuance of the government policy, threeengineering colleges were opened by about 1856 in the three presidencies. In Bengal, acollege called the Calcutta College of civil engineering was opened at the writer’s buildings inNovember 1856, the name was changed to Bengal engineering college in 1857, and it wasaffiliated to the Calcutta University. It gave a licentiate course in civil engineering. In 1856 itwas amalgamated with the presidency college. In the Madras presidency, the industrialschool attached to the gun carriage factory became ultimately the Guindy College ofengineering and affiliated to the Madras University 1858. In 1915, the Indian Institute ofScience, Bangalore, opened Electrical engineering classes under Dr.Alfred Hay, and began togive certificates and associate ships, the latter being regarded equivalent to a degree. Byunderstanding the importance of technical developments, both the state and centralgovernments are established engineering institutions in several parts of the country.However, the proliferation of engineering institutions is taken place in the last decades of 20thcentury.Role of AICTE The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is an apex organizationcharged with the responsibility for planning and coordinated development of technicaleducation in India. The AICTE is responsible for the accreditation of both state and privateengineering colleges. AICTE monitors the qualitative growth of technical education inrelation to planned quantitative growth and proper maintenance of norms and standards. Thenational Board of accreditation of AICTE aims to bring standards of some of the programmesoffered in technical institutions on par with programmes offered in institutions in the USAand Europe by introducing a quality auditing system and establishing a datum for measuringthe quality and excellence in engineering education. The accreditation exercise is veryrigorous and has several inputs, such as quality of teaching, level of research, facultyexpertise, evaluation of teachers, and standard of infrastructure and resources available at theinstitution. There are seven Statutory Regional Committees across the country for assistingthe Council in planning and development of technical education, monitoring and periodicevaluation of the approved institutions in the region. The main approved tasks for the ninthfive year plan are as follows: • Planning growth and regulation of technical education. • Human resource development. • Quality assurance and excellence. • Promotion of R&D. linkage with industries, national labs, centres and institutions. • Rural development programmes. • Mission-oriented programmes. • Strengthening management and governance structure.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 285
  • 299. • Resource mobilization. The numbers of engineering colleges are increasing rapidly to cope with the growingdemand for technically skilled people due to rapid industrialization and infrastructuredevelopment in the country.Technical education curricula The general consensus in India is that the distribution of subjects as a percentage oftotal loads in a four year undergraduate engineering degree should be: Basic Science and Mathematics 20% Humanities and Social Sciences 10% General Engineering 20% Departmental Core Subjects 30% Engineering Specialization (Electives) 20% Nowadays, computer-aided engineering and technical education have also becomestandard at all leading institutions and universities. Engineering students wishing to pursue Postgraduate study take an examinationknown as the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE). This has one common subjectfor all engineers and advanced subjects in the area of specialization. Undergraduate curriculain India are designed to enable students to take this testAICTE library norms The AICTE as a apex body for every educations formulated the following norms forthe libraries in engineering institutions in the country. So these norms are explained asfollows.Library staff Library should be provided with the necessary staff to enable it to be available to thestaff and students for at least 12 hours in a day. It is suggested that the library should consistof one librarian, one assistant librarian and four library assistants.Central library The central library for an admission of 240 students per year will have a carpet area of400 sq.m. At the time of established a technical institution with three branches, there shouldbe a minimum of 4000 volumes in the library distributed as below: • Each branch will have 250 titles with four multiple copies. • In subjects like Mathematics, Humanities, Physics, Chemistry, etc. there should be total of 1000 Volumes. There should be a minimum of 12 technical journals, 6 Indian and 6 International foreach branch of engineering. While this is essential for institutions offering PG programme,the number of International Journals may be relaxed, though preferred for those offering onlyNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 286
  • 300. UG programmes. Accordingly, the norms for the initial stock of books, yearly addition ofbooks and the number of journals to be subscribed are as given below: AICTE library norms for collection developments in the library S.No Item Minimum 1. Initial stock of books for three branches in institution 4000 2. a. Each branch of engineering .(A) 1000 b.Mathematics, Applied Physics Applied Chemistry, Humanities, (In each Social science and Management science. (B) branch) 3. Yearly addition of books (Average) a. For(A) 1 title per student admitted to the branch b. For (B) 0.2 title per student admitted per year 4. Number of Tech. journals a. For (A) 12 (6 National + 6 International) b. For (B) 12 (6 National + 6 International) (Source: AICTE website)An overview of engineering institutions in Tamil Nadu Tami Nadu state is located in the southern part of the country. It is in the sub tropicalclimate and consists of varied physio-graphical features. This state is one of the foremoststates in the context of economy, industrialization and education. The literacy rate of the stateis more than 75 percent which is for above the Indian literacy rate. Subsequently femaleliteracy rate is also higher than that of other states except Kerala. The table no.3 illustrate thisis the state that consists of more number of engineering institutions than any other state in thecountry. Number of Engineering Institutions in Tamil Nadu 2010-11 Type Engineering Institutions (2010-11) Government 21 Government aided 3 Self-financing 426 Deemed Universities 23 National Institutes 2National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 287
  • 301. The table illustrate this is the state that consists of more number of engineeringinstitutions than any other state in the country. The map given below illustrates the location ofdifferent engineering institutions in the state. A close reading of the maps illustrate that nearly 50 percent of the EngineeringInstitutions are located in and around Chennai city. The reasons for proliferation ofengineering institutions in and around Chennai are as follows: • Chennai city is India’s capital city of learning/education so there exist higher level of educational infrastructure for the institutions. • It is a gate way for the Northern states of the country where many number states are lacking adequate engineering institutions. So the students who are indent to study engineering education are willing to get admissions in the institutions of the city. Thus, this is the reason for proliferation of self finance institutions in the city. • Many industries are prepared to conduct campus interviews in the institutions in and around Chennai city rather than the institutions else where in the state as well as in the country. It is to note that the first engineering institution in the country was established in thecity as an industrial school established at Gunidy, Chennai (earlier it was known as Madras)in 1842, attached to the gun carriage factory of Guindy. In the Madras presidency, thisinstitutional school later named as Guindy College of engineering and affiliated to the MadrasUniversity in 1858. In the 20th century the engineering institutions where established by theGovernment in several places in the state such as Salem Engineering College, KarikudiAlaggappa Engineering College and so on. After independence some of the privateorganization started engineering institutions due to lack of well established institutions in thestate. For producing more number of engineering graduates to tackle the technicaldevelopment taken place in the middle of the 20th century both State and Central Governmentare permitted to establish self financing engineering institutions. The self financingengineering institutions are ranging from minority linguistics institutions, minority religionoriented institutions and so on. The UGC and AICTE pressurize these institutions toestablished well developed library systems, but unfortunately except few, most of theinstitutions are having library system for the sack of getting approval of AICTE andaffiliations to Anna University. All these institutions are affiliated to Anna University.Conclusion Technical education determines the developments and socio economic conditions ofthe nation; there is a greater need for high quality technical education to produce technicallyskilled man power in India. The libraries are the backbone of academic institutions. They arealso considered as heart of the institutions that supply life blood of information to the needs ofacademic and research programs of the different organs / departments of the institutions.Libraries are of course a product of their environment. The changing environment of theengineering institutions and the new lifestyle embraced by students and being adopted byfaculty manifest themselves in both library facilities and the organizations which occupy themas noted above, the dominant feature of libraries in the past had been its physical collections.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 288
  • 302. It is need of the hour that all engineering institutions in the country to establish state-of-the artmodern digital libraries to cater to the ever increasing information requirements of theengineering students, research scholars, faculty, scientists and industry.ReferencesAshoor, Saleh M., University library planning: the experience of the University of petroleumand minerals, International Library Review, 15(3), pp.273-289. July 1983.Davies, Eric J., Strategic issues in managing information and document supply in academiclibraries, Library Management, 19(5), pp.318-326. 1998.Kumar, Girja., Planning and design of library buildings: the Indian experience, LibraryHerald, 20(2-4), pp.59-72. July 1981-March 1982.Malhan, I.V., Developing corporate culture in the Indian University libraries: Problems andchallenges of change management, Library Management, 27(6/7), pp.486-493. 2006.Meyyappan, N and Foo., Schubert, Design and evaluation of a task-based digital library forthe academic community, Journal of Documentation, 60(4), pp.449-475. 2004.Raza, Masoom and Eqbal, Monawwer., Design and development of Library and InformationScience Gateway: An Indian initiative, The International Information and Library Review,37(4), pp.365-374. 2005.Raza, Masoom and Eqbal, Monawwer., Design and development of Library and InformationScience Gateway: An Indian initiative, The International Information and Library Review,37(4), pp.365-374. 2005.Sharma, R K and Vishwanathan, K R., Digital libraries: development and challenges, LibraryReview, 50(1), pp.10-15. 2001.Stephen, Parker, J, et al., Aspects of library development planning, London, MansellPublishing Ltd., pp.289. 1983.Susana, Barbara et al., Collection development in a digital environment: an imperative forinformation organizations in the twenty-first century, Collection building, 25(4), pp.139-144.2006.Uma Kanjilal and Tripathi, S M., Collection development: Planning for IGNOU librarysystem, Library Acquisitions: Practice and Theory, 19(1), pp.83-95. Spring1995Vaughan, Jason., Preparing for technology: systems planning and implementation in LiedLibrary, Library Hi Tech, 20(1), pp.33-46. 2002.Wainwright, Eric J., Strategies for university academic information and service delivery,Library Management, 26(8/9), pp.439-456. 2005.Wijiasuriya, D E K., The national planning and development of library services in Malaysia,Dalhousie University: Occasional Papers, 56, pp.71-83. 1995.National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 289
  • 303. Improving Workforce Capability among LIS Professionals using People CMM (Level 2) N. Geetha and S. Babusankar Abstract Over the past decades, many changes have affected the roles of librarians and other professionals in research oriented organizations. The changes have been caused in part by technological advances, reorganizations, more focus on libraries as learning organizations, the use of teams and team-based approaches to tasks, and recognition of diversity’s importance to organizational development. Librarians have had to align priorities with redefined institutional goals. In this paper an initiation has been taken to implement the People CMM (Level-2) a workforce focused compatibility maturity model for Library Management to improve the workforce capability of library professionals. Keywords: Organizational Development, CMM, Library Management.Introduction Technological advancement, severe competition brought in by the forces ofglobalisation, increased user awareness and expectations both in terms of quality and service,have necessitated a reorientation of the organisations. The challenge for organisations is toperform to world class standards and gain competitive advantage to survive, grow andprosper. This challenge can only be met by organisational transformation. An organisationthat is continuously changing to meet higher demands of customers and shifting market forceswill be more successful in the long run. However, any change attemapted at the organisationallevel in terms of technology, processes and structures cannot have the desired and lastingimpact without a change in its people, change in human knowledge, skill, attitude andbehaviour. The People Capability Maturity Model (People CMM) is a framework that guidesorganization in improving their process for managing anddeveloping their workforces. Based on the current practices in field such as human resources,knowledge management, and organizational development the People CMM helpsorganization to characterize the • maturity of their workforce practices • establish a program of continuous workforce development • set priorities for improvement actions • integrate workforce development with process improvement • establish culture of excellence.What is People Capability Maturity Model (P-CMM) P-CMM or People CMM is a workforce focused compatibility maturity modeldeveloped by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). People CMM was introduced in 1995to bring in a focus to workforce process efficiencies and productivity. The main aim of P-CMM is to enhance organization capabilities and effectiveness in human resource activities ofthe organizations to attract, develop, motivate, organize, and retain the talent needed tocontinuously improve software development capability. Many organizations know that theyNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 290
  • 304. should address people/cultural issues as part of their improvement activities but they do notknow how to go about it. It focuses on continuously improving the management anddevelopment of the human assets of an organization. It describes an evolutionaryimprovement path from ad hoc, inconsistently performed practices, to a mature, disciplined,and continuously improving development of the knowledge, skills, and motivation of theworkforce that enhances strategic institutional performance.Architecture of People CMM The PCMM, like other capability maturity models, is a staged model fororganizational change. It consists of five maturity levels. Each successive level represents ahigher level of organizational capability, created by implementing a new system of workforcepractices and processes. The model helps establish a program that tightly integrates workforcedevelopment with process improvement. Each maturity level of the PCMM, with the exception of the Initial Level, consists ofthree to seven process areas. Each process area (PA) identifies a cluster of related practicesthat, when performed collectively, achieve a set of goals considered important for enhancingworkforce capability. Fig. 1 Levels of People CMMLevel 1 – Initial At the Initial maturity level (Level 1), workforce practices are characterized asundocumented, unrepeatable, and inefficient. At this level, leaders lack a clearly identified,communicated, and utilized set of effective best practice workforce practices. If workforcepractices do exist, they are performed inconsistently or inefficiently, or are used ritualistically,thus failing to achieve their intended results. Within this low-maturity culture, leaders lacktraining and usually must resort to using their intuition in managing their people. This culturecan be defined as being an “ad-hoc”racy.Level 2 – Managed At the Managed maturity level (Level 2), leaders are trained in managing their people.At this level, repeatable sets of basic workforce practices are established and followed, and aNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 291
  • 305. management framework is developed within work units. Leaders assume responsibility formanaging and developing the personnel reporting to them, including ensuring that personnelreporting to them have the skills and resources required to meet their work commitments.This culture is characterized as a stabilized local work environment based on the standardrepeatable work practices being utilized.Level 3 – Defined At the Defined maturity level (Level 3), workforce competencies comprisingknowledge, skills, and process abilities are developed and transferred across workgroups. Atthis level, the organization values its workforce and manages and develops its people as astrategic asset. Competencies are also aligned with the business strategy and objectives of theorganization. In addition, a common organizational framework is established where practicesare standardized across units and the organization. Employees benefit from functioning asautonomous individuals working within empowered workgroups. Employees can identifyimprovement opportunities, pursue career growth, and be rewarded based on workcontribution.Level 4 – Predictable At the Predictable maturity level (Level 4), data are used to measure, improve,integrate, and predict workforce capabilities. With reduced variability in performance andgreater access to information, the organization can strategically manage existingorganizational capability, identify future capability requirements and better plan and exploitbusiness opportunities. At this level empowered individuals and workgroups manage theirown performance, employees and leaders trust each other and seek mutual benefits, andmanagement focuses more on strategic issue management than operations management. As aresult of this level’s focus on learning, quantitative measurements, and predictability ofperformance, the culture can be characterized as one of being informed.Level 5 – Optimized At the Optimized maturity level (Level 5), continuous improvement—the key to anenduring best practices culture—is identified as ongoing. Alignment and maximization ofcapability is sought between individuals, workgroups and units, and the organization. Lessonslearned are communicated, and individuals help manage themselves and their work; initiatingimprovements dynamically. The organization strives to deploy rapid changes; continuouslyseeking and exploiting incremental advancements, significant innovations, and newtechnologies. Based on the higher levels of competencies, and the performance andinnovation realized, the culture is characterized as one of continuously pursuing ever higherlevels of product, service, and performance excellence.People CMM Process Areas (PA) Process Areas is a cluster of related practices that, when performed collectively,satisfy a set of goals that contribute to the capability gained by achieving a maturity level.Each process area organizes a set of interrelated practices in a critical area of workforcemanagement, such as staffing, compensation, or workgroup development. Each of these areasconstitutes an important organizational process. The process areas at each level of maturitycreate an inter-linked system of processes that transform the organization’s capability forNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 292
  • 306. managing its workforce. Each process area contains a set of goals that, when satisfied,establish that process area’s ability to affect workforce capability. Process areas identify boththe capabilities that must be institutionalized to achieve a maturity level, and the practices thatan organization should implement to improve its workforce capability. This paper deals withthe Process Areas of Level – 2 as an initiation and describes the key process related to thatlevel only. Fig.2 People CMM Process Areas People CMM Threads Maturity Developing Shaping Building Motivating Level Individual Workgroups the & Managing Capability & Culture Performance Workforce Continuous Organizational Continuous 5 Workforce Capability Performance Optimizing Improvement Improvement Management Competency Competency Integration 4 Based Assets Quantitative Organizational Predictable Performance Capability Empowered Mentoring Management Management Workgroups Competency Competency Workgroup Based Development Development 3 Practices Workforce Defined Competency Participatory Planning Career Analysis Culture Development Compensation Communication Performance 2 Training and and Management Managed Development Coordination Work Staffing Environment 1 Initial (This initial maturity level contains no Process Areas) Source: The People Capability Maturity Model: its Approach and Potential to Improve Workforce PerformanceNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 293
  • 307. Process Areas at Level 2 – Managed Level Process Areas at the Managed Level focus on establishing a foundation of basicworkforce practices that can be continuously improved to develop the capability of theworkforce. This foundation of practices is initially built within units to instill a discipline formanaging people and to provide a supportive work environment with adequate workresources. The unit balances work commitments with available resources. Qualified peopleare recruited, selected, and transitioned into assignments within the unit. Performanceobjectives are established for the committed work, and performance is periodically discussedto identify actions that can improve it. Individuals develop skill interpersonal communicationskills to ensure that work dependencies are coordinated effectively. The knowledge and skillsrequired for performing assignments are identified and appropriate training and developmentopportunities are provided. The compensation is based on an articulated strategy and isperiodically adjusted to ensure equity. Fig.3. Process Areas at Maturity Level 2 Performance Work Performance Communicatio Compensatio Managemen n n Work Assignment Interperson Compensatio Training Staffing Skill QualifiedThe process areas at Maturity Level 2 include: • Staffing • Communication and Coordination • Work Environment • Performance Management • Training and Development • CompensationNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 294
  • 308. Staffing Staffing is positioned as the primary process area at Level 2 since staffing decisionsprovide an organization’s greatest opportunities to influence performance. All other practicesdesigned to improve the capability of the workforce must start from the baseline of talentbrought into the organization. Few organizational processes are able to demonstrate theirpotential benefits in organizations that are chronically overworked because of poor staffingpractices. Staffing involves processes related to balancing the workload with availableresources, recruiting, selecting among candidates for open positions, entering or leaving theorganization, and transitioning into new positions.Communication Communication and Coordination establishes the initial basis for developing andempowering workgroups. This process area establishes a culture for openly sharinginformation across organizational levels and laterally among dependent units. Increasing theflow of information provides the foundation for a participatory culture and empoweredworkgroups. A critical attribute of this culture is that individuals can feel confident in raisingconcerns to management without fear of retribution.Work Environment The work environment must be managed to ensure it supports the committed work ofthose in the organization. This process area focuses on both the resources provided forperforming work, and the physical conditions under which the work is performed.Management must balance expenditures on resources and environment with justificationsbased on the work being performed. This process area reinforces management’s responsibilityto monitor resource needs and environmental conditions that affect the workforce’s ability toperform work efficiently. Management should have plans for mitigating those problemsjudged to present serious risks to health, safety, of efficiency. Continual interruptions are oneof the greatest impediments to efficiency in knowledge-intense environments. Whiledistractions cannot be eliminated, attempts should be made to minimize them. Establishing aneffective work environment begins with identifying the physical environment and resourcesneeded to perform committed work. An appropriate physical environment and personalworkspace are provided for individuals and workgroups to perform their assignedresponsibilities. Resources needed to perform committed work are made available in a timelymanner. Improvements to the effectiveness of the work environment are identified andprioritized. Within reasonable boundaries, high priority improvements are implemented.Environmental conditions that would degrade or endanger the health or safety of theworkforce are eliminated. Physical factors that would degrade work efficiency are addressed.Distractions in the work environment are identified and minimized.Performance Management The primary focus of performance management is on continual discussion of workperformance to identify ways to improve it. Continual discussion of performance focuses notonly on the individual, but also on work processes, resources, and any other issues that can beaddressed to improve performance. The discussion of performance occurs in the context ofmeasurable objectives that individuals are trying to achieve in their work. The role ofperformance appraisal in this orientation is primarily to record the results of performance foruse as input to decisions about adjustments to compensation, personal development planning,National Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 295
  • 309. staffing, promotion, and other workforce activities. The process of managing performance isinitiated by collaboratively defining measurable objectives for unit performance that are basedon the unit’s committed work. These unit objectives establish the framework in whichindividual performance objectives can be defined. Measurable performance objectives aredefined for each individual based on their committed work, and are revised as needed.Performance objectives at the unit and individual levels are periodically reviewed todetermine their continued relevance, and, if needed, they are revised.Training and Development The primary focus of Training and Development is on removing the gap between thecurrent skills of each individual and the skills required to perform their assignments. Onceindividuals have the necessary skills to perform current assignments, they may focus theirdevelopment activities on other objectives. Each unit identifies the critical skills required foreach individual to successfully perform their assigned tasks. Critical skills are those that, ifnot performed effectively, could jeopardize the successful performance of these assignedtasks. Training needs related to these critical skills are identified for each individual. Then,each unit develops a training plan based on the training needs identified for each individualwithin the unit. Training in critical skills is delivered in a timely manner and is tracked againstthe unit’s training plan. The primary focus of Training and Development is on removing thegap between the current skills of each individual and the skills required to perform theirassignments. After these primary needs are addressed, other development objectives can bepursued. Development discussions are held regularly to ensure each individual recognizes theorganization’s interest in their professional development. These development discussions areheld to discuss training needs, as well as potential next assignments, career options, and otherdevelopment interests. Training and development opportunities are identified for eachindividual that support their individual development objectives.Compensation Compensation represents the only process area at the Managed Level whose executionis coordinated by actions at the organizational level. Compensation must be coordinatedprimarily through centralized activity in order to establish a sense of equity in the system.Once the workforce perceives the system to be equitable, it can be adjusted to motivate thedevelopment of needed skills and better alignment of individual performance with that of theworkgroup, unit, or organization. The compensation system should be designed to motivateand reward the skills and behaviors the organization considers vital to its success. Acompensation strategy is developed that states the organization’s philosophy and methods forcompensating individuals. This compensation strategy is periodically reviewed againstorganisational conditions and revised when necessary. The opinions and interests of theworkforce are considered in shaping the compensation strategy. The strategy covers all formsof compensation to individuals, both fixed and variable, and the criteria by whichcompensation is determined. A compensation plan is prepared periodically to guide theadministration of the compensation strategy.Need for Improving Work-Force Capability among Library Professionals A librarian fulfills a role that encompasses providing technical and administrativedirection and control to individuals performing tasks or activities within the librarian’s area ofNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 296
  • 310. responsibility. The traditional functions of a librarian include planning, resourcing,organizing, directing, and controlling work within an area of responsibility. The PeopleCMM’s primary goal is to guide organizations in improving the capability of the work force.Work-force capability can be defined as the level of knowledge, skills, and process abilitiesavailable for performing an organization’s organisational activities. Work-force capabilityindicates an organization’s readiness for performing its critical organisational activities, itslikely results from performing these organisational activities, and its potential for benefitingfrom investments in process improvement or advanced technology. The Process MaturityFramework was designed to apply to practices that contribute directly to the organisationalperformance of an organization, that is, to the organization’s capability for providing high-quality products and services. Since the capability of an organization’s work force is criticalto its performance, the practices for managing and developing them are excellent candidatesfor improvement using the Process Maturity Framework. The benefits of implementing thePeople CMM are as follows: • Ability to embrace change • Comfort in the online medium • Ability to troubleshoot new technologies • Ability to easily learn new technologies • Ability to keep up with new ideas in technology and librarianship •Factors to be Adopted while Implementing People CMM • Organizational factors, such as size, regional and organizational culture, and organisational objectives, must be considered when implementing and institutionalizing the practices of the People CMM. When applying the People CMM in a particular context, a reasonable interpretation must be made of how these practices might be implemented. The People CMM must be interpreted flexibly when applying it to smaller organizations or unusual organisational circumstances, so that unreasonable or needlessly bureaucratic activities are not implemented. For instance, small organizations may implement the practices without the infrastructure needed by large organizations. • Another organizational factor that should be considered when using the People CMM as guidance or in an assessment setting is the composition of the workforce. Individuals have many different relationships with an organization. Some are full-time employees, others may be part time or casual employees, and other individuals may be contractors or other forms of affiliates, while other individuals may be on loan or visiting from another organization. In applying the practices to these various categories of individuals, decisions must be made about how to appropriately apply these practices to all individuals in each of these categories. For some individuals, such as certain contract employees, selected practices relating to their training and development, as well as practices relating to their compensation, may not the responsibility of the organization that they are currently supporting, but rather are the responsibility of their originating organization. • Professional judgment must be used when interpreting the practices and how they contribute to the goals of a process area. In particular, the process areas may map in complex ways to the practices and associated activities used in an organization. TheNational Seminar on ELITE 20119-10 December, 2011 © TANUVAS, Chennai 297
  • 311. process areas describe a set of interrelated objectives that all organizations should achieve, regardless of their size, locations, or products. The practices contained in process areas constitute recommendations for achieving the objectives that have proven effective in many types of organizations, and therefore are expected to work in most organizations implementing the People CMM. Although process areas depict behavior that should characterize any organization, the practices of the People CMM must be interpreted in light of an organization’s structure, the nature of its workforce, the organization’s organisational environment, and other circumstances.Conclusion People CMM based improvement programs should be conducted as part of an overallorganizational improvement strategy. Library professionals have stressed that a programbased on the People CMM model should not be treated as just a human resources initiative.Rather, it should be presented as a program for operational management to improve thecapability of its work force. Professionals in human resources, training, organizationaldevelopment, and related disciplines have unique expertise that can assist operationallibrarians in improving their work-force practices. The responsibility for ensuring that an organization has a work force capable ofperforming current and future work lies primarily with operational management. Whenintroducing multiple improvement programs, the organization needs to assess the amount ofchange it can reasonably absorb and adjust expectations and schedules accordingly. This isespecially acute at Level 2, where the individuals absorbing the majority of the changes areproject- and unit-level librarians. In order not to overload these librarians with change, theorganization should stage the introduction of improvement programs.ReferencesBill Curtis, Sally A. Miller, William E. Hefley, Experiences Applying the People CapabilityMaturity Model, Software Engineering Institute. The Journal of Defense SoftwareEngineering, April 2003.Bill Curtis, Sally A. Miller, William E. Hefley, The People Capability Maturity Model,Pearson Education, 2002.Chauhan and Daisy Chauhan, The People Oriented Approach: Communication GainingCompetitive Edge UIR, Vol. 38, No. 3, January 2003.Janice Simmons-Welburn, Changing Roles of Library Professionals: A SPEC Kit, HumanResources and Processing Services, University of Iowa, May 2000.Mark R. Wademan, Charles M. Spuches, and Philip L. Doug