Git for beginners

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A beginners tutorial on using git with bitbucket

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Git for beginners

  1. 1. git for beginners Arulmurugan @arulmrr www.indjango.com
  2. 2. git ● Source code management software ● DVCS (Distributed Version Control System) ● hg - Similar tool ● CVS, Bazaar, SVN
  3. 3. Installation ● Ubuntu sudo apt-get install git ● Windows
  4. 4. Ubuntu and Windows ● Commands here can be executed in the respective OS as defined below ● Ubuntu ○ Can use their system terminal ● Windows ○ Select git bash in your Right-click context menu
  5. 5. git Hosting Bitbucket Github Unlimited public and private repositories Unlimited Public repositories Cost based on number of users Cost based on number of repositories Supports git and hg Supports git only ● Codeplane, Githost, Assembla, Cloudforge, Gitorious ● Bitbucket Username - arulmurugan E-Mail - arulmurugan@example.com
  6. 6. ssh-key Setup ● ssh-keygen #Command to generate public key ● Copy contents of id_rsa.pub
  7. 7. Bitbucket - Create Repo
  8. 8. An empty repo
  9. 9. Repo - User Management ● To manage who access your repository
  10. 10. Git configuration Basic Configurations: ● git config --global user.name "second_user_name" ● git config --global user.email "second_user_email" ● git config --global push.default "matching" ● git config --global color.status auto ● git config --global color.branch auto ● git config --list Optional Configurations: ● git config --global branch.master.remote origin ● git config --global branch.master.merge refs/heads/master
  11. 11. .gitignore ● Can be configured to ignore certain files and directories ● Git ignores empty directories by default
  12. 12. My first repo ● cd ~/git/myproject/ #Open your project directory in terminal ● git init #Initiating a git repository ● git remote add origin git@bitbucket.org:arulmurugan/dummy.git #Adding remote repository URL ● git add . #Adding files to be committed ● git commit -m "Initial commit" #Committing the added files and changes ● git push origin master #Pushing the commits to remote repository
  13. 13. Repo with Initial commit
  14. 14. git status ● Will show the list changed and new files which are yet to be committed
  15. 15. git add & git commit ● git add . #To add all untracked files ● git add test2.html #To add specific files ● git commit -am "commit message" #To commit all changed files ● git commit -m "commit message" test1.html #To commit specific files
  16. 16. git add & git commit (Contd...)
  17. 17. Bitbucket - Source and Commits
  18. 18. git pull ● To pull changes pushed by other users from remote repo to local repo
  19. 19. Merge conflicts ● A merge conflicts occurs, if two people have modified the same content.
  20. 20. git mergetool ● http://meldmerge.org/
  21. 21. Status and History ● git diff #Shows differences in uncommitted files / last commit ● git log #Shows history of commits in the current branch ● git log --oneline --abbrev-commit #Shows one line commit history with short commit id ● git log --graph --pretty --oneline --abbrev-commit #Shows the history as graph ● git diff-tree --name-only -r <commit_id> #Shows files changed in the commit ● git show <commit_id> #Shows changes in the commit
  22. 22. History of file ● git log [filename] #Shows commits for the file ● git log -p [filename] #Shows commits for the file with changes ● git log --follow -p [filename] #Shows commits for the file including renames ● git blame [filename] #Shows author and commit per line of the file ● git blame -L 1,3 [filename] #Shows author and commit from line 2 to line 3 ● git commit --amend -m "More changes - now correct" #To amend changes to previous commit before pushing
  23. 23. Remote repositories ● git remote #Show the existing remote repos ● git remote show origin #Show the details of remote repo origin ● git clone git@bitbucket.org:arulmurugan/dummy.git #To clone remote repository
  24. 24. git stash ● Allows to save the current uncommitted changes and checkout the last committed revision. ● Allows you to pull in the latest changes without conflicts. ● Afterwards you can restore the stashed changes, which will apply the changes to the current version of the source code.
  25. 25. git stash (Contd...) ● git stash save "stash message" #To save uncommited changes as stash ● git stash list #To view list of saved stashes #stash@{0}: On master: Title changed ● git stash apply stash@{0} #To apply the particular stash ● git stash drop stash@{0} #To drop particular stash ● git stash clear #To drop all saved stashes ● git stash pop #To apply most recent stash and delete it from list of stashes
  26. 26. git stash (Contd...)
  27. 27. Reverting changes ● git clean - To remove newly added files ○ git clean -n #To see what would happen ○ git clean -f #To remove the files ● git checkout - To revert changed and deleted files ○ git checkout . #To revert all changed files ○ git checkout [filename] #To restore or revert the file ○ git checkout <commit_id> #To checkout a particular commit
  28. 28. Reverting changes (Contd...) ● git reset [filename] #To remove a file added by git add before pushing ● git checkout HEAD -- [dir_name] #To recover an accidentally deleted directory in repo ● git revert <commit_id> #To revert a particular commit ● git reset --hard HEAD~1 #To delete last 1 commit ● git reset --hard <sha1-commit-id> #To delete upto a particular commit ● git push -f #Push with force to push commit deletions
  29. 29. Reverting changes (Contd...) ● git reflog #Shows a history of the complete changes of your current branch based on the HEAD revision ● git reset --hard <commit_id> #To revert to a commit shown in git reflog
  30. 30. Branches ● Branches are copies of the files from a certain commit and they can be changed independently from each other. ● The default branch is called master. ● Untracked files remain unchanged and are available in the new branch. This allows you to create a branch for unstaged and uncommitted changes at any point in time.
  31. 31. Branches (Contd...) ● git branch #List available branches ● git branch -a #List available branches including remote branches ● git branch -r #List remote branches only ● git branch <branch_name> #To create new branch ● git checkout <branch_name> #To switch to a branch ● git checkout -b <branch_name> #To create a branch and switch to it
  32. 32. Branches (Contd...) ● git checkout -b <branch_name> master~1 #Create a new branch based on master without last commit ● git branch -d <branch_name> #To delete a branch ● git push origin <branch_name> #To push branch to remote ● git push origin --delete <branch_name> #To delete a remote branch ● git checkout -b <branch_name> origin/<branch_name> #To create a tracking branch ● git merge <branch_name> #To merge specified branch with current branch
  33. 33. Retrieving files ● git show [reference]:[filename] #To see contents of a file # [reference] can be a branch, tag, HEAD or commit ID ● git show [reference]:[filename] > [filename_copy] #To copy a file ● git log -- [filename] #To see commit history of a file, even if deleted
  34. 34. Alias ● Allows you to setup your own git command ● git config --global alias.st 'git status' #Set command "st" for git status #Now git st can be used instead of git status ● git config --global alias.acm '!git add . -A && git commit' #Set command "acm" for git add . and git commit #Now you can use git acm "message" for commits #Not supported in windows*
  35. 35. Submodules - Repos inside repos ● Allows you to include another Git repository into a Git repository ● git submodule add [URL to Git repo] #To add submodule to your repo ● After cloning a repo with submodules ○ git submodule init #Creates local configuration file for submodules ○ git submodule update #To clone submodules
  36. 36. ● Rebase ● Patches ● Git server Missed Out:
  37. 37. References: 1. http://www.vogella.com/articles/Git/article.html 2. http://git-scm.com/book/ 3. http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/
  38. 38. Thank you arul@indjango.com

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