Git for beginners
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Git for beginners

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A beginners tutorial on using git with bitbucket

A beginners tutorial on using git with bitbucket

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Git for beginners Git for beginners Presentation Transcript

  • git for beginnersArulmurugan - Developer
  • git● Source code management software● DVCS (Distributed Version Control System)● hg - Similar tool● CVS, Bazaar, SVN
  • Installation● Ubuntu sudo apt-get install git● Windows
  • Ubuntu and Windows● Commands here can be executed in the respective OS as defined below● Ubuntu ○ Can use their system terminal● Windows ○ Select git bash in your Right-click context menu
  • git Hosting Bitbucket GithubUnlimited public and private repositories Unlimited Public repositoriesCost based on number of users Cost based on number of repositoriesSupports git and hg Supports git only ● Codeplane, Githost, Assembla, Cloudforge, Gitorious ● Bitbucket Username - arulmurugan E-Mail - arulmurugan@pydan.com
  • ssh-key Setup● ssh-keygen #Command to generate public key● Copy contents of id_rsa.pub
  • Bitbucket - Create Repo
  • An empty repo
  • Repo - User Management● To manage who access your repository
  • Git configurationBasic Configurations:● git config --global user.name "second_user_name"● git config --global user.email "second_user_email"● git config --global push.default "matching"● git config --global color.status auto● git config --global color.branch auto● git config --listOptional Configurations:● git config --global branch.master.remote origin● git config --global branch.master.merge refs/heads/master
  • .gitignore● Can be configured to ignore certain files and directories● Git ignores empty directories by default
  • My first repo● cd ~/git/myproject/ #Open your project directory in terminal● git init #Initiating a git repository● git remote add origin git@bitbucket.org:arulmurugan/dummy.git #Adding remote repository URL● git add . #Adding files to be committed● git commit -m "Initial commit" #Committing the added files and changes● git push origin master #Pushing the commits to remote repository
  • Repo with Initial commit
  • git status● Will show the list changed and new files which are yet to be committed
  • git add & git commit● git add . #To add all untracked files● git add test2.html #To add specific files● git commit -am "commit message" #To commit all changed files● git commit -m "commit message" test1.html #To commit specific files
  • git add & git commit (Contd...)
  • Bitbucket - Source and Commits
  • git pull● To pull changes pushed by other users from remote repo to local repo
  • Merge conflicts● A merge conflicts occurs, if two people have modified the same content.
  • git mergetool ● http://meldmerge.org/
  • Status and History● git diff #Shows differences in uncommitted files / last commit● git log #Shows history of commits in the current branch● git log --oneline --abbrev-commit #Shows one line commit history with short commit id● git log --graph --pretty --oneline --abbrev-commit #Shows the history as graph● git diff-tree --name-only -r <commit_id> #Shows files changed in the commit● git show <commit_id> #Shows changes in the commit
  • History of file● git log [filename] #Shows commits for the file● git log -p [filename] #Shows commits for the file with changes● git log --follow -p [filename] #Shows commits for the file including renames● git blame [filename] #Shows author and commit per line of the file● git blame -L 1,3 [filename] #Shows author and commit from line 2 to line 3● git commit --amend -m "More changes - now correct" #To amend changes to previous commit before pushing
  • Remote repositories● git remote #Show the existing remote repos● git remote show origin #Show the details of remote repo origin● git clone git@bitbucket.org:arulmurugan/dummy.git #To clone remote repository
  • git stash● Allows to save the current uncommitted changes and checkout the last committed revision.● Allows you to pull in the latest changes without conflicts.● Afterwards you can restore the stashed changes, which will apply the changes to the current version of the source code.
  • git stash (Contd...)● git stash save "stash message" #To save uncommited changes as stash● git stash list #To view list of saved stashes #stash@{0}: On master: Title changed● git stash apply stash@{0} #To apply the particular stash● git stash drop stash@{0} #To drop particular stash● git stash clear #To drop all saved stashes● git stash pop #To apply most recent stash and delete it from list of stashes
  • git stash (Contd...)
  • Reverting changes● git clean - To remove newly added files ○ git clean -n #To see what would happen ○ git clean -f #To remove the files● git checkout - To revert changed and deleted files ○ git checkout . #To revert all changed files ○ git checkout [filename] #To restore or revert the file ○ git checkout <commit_id> #To checkout a particular commit
  • Reverting changes (Contd...)● git reset [filename] #To remove a file added by git add before pushing● git checkout HEAD -- [dir_name] #To recover an accidentally deleted directory in repo● git revert <commit_id> #To revert a particular commit● git reset --hard HEAD~1 #To delete last 1 commit● git reset --hard <sha1-commit-id> #To delete upto a particular commit● git push -f #Push with force to push commit deletions
  • Reverting changes (Contd...)● git reflog #Shows a history of the complete changes of your current branch based on the HEAD revision● git reset --hard <commit_id> #To revert to a commit shown in git reflog
  • Branches● Branches are copies of the files from a certain commit.● These branches can be changed independently from each other.● The default branch is called master.● Untracked files remain unchanged and are available in the new branch. This allows you to create a branch for unstaged and uncommitted changes at any point in time.
  • Branches (Contd...)● git branch #List available branches● git branch -a #List available branches including remote branches● git branch -r #List remote branches only● git branch <branch_name> #To create new branch● git checkout <branch_name> #To switch to a branch● git checkout -b <branch_name> #To create a branch and switch to it
  • Branches (Contd...)● git checkout -b <branch_name> master~1 #Create a new branch based on master without last commit● git branch -d <branch_name> #To delete a branch● git push origin <branch_name> #To push branch to remote● git push origin --delete <branch_name> #To delete a remote branch● git checkout -b <branch_name> origin/<branch_name> #To create a tracking branch● git merge <branch_name> #To merge specified branch with current branch
  • Retrieving files● git show [reference]:[filename] #To see contents of a file # [reference] can be a branch, tag, HEAD or commit ID● git show [reference]:[filename] > [filename_copy] #To copy a file● git log -- [filename] #To see commit history of a file, even if deleted
  • Alias● Allows you to setup your own git command● git config --global alias.st git status #Set command "st" for git status #Now git st can be used instead of git status● git config --global alias.acm !git add . -A && git commit #Set command "acm" for git add . and git commit #Now you can use git acm "message" for commits #Not supported in windows*
  • Submodules - Repos inside repos● Allows you to include another Git repository into a Git repository● git submodule add [URL to Git repo] #To add submodule to your repo● After cloning a repo with submodules ○ git submodule init #Creates local configuration file for submodules ○ git submodule update #To clone submodules
  • Missed Out:● Rebase● Patches● Git server
  • References:1. http://www.vogella.com/articles/Git/article.html2. http://git-scm.com/book/3. http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/
  • Thank you arul@arulmr.com