Visure Solutions Keynote06222009 V3

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Technical keynote on occasion of the Visure Solutions annual workshop

Technical keynote on occasion of the Visure Solutions annual workshop

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  • 1. Requirements Engineering at a Large ScaleThe Requirements Week, El Arte de navegar con requisitos Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Table f C t tT bl of Contents Goals of this talk Industrial requirements engineering challenges Project setting: Public address and information system Challenges and lessons learned C Key success factors in large scale RE projects Q&A Curriculum vitae References Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 2 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 3. Siemens HealthcareTHE Integrated Healthcare Company I t t d H lth Cin-vivo diagnostics (imaging) X-Ray Computed Magnetic Molecular Ultrasound Oncology Tomography Resonance Imaging Healthcare ITin-vitro diagnostics (l b ti it di ti (laboratory systems) t )Immunodiagnostics Nucleid Acid Clinical Chemistry Hematology Urinalysis Lab Automation Near Patient Testing Testing Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 3 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 4. Siemens HealthcareGlobalGl b l presence Llanberis Sudbury  DX  DX Hoffman Estates Marburg (Chicago) Dublin Oxford  DX  MI  DX  MR, MI Piscataway Erlangen/Forchheim  AX, RS  AX, SP, CT, MR, A, RS Elkhart  AU Seoul  DX New Jersey  HS, CV, RV, IKM, CS  US  DX Kemnath Deerfield Flanders Kyongju-siIssaquah  DX  CV  US US  DX Wales Tarrytown Rudolstadt  DXConcord  DX  RV Suzhou OCS Malvern Heidelberg A  HS  OCS WuxiLos Angeles Walpole Madrid DX Cary Goa  RV  CS  DX  SP Shanghai  CVMountain View  CT, AX, CV US Shenzhen Knoxville  MR  MI Bangalore Indonesia  HS, IKM A Divisions/Headquarters q Singapore Major manufacturing sites A ~49,000 employees worldwide Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 4 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 5. Siemens Healthcare Development of sales and employee numbers D l t f l d l b Sales according to region Germany y 9% Europe Asia (without Germany) 17% % 31% Employees according to region1) Americas Germany Europe 43% 23% (without Germany) 17% Asia Americas 17% 43%1) Employees worldwide as of Sept. 30, 2008 Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved. Page 5 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 6. IKM:IKM syngo Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 6 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 7. Requirements Engineering Global Technology Field (RE GTF)Excellence in RE is determinant for Siemens’Global Competitiveness. A lGl b l C titi large majority of j it f Princeton Beijingbusinesses are challenged by: 2004/8 CoC Europe CoC Americas Embedded software content strongly 2003 CoC China 2007 CoC India increasing in complex systems (e.g. medical 2009 engineering, power generation systems) Munich Erlangen RE i a k di i li f Si is key discipline for Siemens b i a being Bangalore g technology trendsetter The RE GTF is a group of key Increased speed-to-market is a must e.g. p g experts and provides best-practice, 75% of products sold in e.g. medical Siemens-specific and high engineering are less 3 years old productivity technology assets (approach, methods, techniques/ Ad Advanced RE t h l i are needed t d technologies d d to tools) to master challenges and manage complexity of mechatronics make sure that projects are systems delivered with success. Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved. Page 7 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 8. Requirements Engineering Global TechnologyField T h lFi ld Technology Areas A RE Reference Approach A h RE RE Awareness Methods & Skills RE Excellence RE RE Improvement Tooling Framework Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 8 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 9. Goals f thi T lkG l of this Talk Share some experiences and lessons learned from large scale RE projects Outline key success factors necessary for delivering successful projects in complex environments Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 9 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 10. Industrial R I d t i l Requirements Engineering Challenges i t E i i Ch llChallenges Business ImpactRE basics not well understood High likelihood of project failureand executed  Quality of single requirements not sufficient, unrealistic product scope  Increased rework (> 50% project effort)Lack f dL k of end-to-end upstream/ d / Mismatch with market needs Mi h ih k ddownstream integration  Difficult to manage system development from a portfolio perspective;  Process interfaces well integrated  Prioritization of features across products error prone  T i is labor intensive and difficult to manage Tracing i l b i t i d diffi lt t  Requirements do not support business goalsLack of productive/ scalable Lowered development staff productivity, high injection rate of RErequirements methods q defects  Inefficient modeling and analysis of product requirements  Roadblock for automating development tasksDistributed teams interact Product requirements mismatch with market expectationsinefficiently  Requirements difficult to communicate/ interpret  Missing tool integration leads to work errors, lowered productivityBenefits of reuse not realized Product-line/ platform efforts are challenged  Existing requirements need to be redefined  No reuse of architectural, testing and coding artifacts Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved. Page 10 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 11. Project Setting: Public Address InformationSystem f a LS t for Large City Somewhere in the World Cit S h i th W ld 3/2007 7/2007 11/2008 Time Specification set Specification set Specification set #1 approved #2 approved #3 approvedProject description: Deliverables:•Project value: 160 million $ •9 system requirements specifications•80 staff project team 6 full time requirements engineers team, full-time •RE M RE Management Pl Planto deal with 4,000 contract requirements •Traceability reporting tool for project manager•Project work in 4 different countries/ continentsProject objectives: Unique Value Add:•To develop high quality system requirements •Approved specifications enable development team tospecifications streamline system development• Refining requirements engineering approach (process, •Dramatic business risk reduction of not delivering themethods, tools) ) project on time Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 11 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 12. Challenges Faced in ProjectsCh ll F di P j t  C1. C1 Large number of customer requirements  C2. Formal interface to customer  C3. Management of customer expectations  C4. Changing technologies  C5. Distributed teams  C6. Traceability  C7. Scope change and creep  C8. Resource fluctuation Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 12 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 13. Requirements DevelopmentLesson 1: DL 1 Develop a well-structured feature list l ll t t df t li t Challenges: C1. Large number of customer requirements C1 L b f i C5. Distributed teams Lesson learned: Feature lists often frozen for planning, budgeting, staffing, etc. Changes to a feature list late in the development lifecycle are expensive  Changes require approval by customer, rework of documentation, updated tracing, etc. Time and effort needs to be spent to create a well-structured feature list  U d t di the feature complexities and interdependencies i Understanding th f t l iti di t d d i is important  Several iterations should be conducted  Features should be arranged in a domain-logical hierarchy Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 13 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 14. Requirements DevelopmentLesson 2: Obtain a good understanding ofcustomer requirements t i t Challenges: C1. Large number of customer requirements C1 L b f t i t C2. Formal interface to customer C3. Management of customer expectations g p C7. Scope change and creep Lesson learned: Large number of customer requirements; customer often did not have proper understanding Customer requirements need to be clarified early in the development process  Concepts of operation  Prototypes Management of customer expectations crucial  Cl if what t expect f Clarify h t to t from a prototype t t Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 14 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 15. Requirements DevelopmentLesson 3: U specification approaches that scaleL 3 Use ifi ti h th t l Challenges: C1. C Large number of customer requirements f C5. Distributed teams Lesson learned: "shall" statements are insufficient for capturing system requirements of complex software systems Grey box use cases have proven to be successful  White box on the system level  Black box on subsystem level Approach g pp greatly increased readability and manageability of y y g y requirements specifications  Validated by feedback from customer and software validation test team Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 15 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 16. Requirements DevelopmentLesson 4: Separate requirements and designdecisionsd i i Challenges: C4. Changing technology Lesson learned: L l d Requirements engineering is a wicked problem  Creation of a solution affects perception of problem Requirements keep changing as solutions are prototyped and shown to the customer  Cost of change to requirements should be minimized Reduce number of avoidable changes to requirements by removing unnecessary d i d t il design details  Technology of solutions is changing  Tradeoff between abstraction and detail Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 16 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 17. Requirements ManagementLesson 5: E t bli h a traceability modelL 5 Establish t bilit d l Challenges: C6. C6 Traceability C7. Scope change and creep Lesson learned: Ad-hoc tracing is of low quality and requires significant rework  Tracing should be done with a purpose  Artifacts to be traced, tracing granularity, tool support, people responsible, etc. Establishing traceability model early  Enables project members to understand the tracing strategy and their responsibilities  SSupports impact analysis, progress t ki t i t l i tracking, t ti testing, and d budgeting Traceability model needs to be properly documented and communicated i t d Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 17 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 18. Requirements ManagementLesson 6: Define a traceability measurementprocess Challenges: C6. T C6 Traceability bili Lesson learned: Traceability measurement process enables tracking of tracing progress  M Meaningful measurement objectives and corresponding measures i f l t bj ti d di need to be defined  Automation important for facilitating collection p p g process In our experience, collecting on a weekly basis and assigning action items on a bi-weekly basis works best  The best frequency of measurements was determined in small pilot project  Adjustments were made as the project progressed Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 18 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 19. Requirements ManagementLesson 7: PL 7 Provide project status visualizations id j t t t i li ti Challenges: C5. Distributed teams C5 Di t ib t d t C6. Traceability Lesson learned: Visualizations communicate project status to team members and t t t t b d management Project status can be visualized using a dashboard or other project- specific visualization Should be posted in a communal area Resulted in considerable increase in tracing quality q alit Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 19 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 20. Requirements ManagementLesson 8: Establish effective documentationstandards and review processes t d d d i Challenges: C5. Di ib d C5 Distributed teams C8. Resource fluctuation Lesson learned: Establishment of documentation standards important  Enable consistency of work products  Industrial standards, e.g., IEEE 830, can be used as a starting point Document templates facilitate enforcing documentation standards Documentation standards facilitate the review of work products  QA manager needs to have authority to ensure that review process is followed Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 20 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 21. Key Success F t K S Factors in Large Scale RE Projects i L S l P j t1.1 Subject matter experts are available as needed2. The customer is properly managed3. A qualified full-time architect manages nonfunctional requirements4. Requirements elicitation starts with marketing and sales5. An effective requirements management process is in place6. Requirements reviews are conducted for all new draft requirements and for all changed requirements or features7. Requirements engineers are trained and experienced8. Requirements p q processes are pproven and scalable9. Progress and quality indicators are defined10. The tools increase productivity and quality Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 21 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 22. ¿Preguntas? P t ? Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 22 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 23. Our dO documented experience of about 5 years … t d i f b t 1.Introduction 1 Introduction 2.Requirements Engineering artifact modeling 3.Eliciting 3 Eliciting requirements 4.Requirements modeling 5.Quality attribute requirements 6.Requirements management 7.Requirements driven testing 8.Rapid development techniques for requirements evolution 9.Distributed requirements engineering 10.Hazard analysis and threat modeling y g 11.Conclusions Link to web site McGrawHill Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 23 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 24. ReferencesR f1. Rudorfer,1 Rudorfer Arnold; Berenbach Brian: Requirements Engineering Global Berenbach, Technology Field Description, SCR, 20092. Brian Berenbach, Dan Paulish, Juergen Kazmeier, Arnold Rudorfer: Software Systems Requirements Engineering in Practice, McGraw Hill 2009 S G3. Sascha Konrad, Michael Gall: Requirements Engineering in Large Scale Systems, RE’08, Barcelona, Spain4. Manfred Broy, Eva Geisberger, Juergen Kazmeier, Arnold Rudorfer, Klaus Beetz: Ein Requirements Engineering Referenzmodell, Informatikspektrum 03/04-20075. Achatz, R., Berenbach, B., Broy, M., Kazmeier, J., Ros, J., Rudorfer, A., Subramanyan, R.: Requirements Engineering: A Key to Business Success for Siemens. Siemens Corporate Research (SCR) Technical Report March Siemens Report, 2006. Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 24 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 25. Curriculum Vitae Arnold RudorferC i l Vit A ld R d f Head Software Engineering Process Group Siemens Healthcare Imaging&IT S & Image and Knowledge Management Tel.: +49 9131 84 22 99 Cell: +49 174 1537-825 Email: arnold.rudorfer@siemens.com Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 25 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 26. Curriculum Vitae AC i l Vit Arnold R d f ( ld Rudorfer (cont.’d) t ’d)1994 -1996 1996 European Software Institute, Managing Director’s Personal Director s Assistant, Project Engineer1996 – 1998 Institutet foer Verkstadeknisk, Center for Software Engineering, Project Leader1998 – 2000 Meta4 N.V., Manager User Interface Design and Usability Engineering2000 – 2004 Siemens Corporate Research, Manager User Interface Design Center D i C t2004 – 2009 Siemens Corporate Research, Requirements Engineering Global Technology Field Leader2009 till today Siemens Healthcare, Head Software Engineering Process Group Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 26 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare
  • 27. End Copyright © Siemens AG 2009. All rights reserved.Page 27 Arnold Rudorfer, Siemens Healthcare Siemens Healthcare