ATN- Acute Tubular Necrosis Damage to the renal tubules due to presence of toxins in the urine or to ischemia. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is caused by lack of oxygen to the kidney tissues (ischemia of the kidneys). ATN is one of the most common structural changes that can lead to acute renal failure.
ATN Cont. Liver disease and kidney damage caused by diabetes (diabetic nephropathy) may make a person more susceptible to the condition. ATN can be caused by: Exposure to medications that are toxic to the kidneys (such as amino glycoside antibiotics) Antifungal agents (such as amphotericin) Dye used for x-ray (radiographic) studies
BUN- Blood Urea Nitrogen Blood test to measure kidney function by the level of nitrogenous waste (urea) that’s in the blood. Urea is formed by the liver and carried by the blood to the kidneys for excretion. Because urea is cleared from the bloodstream by the kidneys, a test measuring how much urea nitrogen remains in the blood can be used as a test of renal function.
CRF- Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main function of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body. In the early stages, there may be no symptoms. The final stage of chronic kidney disease is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The kidneys no longer function and the patient needs dialysis or a kidney transplant.
CRF Cont. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two most common causes and account for most cases. Symptoms may include: General ill feeling and fatigue Generalized itching (pruritus) and dry skin Headaches Weight loss without trying to lose weight Appetite loss Nausea
CRF Cont. Controlling blood pressure is the key to delaying further kidney damage. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are used most often. The goal is to keep blood pressure at or below 130/80 mmHg
IPD- Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis A dialysis procedure performed to correct an imbalance of fluid or of electrolytes in the blood or to remove toxins, drugs, or other wastes normally excreted by the kidney.
UTI- Urinary Tract Infection Infection, usually from bacteria, of any organ of the urinary system. Most often begins with cystitis and may ascend into the ureters and kidneys. Most common in women because of their shorter urethra. Most urinary tract infections are bladder infections. A bladder infection usually is not serious if it is treated right away.
UTI Cont. If you do not take care of a bladder infection, it can spread to your kidneys. A kidney infection is serious and can cause permanent damage. Symptoms: Pain or burning when you urinate Nausea and vomiting Fever and chills