ATN- Acute Tubular Necrosis<br />Damage to the renal tubules due to presence of toxins in the urine or to ischemia. <br />Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is caused by lack of oxygen to the kidney tissues (ischemia of the kidneys).<br />ATN is one of the most common structural changes that can lead to acute renal failure.<br />
ATN Cont.<br />Liver disease and kidney damage caused by diabetes (diabetic nephropathy) may make a person more susceptible to the condition.<br />ATN can be caused by:<br />Exposure to medications that are toxic to the kidneys (such as amino glycoside antibiotics)<br />Antifungal agents (such as amphotericin)<br />Dye used for x-ray (radiographic) studies<br />
BUN- Blood Urea Nitrogen<br />Blood test to measure kidney function by the level of nitrogenous waste (urea) that’s in the blood.<br />Urea is formed by the liver and carried by the blood to the kidneys for excretion.<br />Because urea is cleared from the bloodstream by the kidneys, a test measuring how much urea nitrogen remains in the blood can be used as a test of renal function.<br />
CRF- Chronic Renal Failure<br />Chronic kidney disease is the slow loss of kidney function over time. The main function of the kidneys is to remove wastes and excess water from the body. <br />In the early stages, there may be no symptoms. <br />The final stage of chronic kidney disease is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The kidneys no longer function and the patient needs dialysis or a kidney transplant.<br />
CRF Cont.<br />Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two most common causes and account for most cases.<br />Symptoms may include:<br />General ill feeling and fatigue <br />Generalized itching (pruritus) and dry skin<br />Headaches <br />Weight loss without trying to lose weight<br />Appetite loss<br />Nausea <br />
CRF Cont.<br />Controlling blood pressure is the key to delaying further kidney damage.<br />Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are used most often.<br />The goal is to keep blood pressure at or below 130/80 mmHg<br />
IPD- Intermittent Peritoneal Dialysis<br />A dialysis procedure performed to correct an imbalance of fluid or of electrolytes in the blood or to remove toxins, drugs, or other wastes normally excreted by the kidney.<br />
UTI- Urinary Tract Infection<br />Infection, usually from bacteria, of any organ of the urinary system.<br />Most often begins with cystitis and may ascend into the ureters and kidneys. Most common in women because of their shorter urethra.<br />Most urinary tract infections are bladder infections. A bladder infection usually is not serious if it is treated right away. <br />
UTI Cont.<br />If you do not take care of a bladder infection, it can spread to your kidneys. A kidney infection is serious and can cause permanent damage.<br />Symptoms:<br />Pain or burning when you urinate<br />Nausea and vomiting<br />Fever and chills<br />
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