Thesis A. Rinaldi (PDF Slides)
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PDF Slides of my thesis research. The gr-bertool is a handy and useful software to evaluate the BER of the digital modulation both in the wired and wireless channel.

PDF Slides of my thesis research. The gr-bertool is a handy and useful software to evaluate the BER of the digital modulation both in the wired and wireless channel.

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Thesis A. Rinaldi (PDF Slides) Thesis A. Rinaldi (PDF Slides) Presentation Transcript

  • ` ` Universita di Messina - Facolta di Ingegneria Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio Supervisors Candidate Prof. Salvatore Serrano Arturo Rinaldi Prof. Giuseppe Campobello Master’s Degree in Electronics Engineering - Academic Year 2010/11 Messina, November 10th 2011
  • Goal of the thesis work The making of a learning tool for the analisys of the digital modulations in different communication channels 2 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Goal of the thesis work The making of a learning tool for the analisys of the digital modulations in different communication channels The simulated channels were : 2 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio View slide
  • Goal of the thesis work The making of a learning tool for the analisys of the digital modulations in different communication channels The simulated channels were : Wired : AWGN 2 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio View slide
  • Goal of the thesis work The making of a learning tool for the analisys of the digital modulations in different communication channels The simulated channels were : Wired : AWGN Wireless : Rayleigh and Rician 2 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Goal of the thesis work The making of a learning tool for the analisys of the digital modulations in different communication channels The simulated channels were : Wired : AWGN Wireless : Rayleigh and Rician Verify the correspondence between the theoretical and experimental results of the BER (Bit Error Rate) 2 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Goal of the thesis work The making of a learning tool for the analisys of the digital modulations in different communication channels The simulated channels were : Wired : AWGN Wireless : Rayleigh and Rician Verify the correspondence between the theoretical and experimental results of the BER (Bit Error Rate) Provide complementary tools to show how audio and video files are modified under the effect of the transmission channels 2 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Goal of the thesis work The making of a learning tool for the analisys of the digital modulations in different communication channels The simulated channels were : Wired : AWGN Wireless : Rayleigh and Rician Verify the correspondence between the theoretical and experimental results of the BER (Bit Error Rate) Provide complementary tools to show how audio and video files are modified under the effect of the transmission channels The gr-bertool was built by using the open-source DSP platform GNU Radio 2 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • GNU Radio GNU Radio is an open-source software toolkit providing a huge library of blocks for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) written in C++ which can be combined together in order to build and develop radio applications Gnu Radio Companion (GRC), XML Python Flow Graph (Created using the processing blocks) SWIG (Port C++ blocks to Python) GNU Radio Signal Processing Blocks (C++) USB Interface / Gigabit Ethernet Generic RF Front End ( USRP / USRP 2 ) 3 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • GNU Radio GNU Radio is an open-source software toolkit providing a huge library of blocks for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) written in C++ which can be combined together in order to build and develop radio applications It is provided with a graphical interface to ease its learning curve (GRC : GNU Radio Companion) Gnu Radio Companion (GRC), XML Python Flow Graph (Created using the processing blocks) SWIG (Port C++ blocks to Python) GNU Radio Signal Processing Blocks (C++) USB Interface / Gigabit Ethernet Generic RF Front End ( USRP / USRP 2 ) 3 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Software-Defined Radio : an introduction GNU Radio was developed to be in use of Software-Defined Radio (SDR), a new “paradigm” of communication systems 4 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Software-Defined Radio : an introduction GNU Radio was developed to be in use of Software-Defined Radio (SDR), a new “paradigm” of communication systems A receiver is an SDR device if its communication functions are made as reconfigurable software working on ad hoc hardware 4 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Software-Defined Radio : an introduction GNU Radio was developed to be in use of Software-Defined Radio (SDR), a new “paradigm” of communication systems A receiver is an SDR device if its communication functions are made as reconfigurable software working on ad hoc hardware So it’s possible to implement different software transmission standards by using only one device 4 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Software-Defined Radio : an introduction GNU Radio was developed to be in use of Software-Defined Radio (SDR), a new “paradigm” of communication systems A receiver is an SDR device if its communication functions are made as reconfigurable software working on ad hoc hardware So it’s possible to implement different software transmission standards by using only one device An SDR sytem is also able to recognize and avoid possible interferences with other transmission channels 4 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • The developed tool : gr-bertool The tool main GUI 5 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • The developed tool : gr-bertool BER experimental verification 6 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • The developed tool : gr-bertool Real-Time BER experimental verification 7 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • The developed tool : gr-bertool Complementary tools 8 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • BER experimental verification The Bit Error Rate (BER) of a digital modulation, is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval 9 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • BER experimental verification The Bit Error Rate (BER) of a digital modulation, is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval Let’s verify the BER theoretical values with the experimental ones by varying the signal-to-noise ratio Eb /N0 9 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • BER experimental verification The Bit Error Rate (BER) of a digital modulation, is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval Let’s verify the BER theoretical values with the experimental ones by varying the signal-to-noise ratio Eb /N0 From digital communications theory is well known that for a Q-PSK modulation the Bit Error Rate is given by : Pb = Q 2Eb N0 9 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • BER experimental verification This set of tools calculates the BER in a range of Eb /N0 values given by min and max with the opportunity to choose the increase step size 10 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • BER experimental verification This set of tools calculates the BER in a range of Eb /N0 values given by min and max with the opportunity to choose the increase step size We can enable or disable the Gray Coding 10 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • BER experimental verification This set of tools calculates the BER in a range of Eb /N0 values given by min and max with the opportunity to choose the increase step size We can enable or disable the Gray Coding By clicking on the Plot button the BER curves are showed in a simple BER vs Eb /N0 diagram 10 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • BER experimental verification We can see a perfect agreement between the theoretical results and the experimental ones : (a) BER AWGN BPSK (b) BER AWGN Q-PSK (c) BER AWGN 8-PSK 11 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Real-Time BER and signal constellation evolution This tool allow us to show the real-time BER and signal constellation evolution in the three different types of examinated transmission channels 12 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Real-Time BER and signal constellation evolution This tool allow us to show the real-time BER and signal constellation evolution in the three different types of examinated transmission channels In the following example we’ll show the BER evolution in the Rician Channel in the range of Eb /N0 values going from −15 dB to 0 dB 12 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Real-Time BER and signal constellation evolution This tool allow us to show the real-time BER and signal constellation evolution in the three different types of examinated transmission channels In the following example we’ll show the BER evolution in the Rician Channel in the range of Eb /N0 values going from −15 dB to 0 dB Once started the BER value settles to the BER value corresponding to Eb /N0 = 0 dB about equal to ≈ 0.11 12 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Real-Time BER and signal constellation evolution This tool allow us to show the real-time BER and signal constellation evolution in the three different types of examinated transmission channels In the following example we’ll show the BER evolution in the Rician Channel in the range of Eb /N0 values going from −15 dB to 0 dB Once started the BER value settles to the BER value corresponding to Eb /N0 = 0 dB about equal to ≈ 0.11 Ch1 Experimental Value ; Ch2 Theoretical Value 12 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Real-Time BER and signal constellation evolution This tool allow us to show the real-time BER and signal constellation evolution in the three different types of examinated transmission channels In the following example we’ll show the BER evolution in the Rician Channel in the range of Eb /N0 values going from −15 dB to 0 dB Once started the BER value settles to the BER value corresponding to Eb /N0 = 0 dB about equal to ≈ 0.11 Ch1 Experimental Value ; Ch2 Theoretical Value Let’s see the evolution.... Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio 12 of 36
  • Real-Time BER evolution 13 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Real-Time BER evolution 14 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Real-Time BER evolution 15 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Real-Time BER evolution 16 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Real-Time BER evolution 17 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Real-Time BER evolution 18 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • The signal constellation Let’s consider a generic transmission scheme for a TLC system. m(t) S s(t) Tx r(t) Tx Channel d(t) Rx D Figure : Generic block diagram for a TLC system 19 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • The signal constellation Let’s consider a generic transmission scheme for a TLC system. m(t) S s(t) r(t) Tx d(t) Rx Tx Channel D Figure : Generic block diagram for a TLC system In the absence fo any noise in the channel the generci transmitted symbol si will be correctly received. The plot of the received symbols is ¯ knows as “Constellation” of the digital modulation. ℑ s3 (‘01’) ¯ s0 (‘11’) ¯ ℜ s2 (‘00’) ¯ s1 (‘10’) ¯ Figure : Constellation of a QPSK modulation 19 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • The signal constellation The presence of noise in the channel modifies phase and amplitude of the transmitted symbols and so the received symbol ri is not one ¯ belonging to the constellation showed before ℑ s3 (‘01’) ¯ s0 (‘11’) ¯ The transmitted si symbol is not ¯ correctly received ri ¯ ℜ s2 (‘00’) ¯ s1 (‘10’) ¯ 20 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Evolution of the Signal Constellation 21 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Evolution of the Signal Constellation 22 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Evolution of the Signal Constellation 23 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Evolution of the Signal Constellation 24 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Evolution of the Signal Constellation 25 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Image Transmission This tool allow us to observe how the most common image formats are affected by digital modulations 26 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Image Transmission This tool allow us to observe how the most common image formats are affected by digital modulations We studied the effects over the simulated channels (AWGN, Rayleigh e Rician) for a fixed value of Eb /N0 = 0 dB and Q-PSK digital modulation for a Jpeg image 26 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Image Transmission This tool allow us to observe how the most common image formats are affected by digital modulations We studied the effects over the simulated channels (AWGN, Rayleigh e Rician) for a fixed value of Eb /N0 = 0 dB and Q-PSK digital modulation for a Jpeg image Let’s see the results...... 26 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Image Transmission : AWGN Channel (a) Original (b) AWGN 27 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Image Transmission : Rician Channel (c) Original (d) Rician 28 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Image Transmission : Rayleigh Channel (e) Original (f) Rayleigh 29 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Audio Transmission This tool allow us to observe how the most common audio formats are affected by digital modulations 30 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Audio Transmission This tool allow us to observe how the most common audio formats are affected by digital modulations We studied the effects over the simulated channels (AWGN, Rayleigh e Rician) for a fixed value of Eb /N0 = 10 dB and Q-PSK digital modulation 30 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Audio Transmission This tool allow us to observe how the most common audio formats are affected by digital modulations We studied the effects over the simulated channels (AWGN, Rayleigh e Rician) for a fixed value of Eb /N0 = 10 dB and Q-PSK digital modulation We took as sample the wav file play it sam.wav with the following specifications : 30 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Audio Transmission Specifications of the sample file play_it_sam.wav : File Size: 1.76M Bit Rate: 1.41M Encoding: Signed PCM Channels: 2 @ 16-bit Samplerate: 44100Hz Replaygain: off Duration: 00:00:10.00 Let’s see the results.... 31 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Audio Transmission (g) Originale (h) Canale AWGN 32 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Audio Transmission (i) Rician (j) Rayleigh 33 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Conclusions Why using gr-bertool ? Advantages  It’s an helpful tool for the teacher to use in TLC courses 34 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Conclusions Why using gr-bertool ? Advantages  It’s an helpful tool for the teacher to use in TLC courses  The student can find a quick verification with the learnt notions during classes 34 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Conclusions Why using gr-bertool ? Advantages  It’s an helpful tool for the teacher to use in TLC courses  The student can find a quick verification with the learnt notions during classes  It has an ”user-friendly” GUI 34 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Conclusions Why using gr-bertool ? Advantages  It’s an helpful tool for the teacher to use in TLC courses  The student can find a quick verification with the learnt notions during classes  It has an ”user-friendly” GUI  It’s open-source ! 34 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Conclusions Future Developments Addition of other components for transmission by using the USRP (through USB) and USRP2 (through Gigabit Ethernet) boards to study the real-time signals evolution (k) USRP1 (l) USRP2 35 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Conclusions Future Developments Addition of other components for transmission by using the USRP (through USB) and USRP2 (through Gigabit Ethernet) boards to study the real-time signals evolution (m) USRP1 (n) USRP2 Implementation of other modules for the network protocols (i.e. 802.11n, Bluetooth) always for learning goal 35 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio
  • Contact Information Arturo Rinaldi Freelance Collaborator @ DIECII Address : Dep. of Electronics Engineering (DIECII) - C.da di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy) E-mail : arty.net2@gmail.com Fixed : +39-090-3977376 ; Mobile : +39-340-5795584 (Whatsapp) Skype : arty.net ; Facebook : arty.net Twitter : artynet2 ; LinkedIn : Arturo Rinaldi Prof. Giuseppe Campobello, Ph.D. Researcher in Telecommunications Address : Dep. of Electronics Engineering (DIECII) - C.da di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy) E-mail : gcampobello@unime.it Fixed : +39-090-3977378 Prof. Salvatore Serrano, Ph.D. Researcher in Telecommunications Address : Dep. of Electronics Engineering (DIECII) - C.da di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy) E-mail : sserrano@unime.it Fixed : +39-090-3977522 36 of 36 Arturo Rinaldi - Emulation of a Radio Link by means of Software Radio