Like this document? Why not share!

1,416

Published on

Published in:
Education

No Downloads

Total Views

1,416

On Slideshare

0

From Embeds

0

Number of Embeds

0

Shares

0

Downloads

33

Comments

0

Likes

1

No embeds

No notes for slide

- 1. Entropía Entropy Ентропията Entropia Entropie 熵 Entropija Entropi Entropy היפורטנא Entropía Entrop ie エントロピー Entropi Autor Entropía Arturo Raúl Cortés
- 2. This document is an electronic translation of the original written in Spanish language, we apologize if this translation differs from the original document. Index Entropy, which the dictionary says it. Definition of some concepts of entropy. Preface. Entropy First concept, entropy chaotic. Entropy mechanism. Circumstantial facts, entropy, synergy. The laws of thermodynamics. The entropy as chaos magnitude. The creation of entropy, and impossible to destroy it. Genuine entropy. Let us order the concept of entropy. Laying new foundations. Lay new foundations rediscovers entropy. And our universe. Epilogue.
- 3. Entropy, which the dictionary says it. entropy. (Del gr. Ἐντροπία, round, used in various figurative senses). 1. f. Fís. Thermodynamic scale, which measures the unused part of the energy contained in a system. 2. f. Fís. Measure of disorder of a system. A substance with a mass of molecules regularly arranged, forming a crystal, entropy is much lower than the same substance in the form of gas molecules with their free and full disorder. 3. f. Inform. Measure of uncertainty before a set of messages, which are going to receive one. Definition of some concepts of entropy. Definition of some concepts Thermodynamics, by defining a very simple, look at the inside of the physical systems, trade in energy as heat is conducted from one system to another. A macroscopic quantities that are related to the internal state of a system are called thermodynamic coordinates, they will help us determine the internal energy of the system. In summary, the ultimate goal of thermodynamics is found between the thermodynamic coordinates overall consistent with the basic principles of physics (remember the principle of conservation of energy that we try the number 3 of "Social Horizonte). The thermodynamic analysis based on certain laws: the Law "zero" on the concept of temperature, the first law of thermodynamics, which tells of the principle of conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, we define the entropy. Then we will discuss each of these laws, with emphasis on the second law and concept of entropy. Act Zero The Law of zero thermodynamics tells us that if we have two sections called A and B, with a temperature different from another, and put into contact in a given time t, they will reach the same temperature, ie both have the same temperature. If after a third body, which we call C contacts A and B, also reached the same temperature and, therefore, A, B and C have the same temperature while in contact.
- 4. This principle can induce temperature, which is a condition that each body has, and that man has learned to measure through arbitrary reference scales (scales thermometer). The First Law The first law of thermodynamics the concept of internal energy, work and heat. He says that if a system with a fixed internal energy, work is done through a process, the internal energy of the system vary. A difference in the internal energy of the system and the amount of work we call heat. The heat energy is transferred to the system by non-mechanical means. Think that our system is a metal container with water, we can raise the temperature of the water by friction with a spoon or by direct heating in a burner in the first case, we are doing work on the system and will pass in the second heat. It is worth noting that the internal energy of a system, work and heat are but different manifestations of energy. That's why energy is not created or destroyed, but only during a process is transformed into its various manifestations. The Second Law Finally, we will see the contents of the second law of thermodynamics. In simple terms more or less would read: "There is a process whose only result is the absorption of heat from one source and the full conversion of this heat into work." This principle (principle of Kelvin-Planck) was born in the study of the performance of machines and technological improvement of them. If this principle were true, it could operate taking a thermal heat from the environment, apparently there is no contradiction, because the environment contains a certain amount of internal energy, but we must note two things: first, the second law of thermodynamics is not a consequence of the first, but a separate law, and second, the second law tells us about the restrictions that exist to use energy in various processes, in our case, a thermal power. There is a machine that uses internal energy of a single heat source. The concept of entropy was first introduced by R. J. Clausius in the mid-nineteenth century. Clausius, French engineer, also made a beginning to the Second Law: "No process is possible whose only result is some heat transfer from a cold to a body warmer." Based on this principle, Clausius introduced the concept of entropy, which is a measurement of the amount of restrictions that exist for a process to take place and we also determined the direction of the process. Let's talk about the three most important meanings of the word entropy.
- 5. Entropy, disorder and degree of organization. Let's imagine we have a box with three divisions, inside the box and in each division are three different types of marbles: blue, yellow and red, respectively. The divisions are moving so I decided to remove the first one, which separates the blue yellow marbles. What am I doing in terms of entropy is to remove an index or degree of restriction on my system before I remove the first division, the marbles were separated and ordered in colors: the first division in the blue the second yellow and red in the third, were restricted to a certain order. By removing the second division, I am also taking another degree of restriction. The marbles have been mixed together so that now I can not take that sort because the barriers have been removed are restricted. The entropy of this system has increased to remove the restrictions as originally had an order and at the end of the process (the process is in this case remove the divisions of the box) there is some order in the box. Entropy in this case is a measure of order (or disorder) of a system or a lack of degrees of restriction, how to use it is measured in our original system, ie, before removing any restriction, and re-measure at the end of the process that the system suffered. It is important to note that entropy is not defined as an absolute quantity S (the symbol of entropy), but what can be measured is the difference between the entropy of a system if the initial and final entropy of the Sf. It makes no sense to speak of but in terms of entropy change in the conditions of a system. Entropia, reversible processes and irreversible processes. Returning to the example of the box with marbles and separations, we will explain what is a reversible process and that process is not reversible. Called reversible process that can be invested and let our system under the same conditions. Taking into account our cash and without separations, we have the balls to rebellions with each other, ie, without a warrant. If the process performed to remove the divisions were reversible, the marbles would spontaneously ordered in blue, yellow and red, in the order of the divisions. This will not happen. The process that we undertook with our box of marbles was not a reversible process, where once the order was in the initial conditions of the system and never settle. The study of such processes is important in nature because all processes are irreversible. Entropy and energy "spent". On the principle enunciated by Clausius previously mentioned, we can find the relationship with entropy and the energy released in a process. Think of an engine. The
- 6. engine needs an energy source in order to make it work. If we think of a car, gasoline, along with the spark of the engine provides the energy (chemistry) combustion can make the car move. What does the entropy here? The energy that the car "used" to perform work and move, are "spent", ie energy is released through a chemical process that is no longer usable to produce an engine work. This is one of the most difficult to understand concepts of entropy, as it requires a slightly less trivial knowledge of the operation of engines, refrigerators and the Carnot cycle. But for our purposes with this explanation is sufficient. What is entropy? Entropy as a measure of the degree of restriction as a measure of disorder of a system or engineering, as a subsidiary on the problems of energy efficiency of machines, is one of the most important thermodynamic variables. Their relationship to chaos theory opens a new field of study and research in this very "hands" concept.
- 7. Preface Entropy This article is an analysis, written in a simple way for readers with or without knowledge of physics, can easily take on a very clear idea of what is entropy, but this will not be easy, since it is truly a complex matter, because this article hits the issue of entropy chaotic now accepted that concept, is nothing but an illusion, because they'll also come to this conclusion, we will present at the same time what is the real nature of entropy, in a totally opposite to what is accepted, as it will show this as a mechanism, this will give a different concept, and composition of this as a group of natural mechanisms, working together with one aim, to maintain order and avoid chaos in the universe. This article, which apparently has no significance, but with this change, the universe as we know it ceases to exist, and opens a new view of physics, changing everything, with the laws of thermodynamics, as false and arbitrary, and opens the door to a vision of the energy that comes from time and space. To show how entropy, now known as the cause of chaos and disorder, was poorly cataloged. To do this we must show how the problem arises, loss of synergy to confuse, in an (X), and interpret this loss, the disorder appears as a result, the concept of entropy chaotic, this is thanks to a mix concepts and physical events, () mechanism, this mixture created a monster, monstrosity, and the error, since the chaotic entropy exists only in the human mind, has no relation to actual physical events, the entropy of chaos, it creates enormous confusion and this confusion led to a distortion in the field of physics. To understand this, we need to start again, and lay new foundations, also to explain in an understandable manner, we need to divide the entropy, in two parts, the first concept the current chaotic entropy () and the second () entropy as a mechanism, within each of these two parts, analyze the events that shape, what are the facts in each hand?, we, who guided us to the conclusion, to develop this concept, primarily These three facts are, first, the evidence circumstantial, second, entropy, and the third synergy. We should also add that this article is the third part of the same article, in which the first part is, time and space, also published under the name (Equation), the second under the name of Time, and the third under the name of entropy, for the better understanding of this article,
- 8. please read the two previous parts, these three have been published under the name of the author, Arturo Raúl Cortés. Chaotic entropy. This first part. () Chaotic entropy is now known and accepted by all as one concept. This concept is one that relates the entropy with chaos and disorder at the molecular and systems. In this concept, there are 3 different events, independent of one another, the first circumstance, the second entropy, and the third synergy. Chaotic entropy is a tripartite, this blend of real physical events matter and energy, machinery, and this is added the sum of concepts, it is inconceivable to try to do this, is like trying to add the number (1), to the point (a) and (color red), and try to get a mathematical result. As I shall use the following joke. Here is more or less like this, Facts + (circumstantial reduction synergy, + mechanisms + entropy + magnitude, + inability of the destruction of entropy, entropy creation) +, = {Chaotic entropy}. Here all that is chaos, is the process by which you determine that outcome, and that supposedly gives rise to chaos and disorder, this is totally independent and unrelated to the entropy, and subsequent loss of synergy, arbitrary concept in this first, mix three different facts, and these three facts and arbitrarily mixed, given a single name, entropy, this Capirotada of facts, is where it is concluded that the entropy is chaotic. Entropy mechanism. Entropy as a mechanism fits very well as a subcategory of synergy, bringing to light the true nature of entropy, which maintains the order and organization in the universe, but at another level, as this is natural and primitive in general in this part, we make a difference among the three
- 9. major events occurring in certain events, (X), these are the same that occur in the concept of entropy chaotic, but unlike this Here we each made an independent in the following order, the first circumstantial facts, the second entropy, and the third synergy by dividing these facts in a reasonable manner, we conclude that entropy, has nothing to do with chaos and disorder, but rather in the opposite direction, is the master of the order, as it brings to light the true nature of entropy. Circumstantial facts, entropy, and synergy. Circumstantial facts, are all those events occurring at a time (X), for example, the box with marbles, which we saw earlier, this is a circumstantial fact, another example would be the explosion of a star, this act would be the facts circumstantial later (X) (X) This act is the direct responsibility of each instance in particular, even though these acts circumstantial, there is no chaos, because these events are caused by reactions of the natural and primitive matter and energy, these circumstantial facts or events are responsible directly to the alleged chaos, the complexity of this fact in every particular, usurps the place of entropy, but not in the physical world of real facts of the matter and energy, but this happens within our usurpation mind synergistic complex, confusing and chaotic with entropy, and false. By separating the acts or circumstantial facts, (X), which happens all the time in nature. The consequence of this separation of mechanisms and concepts, will light the true nature of entropy, showing what it really is, a mechanism of nature in order to keep everything in order and under control at the natural and primitive in the universe. The laws of thermodynamics. This misconception of a chaotic entropy, led to the formulation of the current laws of thermodynamics, which are closely related to the concept of entropy chaotic at all levels of complex systems with a high degree of synergy, as molecular disorder, and because this product of the error, I think a greater error, to produce the laws of thermodynamics, the first place I shall use these laws, which laws are to begin, this is mainly because a law is universal invariant and absolute, and the current laws of thermodynamics do not meet these requirements, that is why the current efforts of scientists to consolidate all the truths of the universe in a single equation, they were
- 10. unable, because it is impossible to do with these fundamentals. Entropy chaotic as magnitude. In the currently accepted misconception, to relate entropy to the chaos, committed another error, considering it as a magnitude, the following error, and that as a natural mixture of circumstantial facts, (X), embedded in the entropy, and confused with the loss of synergy, but what you can do with entropy, in this misconception, is calculated, which is very different, measure, this calculation is not and can not be accurate and precise, so which entropy is not a magnitude. The creation of entropy, and impossible to destroy it. All these errors lead to make the entropy in a different context, it is also said to be created, not destroyed, which is also false, since this phenomenon is universal constant, which means it can not be more or less, depending on the amount of material in each case in particular, because as it relates to her and which he was liable, are facts beyond itself, it also says it can not be destroyed, which is also false. Since being a constant entropy change under certain circumstances, this can be neutralized, either by natural circumstances, or by artificial means the product of the invention of mechanisms intelligent life, under this neutralization, conceives the advent of power of time and space, what we mean by the time and place, now can we say about entropy, it seems that this be considered as an entity, but this is not. Genuine entropy. It is not a concept, is a real physical. The true entropy is not a concept, is a real physical, natural, universal and primitive, that sometimes, due to special circumstances, it is neutralized, but after that, the entropy goes as the neutralization of that love, and lord of the universe, to keep everything in order and in place since the passage of time, after being neutralized, the circumstances that neutralized them change, as is typical in our physical universe, that everything is changing and to these changes takes control again, through natural mechanisms also available at the time of each event on time and in particular, this entropy is naturally true, instructs the main fundamental reason to prevent energy multiply in a disorderly manner, and spread
- 11. chaos in the universe, changing the concept of a chaotic entropy to the entropy of a subset of synergy, this paper assumes importance in the field of physics, because with this change opens the door for a lot in terms of physical fit and make sense, and I overthrowing the dogmas, and to eliminate false currently accepted laws of thermodynamics, and opens the door for the purpose with this new concept can be to consolidate all the truths of the universe in a single equation, and thus open a new chapter in understanding and usher in a new era of technology, leading to the human race as a species, to endless horizons because with this, the entropy can be predictable, and in this intelligent life, you can create mechanisms and these mechanisms, using known and predictable physical events, as well as physical laws in our favor. By clarifying to say that physical laws in our favor, we are talking about actual laws, as is the universal law of gravity, using this to create new technologies for energy overall time and space. Let us order the concept of entropy. Entropy is a consequence of the presence or existence of matter, and this movement. Entropy, like the speed and temperature, or energy, have no independent existence, these among others are the result of circumstantial facts of the matter, and this movement, unlike the chaotic entropy, is not a scale, as this can not be measured, we can calculate, but a calculation is not necessary. Entropy, as a universal and natural, to maintain order in the universe. Consider which is the entropy, with an example commonly used, for example if we drop a cup from a height of 1 meter for example, the average height of a table, the bowl struck against the ground, breaking, spreading the Pieces without a certain direction, the question is, why the events occur in this way and not in the opposite direction? if pulled pieces from the same height, they can not adapt and become a cup, the conclusion of this we call it entropy, and relate to the chaos and disorder, the main problem here, not the fact of what happens in the cup, but rather we understand humans as intelligent life, which is order and disorder, to explain this fact, we have to give personality to the entropy, this will, to show the entropy as an entity that thinks and a life of its own, making clear that the entropy is not an entity or a life of its own, before this personality that we gave to the entropy, we can now begin
- 12. to question it. Given the example of the cup, the entropy ask, why did all this mess?, Putting all the pieces of the cup without a certain direction, who believe that answer, the answer would be the entropy of the next, no clutter , everything is in order and under control, what happened is that the material of the cup was thin in some places and the impact snapped, and the pieces by their weight, speed and trajectory, I put them where appropriate. With this simple example, we can see that there is chaos and disorder in the entropy, given our complex ideas of mechanism, including intelligent life, we conclude that in the example of the cup, everything is in disarray, that is our conclusion and opinion, but is not the truth, the truth is, physically, by means of entropy, everything is in order, the pieces of the cup, puts them exactly where appropriate, depending on the direction and speed weight of each piece in particular, nature acts on instinct, using the mechanisms available in each case in particular, now what are the mechanisms used by nature for the cup, we can say that the spotlight is on the force of gravity, but we can mention that you use all mechanisms available in nature, speed, mass, size, temperature, time, space, vacuum, in order that everything is available, in time and space, ie at the time and the place. Let's see where the error occurred and confusing mix, the entropy with circumstantial facts, and joined it to see the decline of synergy, and this fall added to the entropy. Let's analyze one of the meanings, significant entropy in physics, this is the box with marbles, and we saw that introducing entropy, as is now accepted. In this example we saw a box of marbles with the colors blue, white and red, which to remove the divisions, marbles lose an order because of his color, and this fact is called entropy, this is where the error arises. Analicémoslo. Item number 1, for starters the fact that the marbles are arranged by color, not a matter of fact, this is a product of intelligent life, and contains a high degree of synergy, we can say now that the fact remove the divisions between the colors, consider this as an occasional event, (X), circumstance or event, this simple act we can compare it circumstantial, such as the explosion of a star or the collision of a comet on a planet this is the occasional act, like any other that happens in nature, now the question is this, is responsible for the entropy of the
- 13. circumstantial facts, "the answer is no, because we want to hold the entropy of events which is not accountable? in all cases the entropy is not responsible for this, these are mere acts by an endless succession of circumstances, which are not the responsibility of entropy, but the chance of this, chance, we can say that everything happens for a reason and we must not confuse a natural act and physical, with a chaotic event, however, divisions and remove the marbles, what happens after that is not a disorder, On the contrary, in a circumstantial fact, entropy puts everything in order and give marbles a weight according to their size and location, with this simple act we see the subcategory of synergy, called entropy, is putting everything in order, this order is an order at the natural, not synergistic, here we can see what he sees as our mind complex, it is not a loss of synergy, if not the result of this loss, our mind complex, it considers chaos, and this illusion of mind, we call it entropy, this is happening in this instance the box of marbles, entropy is the natural and primitive, which organizes and orders, but the conclusion we reached with the current line of thought of the concept of entropy, which is now the case with the marbles in this chaos, now test the box with marbles, we get two results, a line of thinking is wrong now accepted, in which this act of entropy is considered chaotic and disorderly, and the other result, the physical and natural and instinctive right, where the marbles are in their rightful place, irrespective of their color, the first result in which we concluded that the growing chaos, this only happens in our mind, this error is not a physical act real and tangible, this is a mental illusion virtual and misleading, however the physical act, correct natural and acceptable, which does not take into account the synergies and thus both the color of the marbles, it is irrelevant, it is hidden to our understanding. It is interesting how many times our minds makes us a deceptive game, this is done we will see the loss of synergy, and the result of the natural order of the arrangement of the marbles, what we see as chaotic.
- 14. Lay new foundations, rediscovering the entropy, and our universe. Rediscover the entropy, we discuss this in detail with mathematical formulas, and we saw that the entropy is a consequence of matter, and the movement of this, we need to start from scratch, that we'll do a mental exercise, to do this we must forget our universe filled with matter and energy, quitémoslo now and get an empty universe, where only the space, and now a question, how much entropy is in this universe empty?, the answer is no, here we have a zero entropy, now formulate another question, how much energy we have in this universe vacuum, the answer is the same, no, let third question, how much heat we have in this universe empty? the answer is no, this is what it tells us the meaning Common, now make a mental delusion, put energy into this space, eg, heat, and return to the same question, do we now how entropy, "the answer is the same, no, because energy is another consequence of matter and the movement of this, then we can not put energy in empty space, because energy does not exist, if not this matter, we should add this very clearly, matter in motion, as we said entropy and energy do not have independent existence, and we can add to that time, gravity, light, heat, and finally we could make a big list of all the things they would not be present with the subject, how could if we do not have heat issue? if we have energy, or if you want to see the work of the entropy, we need to introduce into our universe with space, matter, right now, put an empty space on our planet, such as the planet Mercuro, now put this planet with care and leave it inert, that is without any motion, and is completely cold, now is the same question again, how much entropy, or energy we need? now things change dramatically, because Now we have potential energy and entropy, entropy also have duties, because when the planet starts to move in a vacuum, we get energy, but use a lot of energy to set in motion our planet Mars, this amount of Power now is being kept infinitely, because our planet is in an empty space and no obstacles in its path, then never stop, and as a result we have that much energy, (X), which preserves infinitely, and When in motion, is the possibility of infinite potential energy, we now that our planet has entropy in office, let's see what this entropy is the natural mechanism that causes the body to be kept together, this is the entropy function in , also said that entropy has potential, let's see what this entropy, this always appears at a given time to show another object in its path, and impact on our planet, on the one hand use the force of gravity as a mechanism to attract something that is in disarray in the empty space
- 15. and wandering in the universe, entropy is another potential mechanism that is the bulk of the planet Mars, which will serve as host for the absorption of impact and using the entropy to dispel energy multiplied, until this point, it is very complicated to reach these conclusions because we have only one planet in motion, but this becomes very complex field we introduce the more vacuum in our universe. Let us do a little mental exercise our complex, changing the scenario to make the earth, as we know, this is atmosphere and oceans, it is cold and lifeless, and pongámoslo like the planet Mars, and inert without movement, and now do the same question, how much we have entropy?, and the response is repeated like the planet Mars, has potential energy and entropy, entropy also has the service, now in entropy functions is more complex because our planet has liquid oceans and they are here in this example the entropy more mechanisms used to sort things, including a mechanism that uses at this point, the entropy is the ground level to direct the water toward the more low and fill the spaces beginning with the lowest levels, here we see two different mechanisms acting together, a central part which is the force of gravity on our planet earth, and other levels of surface acting together, we also see a difference between the liquid, a quantity of oil for example, that the ocean will be different as the water level, acting is another mechanism of entropy in this case the weight of fluids, to maintain order according to their weight, and we can also see this in gases, the entropy will give a different place compared to the oxygen, while the entropy is acting, trying to dispel any to avoid the chaos, for example in the case of gases from diluting the oxygen is used to prevent an explosion, while using space to avoid increasing pressure. Let us exercise our mind a little more complex, added to our satellite, the moon, the two are cool, now Let's put it in motion, of course, with translation and rotation movement, and now do the same question, How much entropy do we have?, We much entropy as the size of mass, a difference that the mechanisms may vary depending on the form, composition and location of this. On energy, the question is, How much energy do we have?, On the one hand we have the conservation of energy as infinite, for being on earth with the moon in a perpetual voyage through the universe, and we will account of an energy surplus, infinite product of time and space, as a result of this rotation of the earth, and the liquid state of the seas, in the presence of the moon our satellite, which formed the ocean tides, even now This additional movement of the tides because these movements consist entirely of water, do not create heat, if
- 16. we see in a natural way. Here is where we must become more complex, introducing the life and adding intelligent life, we, as is characteristic of our species, we can change our environment, and see what happens if this additional movement of the tides ocean through the use of tidal generators to generate electricity, and use this energy to heat the planet, this simple example shows how, in order to put the concept of entropy changes everything and opens a possibility of infinity in physics , in terms of matter and energy and their interactions. Preface. Our observable universe is in order and control of matter and energy, and when made by circumstantial, something that seems out of control, the very nature of our universe, and again subjected to the control, the chaos and disorder is an illusory product of our mind synergistic, which processes the ideas in an overly complex and symmetrical. In order to make this simple concept of entropy, I believe all things, which until now had no meaning or explanation, in our universe can be explained in detail and sanity, also support this explanation in mathematics. On the other hand those that seemed to make sense to have him stop and explain. We list some of these. 1 .- The first law of thermodynamics as a law is void, because a heat source that can radiate in the form infinite. 2 .- The second law of thermodynamics is void by default. 3 .- The law of conservation of matter is canceled in the same way. 4 .- The well-known formula, E-mc2, becomes relative. 5 .- The expansion of the universe can be explained, and opens the possibility that this is infinite. 6 .- The death of our universe by cooling, it is precluded, since the energy of time and space may be growing in the form of heat, as surplus to the stars, not only by the natural heat of the burning of fuels, as it
- 17. opens the possibility that the stars made for special circumstances, time and space, both in his life, like birth, is generating more heat, which would generate its fuels, by themselves, since no know exactly what are the reactions of electrons with the composition of each star in particular. 7 .- The intelligent life discovered a potential infinite power to conquer the universe. The chaos and disorder, had no place in our universe. Author Arturo Raúl Cortés The king is naked. The king is naked.

Be the first to comment