RFID Shopping System


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RFID Shopping system uses RFID tags to identify products while providing automated shopping experience. The shopping system also provides integrated data mining techniques to facilitate management with real time data with product sales and inventory tracking. The system consists of smart cart system which is attached to the customer cart. The smart cart system also includes intercom module, which facilitates the customer to talk directly to customer service without having to search for one. All the data processing is provided by the central server system which handles all the carts in the system.

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  • Analyzing the Current Market, we thought to bring changes in the way how people shop, we need to modify our existing shopping system. With our current shopping system, we found these factors to be crucial problem statement in our present shopping system in the market.
  • Shopping has been a global phenomenon. With increasing human needs moredepartmental stores and competition between them is increasing in the global market. Minordetails are also taken into consideration while providing best shopping experience to thecustomers. Huge investments in terms of assets and manpower have been made in order tomanage the entire shopping system. But the technology that drives the shopping system is stillprimitive; where a customer has to take products to cashier in order to check out. There is alwaysan intermediate factor between the customer and the company. People still have to stand in longqueue for their turn for checkout and customers have to call sales associate to get moreinformation about the product. Addressing the need of more reliable system, we come up withidea of “RFID Shopping System” which uses Radio Frequency Identification which would beable to perform a self checkout shopping experience without any need of any human assistance,hence increasing customer shopping experience satisfaction.Besides this Inventory management also plays a very crucial role in success of businessorganization. The way they manage the flow of products from manufacturers to customers isvery important and the system helps to track down the mobility of the popular goods. If theproduct shortage occurs, customer will immediately turn to other supplier and hence miss apotential sales opportunity. With the help of data mining technology we can analyze the salespattern of customers, which will help as main basis for sales analysis and warehouse control.Hence our main objective form this shopping system would be to read tags from theproducts, provide detailed information about the product to the user, assist customer on completeself checkout system, and provide complete web interface. Nevertheless the shopping systemalso supports the management by providing logistical data about product inventory, sales flowand other information, which gives scope on data mining on customer shopping experience.
  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems use radio frequency to identify, locate and track people, assets, and animals. Passive RFID systems are composed of three components – an interrogator (reader), a passive tag, and a host computer. The tag is composed of an antenna coil and a silicon chip that includes basic modulation circuitry and non-volatile memory. The tag is energized by a time-varying electromagnetic radio frequency (RF) wave that is transmitted by the reader. This RF signal is called a carrier signal. When the RF field passes through an antenna coil, there is an AC voltage generated across the coil. This voltage is rectified to supply power to the tag. The information stored in the tag is transmitted back to the reader. This is often called backscattering. By detecting the backscattering signal, the information stored in the tag can be fully identified.
  • While reading for the RFID tags, the reader continuously generates a RF carrier sine wave, watching always for modulation to occur. Detected modulation of the field would indicate the presence of a tag. Once the tag has received sufficient energy to operate correctly, it divides down the carrier and begins clocking its data to an output transistor, which is normally connected across the coil inputs. The tag's output transistor shunts the coil, sequentially corresponding to the data which is being clocked out of the memory array. The shunting of coil causes momentary fluctuation of the carrier wave, which is seen as a slight change in amplitude of the carrier. Hence the reader detects the amplitude modulated data and processes the resulting bit stream according to the encoding and data modulation methods uses.
  • Data Flow Diagram
  • Speaker - Aayush
  • A server machine is a host that is running one or more server programs which share their resources with clients. A client does not share any of its resources, but requests a server's content or service function. Clients therefore initiate communication sessions with servers which await incoming requests.Client Server Model of Computing is a distributed application that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service called server, and service requesters called clients.
  • RFID Shopping System

    2. 2. RFID SHOPPING SYSTEM• Team Member – Aayush Tuladhar (Computer Engineering) – Otabeck Atajanov (Electrical Engineering) – Hamad Alajamam (Electrical Engineering)• Advisor – Dr. Md Mahbub Hossain• Committee Member – Dr. Ratchaneekorn Thamvichai – Dr. Michael P Glazos – Dr. Jie Hu Meichsner (Computer Science) RFID Shopping System 2
    3. 3. Contents• Problem Statement• Project Overview• RFID - Background• Design Specification• System Design• Data Flow Diagrams• Xbee Wireless Module• Server Application• Inventory Management Application• Database Servers• Project Timeline• Technical Difficulties• Future Improvements• Suggestions• Questions RFID Shopping System 3
    4. 4. Problem Statement• Barcode Technology – Barcode can only read one item at a time. – Failure rate in Barcodes are relatively high for self checkout system.• Lack of Shopping Experience – People don’t have to stand in line and wait for checkout. – Online Billing System.• Logistics of Inventory Management• No Intercom Module Support RFID Shopping System 4
    5. 5. Project Overview• SmartCart System• RFID Technology• POS Sales System (Self Checkout)• Inventory Management Module• Data Mining Module• Database Management System RFID Shopping System 5
    6. 6. RFID - Background• RFID uses radio frequency• Two types of RFID – Active and Passive• Passive RFID – Interrogator (Reader) RFID Tag – Passive Tag – Host Computer RFID Shopping System 6
    7. 7. Working of RFID• Reader generates RF carrier sine waves• Once tag receives sufficient energy, tags output transistor shunts the coil corresponding to the data being clocked out of memory array.• Reader performed digital data encoding. RFID Shopping System 7
    8. 8. Design SpecificationSpecification SolutionScanning Item Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)Real-time Inventory Management Online Relational Database ImplementationMulti User Environment Master – Slave System Typography Star Network ArchitectureCentral Server System Server Application with multi-threading implementationOnline User Data access Web Framework (PHP 5.0) RFID Shopping System 8
    9. 9. System Design (Level 0) RFID Shopping System 9
    10. 10. System Design (Level 1) RFID Shopping System 10
    11. 11. Level 0 –Cart System RFID Shopping System 11
    12. 12. Cart System – Schematic Diagram RFID Shopping System 12
    13. 13. Cart System – PCB Layout RFID Shopping System 13
    14. 14. Voltage Step Down Converter AC to DC Voltage Converter RFID Shopping System 14
    15. 15. SPICE Simulation RFID Shopping System 15
    16. 16. Battery Charger Module Schematic Design
    17. 17. Intercom Module RFID Shopping System 17
    18. 18. Intercom Module - Working• Push button is a switch that outputs either HIGH or LOW• Microcontroller is used to sense output of Push Button. Depending on this output, microcontroller send signal to the gate of NMOS switch. NMOS switches are used to turn on and off particular module.• In order to eliminate white noise while signals are not in transmission, squelch circuit is implemented to mute the receiver. RFID Shopping System 18
    19. 19. Muting Squelch Circuit
    20. 20. Intercom Module – PCB LayoutPrinted Circuit Layout of Intercom Experimental Breadboard Module Communication Setup RFID Shopping System 20
    21. 21. Level 0 – Data Flow Diagram Centralized Server RFID Shopping System 21
    22. 22. Central Server – Schematic Diagram and PCB Layout RFID Shopping System 22
    23. 23. Xbee Wireless Module• Radio Modules by Digi International (Minnetonka, MN)• Point to Multipoint (PTM) Network Topology being used in RFID Shopping System.• IEEE 802.15.4 protocol• Transparent Data Mode and API Mode – Transparent Data Mode : Data coming to DIN gets directly transmitted to intended receiving radios without any modification. – API Mode : Commands are used to control and data is wrapped in a packet that allows for addressing, parameter setting and packet delivery feedback. RFID Shopping System 23
    24. 24. Server Application• Client-Server System• Carts act as Client and centralized server as Server.• Communication Protocol at Transport Level using Protocol Data Unit (PDU)• XOR Checksum RFID Shopping System 24
    25. 25. Server Application – Communication Protocol• In Cart System, Physical Layer Information encapsulated by adding Control PDU and Checksum on the data bits, hence creating Frame• Frame is transferred using XBEE 802.15.4 protocol to the Server for processing, creating a thread on the server application.• When the data reaches the server application, it removes the PDU header, performs the data integrity using checksum algorithm and performs the desired function on the system.• Server application performs the specified operation defined on the control header.• It returns acknowledgement bit to the Cart System. RFID Shopping System 25
    26. 26. Inventory Management Application• Developed using WinForms (.NET Platform)• Bad News : Doesn’t Work in Linux / Mac OS • Alternatives though Mono• Written in C# with .NET Modules• MDI Form Interface• Integrated with Crystal Reports RFID Shopping System 26
    27. 27. Inventory Management Application• Features – Users – Products – Settings – Sales – Window RFID Shopping System 27
    28. 28. Inventory Management Application• Interactive Graph RFID Shopping System 28
    29. 29. Inventory Management Application• Report Generation RFID Shopping System 29
    30. 30. Database Server• Mysql 5.0.7-dev - 091210 Revision: 304625• MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases.• SQL => Standard Query Language• Chive :Web-based MySQL Administration was used to test the query time.• Apache HTTPS :Server provided by Apache Software Foundation• Stored Procedures were used to make the system efficient by minimizing the request time.• Why MYSQL ? – Relational Database – Free !! (Not like in Free Beer / Free as in Freedom) RFID Shopping System 30
    31. 31. Database Relational Schema RFID Shopping System 31
    32. 32. Project Timeline RFID Shopping System 32
    33. 33. Technical Difficulties• Reading Tags• Working with many systems• NMOS switching and heat• Controlling intercom• Quality factor and peaking• Set up correct communication between systems RFID Shopping System 33
    34. 34. Future• List Generation and Providing Guided Shopping• Smart Shelves• On screen advertising with isle location tracking system• Screen advancements RFID Shopping System 34
    35. 35. Suggestions• Do lots of research• Log Book• Software Version Control (SVN,GIT)• “If anything can go wrong, it will” – Murphy’s Law RFID Shopping System 35
    36. 36. References• http://jlwylie.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/quest ions.gif• http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.1/en/what- is-mysql.html• http://www.techsoup.org/learningcenter/networ ks/page4819.cfm• http://www.apache.org/• http://www.chive-project.com/• http://www.crazyabouttv.com• GNU GPL v3.0 RFID Shopping System 36
    37. 37. Questions ? RFID Shopping System 37