Chapter2

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Chapter2

  1. 1. 1<br />Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 12e:The Western Perspective<br />Chapter 2<br />The Rise of Civilization:<br />The Art of the Ancient Near East<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />The Ancient Near East<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Goals<br />Understand the cultural changes in the Neolithic Revolution as they relate to the art and architecture.<br />Understand the concept of civilization and the importance of Sumer in the ancient Near East. <br />Examine the artistic materials, techniques, subject matter, styles and conventions developed in the ancient Near East.<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art<br />Understand the cultural changes in the Neolithic Revolution as they relate to the art and architecture.<br />Understand the development of a counting system that leads to an evolution of writing and reading in Sumer<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />The Neolithic Revolution<br />Examine the birth of writing in ancient Sumer.<br />The first city states, city planning, and organized religion are attributed to Sumer. Explore how the art – and architecture – are effected.<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Figure 2-1 White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200–3000 BCE.<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />Figure 2-2 Reconstruction drawing of the White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200–3000 BCE (after S. E. Piggott).<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Sumerian Religion, Society, and Art (cont.)<br />Evaluate the stylistic and formal visual aspects of Mesopotamian art and its iconography <br />Identify cultures that ruled the Mesopotamian regions throughout early history<br />Relate different media and materials used in Mesopotamian art <br />Evaluate architecture in different civilizations in Near Eastern cultures <br />Critically evaluate the role of art and power in different near eastern civilizations from this period <br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Figure 2-3 Female head (Inanna?), from Uruk (modern Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200–3000 BCE. Marble, approx. 8” high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />Figure 2-4 Presentation of offerings to Inanna (Warka Vase), from Uruk, Iraq, ca. 3200–3000 BCE. Alabaster, 3’ 1/4” high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Mesopotamian Religion, Mythology, Gods and Goddesses<br />How are ancient Near Eastern ideas about religion different from Paleolithic and earlier Neolithic ideas?<br />Explore how these ideas are depicted in Sumerian sculpture, seals, and funerary objects.<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />Figure 2-5 Statuettes of two worshipers, from the Square Temple at Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar), Iraq, ca. 2700 BCE. Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone, tallest figure approx. 2’ 6” high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Figure 2-6 Seated statuette of Urnanshe, from the Ishtar temple at Mari (modern Tell Hariri), Syria, ca. 2600–2500 BCE. Gypsum inlaid with shell and lapis lazuli, 10 1/4” high. National Museum, Damascus.<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />Figure 2-7 Fragment of the victory stele of Eannatum (Stele of the Vultures), from Girsu (modern Telloh), Syria, ca. 2600–2500 BCE. Limestone, full stele approx. 5’ 11” high. Louvre, Paris.<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Figure 2-8a War side of the Standard of Ur, from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600 BCE. Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone, approx. 8” x 1’ 7”. British Museum, London.<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />Figure 2-8b Peace side of the Standard of Ur, from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600 BCE. Wood inlaid with shell, lapis lazuli, and red limestone, approx. 8” x 1’ 7”. British Museum, London.<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />Figure 2-9 Bull-headed lyre (restored) from Tomb 789 (“King’s Grave”), Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600 BCE. Gold leaf and lapis lazuli over a wooden core, approx. 5’ 5” high. University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />Figure 2-10 Soundbox of the lyre from Tomb 789 ("King's Grave"), Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600 BCE. Wood with inlaid gold, lapis lazuli, and shell, approx. 1’ 7” high. University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />Akkadian, Neo-Sumerian, Babylonian, and Hittite Cultures<br />Evaluate the stylistic and formal visual aspects of later Mesopotamian art and its iconography <br />Identify cultures that ruled the Mesopotamian regions throughout early history <br />Critically evaluate the role of art and power in different Near Eastern civilizations from this period <br />Evaluate architecture in different civilizations in Near Eastern cultures<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Figure 2-11 Banquet scene, cylinder seal (left) and its modern impression (right), from the tomb of Pu-abi (tomb 800), Royal Cemetery, Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2600 BCE. Lapis lazuli, approx. 2” high. British Museum, London.<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />Figure 2-12 Head of an Akkadian ruler, from Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), Iraq, ca. 2250–2200 BCE. Copper, 1’ 2 3/8” high. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />Ancient Near Eastern Politics and Art<br />Explore how art is used to express political ideas of kingship and territory in the ancient Akkadian and Neo-Sumerian cultures.<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />Figure 2-13 Victory stele of Naram-Sin, from Susa, Iran, 2254–2218 BCE. Pink sandstone, approx. 6’ 7” high. Louvre, Paris.<br />
  24. 24. 24<br />Figure 2-14 Ziggurat (northeastern facade with restored stairs), Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar), Iraq, ca. 2100 BCE. <br />
  25. 25. 25<br />Figure 2-15 Seated statue of Gudea holding templeplan, from Girsu (modern Telloh), Iraq, ca. 2100 BCE. Diorite, approx. 2’ 5” high. Louvre, Paris.<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />The Code of Hammurabi<br />Explore the Code of Hammurabi, how it is expressed in art and why it contributes to cultural understanding in the ancient Near East.<br />
  27. 27. 27<br />Figure 2-16 Stele with law code of Hammurabi, from Susa, Iran, ca. 1780 BCE. Basalt, approx. 7’ 4” high. Louvre, Paris.<br />
  28. 28. 28<br />Figure 2-17 Investiture of Zimri-Lim, NEO-SUMERIAN mural painting from Court 106 of the palace at Mari (modern Tell Hariri), Syria, ca. 1775–1760 BCE. Louvre, Paris.<br />
  29. 29. 29<br />Figure 2-18 Lion Gate (HITTITE), Boghazköy, Turkey, ca. 1400 BCE. Limestone, lions approx. 7’ high.<br />
  30. 30. 30<br />Figure 2-19 Statue of Queen Napir-Asu, from Susa, Iran (ELAM), ca. 1350–1300 BCE. Bronze and copper, 4’ 2 3/4” high. Louvre, Paris. <br />
  31. 31. 31<br />Figure 2-20 Reconstruction drawing of the (ASSYRIAN) citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), northern Iraq, ca. 720–705 BCE (after Charles Altman).<br />
  32. 32. 32<br />Power and the Assyrians<br />Examine the ideas conveyed in the images of the Assyrian Lamassu and low relief sculpture.<br />
  33. 33. 33<br />Figure 2-21 Lamassu (winged, human-headed bull), from the citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad), Iraq, ca. 720–705 BCE. Limestone, approx. 13’ 10” high. Louvre, Paris.<br />
  34. 34. 34<br />Figure 2-22 Assyrian archers pursuing enemies, relief from the Northwest Palace of Ashurnasirpal II, Kalhu (modern Nimrud), Iraq, ca. 875–860 BCE. Gypsum, 2’ 10 5/8” high. British Museum, London.<br />
  35. 35. 35<br />Figure 2-23 Ashurnasirpal II with attendants and soldier, from his palace at Kalhu, Iraq, ca. 875–860 BCE. Glazed brick, 11 3/4” high. British Museum, London.<br />
  36. 36. 36<br />Figure 2-24 (ASSYRIAN) Ashurbanipal hunting lions, relief from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik), Iraq, ca. 645–640 BCE. Gypsum, 5’ 4” high. British Museum, London.<br />
  37. 37. 37<br />Mesopotamian Architecture<br />Compare the architecture of the Neo-Sumerian ziggurat with the city of Babylon and the fabled “Tower of Babel.” Explore the different materials used.<br />
  38. 38. 38<br />Elamite, Assyrian, and Neo-Babylonian Art<br />Evaluate the stylistic and formal visual aspects of later Mesopotamian art and its iconography.<br />Explore the ideas of power expressed in the art of the Assyrians. <br />Examine the materials and techniques of Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian painting and low relief sculpture. <br />Critically evaluate the role of art and power in different Near Eastern civilizations from this period.<br />
  39. 39. 39<br />Figure 2-25 Ishtar Gate (restored), Babylon, Iraq, ca. 575 BCE. Glazed brick. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.<br />
  40. 40. 40<br />Artist’s concept of The Hanging Gardens of Babylon<br />
  41. 41. 41<br />Persian Power and Opulence<br />Know the location, extent, and impact of Persian Empire on the art and culture of and ancient Near East. <br />Identify hallmarks of Persian culture and style in art and architecture. <br />
  42. 42. 42<br />Persian and Sassanian Splendor<br />Examine ruins of the great imperial palace at Persepolis.<br />Explore how the Persian art and the later Sassanian art is different from other art of Mesopotamia.<br />
  43. 43. 43<br />Figure 2-26 Persepolis (royal audience hall in the background), Iran, ca. 521–465 BCE.<br />
  44. 44. 44<br />Figure 2-27 Processional frieze (detail) on the terrace of the royal audience hall (apadana), Persepolis, Iran, ca. 521–465 BCE. Paying tribute to the king.<br />
  45. 45. 45<br />Figure 2-2 SASANIAN Palace of Shapur I, Ctesiphon, Iraq, ca. 250 CE.<br />
  46. 46. 46<br />Figure 2-29 Head of a Sasanian king (Shapur II?), ca. 350 CE. Silver with mercury gilding, 1’ 3 3/4” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.<br />
  47. 47. 47<br />Figure 2-30 Triumph of Shapur I over Valerian, rock-cut relief, Bishapur, Iran, ca. 260 CE. <br />
  48. 48. 48<br />Discussion Questions<br /><ul><li>Discuss how many artworks are intended to celebrate a ruler’s accomplishments—even if they did not occur?
  49. 49. Identify evidence of the Sumerian culture’s lasting influence today.
  50. 50. Identify evidence of the Persian Empire’s lasting influence today.</li>

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