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Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Presentation Transcript

  • 1
    Gardner’s Art Through the Ages:The Western Perspective
    Chapter 5
    Gods, Heroes, and Athletes:
    The Art of Ancient Greece
  • 2
    The Greek World
  • 3
    Goals
    • Understand the diverse cultural influences on Greek artistic development
    • Discuss the evolution of the human figure and how it is represented in Greek art
    • Relate the development of temple architecture
    • Cite architectural components and terminology
    • Understand the impact of the conquest of the Greeks on their respective art forms
    • Discuss individual artists and their respective styles
  • 4
    Geometric, Orientalizing, and Archaic Art
    • Understand the diverse cultural influences on Greek artistic development
    • Discuss the evolution of the human figure and how it is represented in Greek art
    • Relate the development of temple architecture
    • Cite architectural components and terminology
  • 5
    Greek Artistic Development
    • Understand the diverse cultural influences on Greek artistic development.
    • Identify the artistic elements and influences in the Geometric and Orientalizing styles.
  • 6
    Figure 5.1 Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BCE. Approx. 3’ 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  • 7
  • 8
    The Human Figure in Early Greek Art
    • Discuss the evolution of the human figure and how it is represented in Greek art.
    • Examine Greek religion and mythology and its expression in art.
  • 9
    Figure 5.2 Hero and centaur (Herakles and Nessos?), ca. 750–730 BCE. Bronze, approx. 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  • 10
    Figure 5-3 Mantiklos Apollo, statuette of a youth dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo, from Thebes, Greece, ca. 700–680 BCE. Bronze, approx. 8” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  • 11
    Figure 5.4 Corinthian black-figure amphora with animal friezes, from Rhodes, Greece, ca. 625–600 BCE. Approx. 1’ 2” high. British Museum, London.
  • 12
    Figure 5-5 Plan of Temple A, Prinias (CRETE), Greece, ca. 625 BCE.
  • 13
    The Human Figure in Archaic Art
    • Understand the development and influences relating to the early Greek kouroi.
    • How is the Kroisos figure different from the other kouroi?
  • 14
    Figure 5-8Kouros, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, approx. 6’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
    Figure 5-7 Lady of Auxerre, statue of a goddess or kore, ca. 650–625 BCE. Limestone, approx. 2’ 1 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris.
  • 15
    Figure 3-40 Mentuemhet, from Karnak, Egypt, Dynasty XXVI, ca. 650 BCE. Granite, approx. 4’ 5” high. Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
    Figure 5-8 Kouros, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, approx. 6’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  • 16
    Figure 5-10 Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, approx. 6’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
    Figure 5-9 Calf Bearer (Moschophoros), dedicated by Rhonbos on the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 560 BCE. Marble, restored height approx. 5’ 5”. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
  • 17
    Figure 5-12 Kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 520–510 BCE. Marble, approx. 1’ 9 1/2” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
    Figure 5-11PeplosKore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, approx. 4’ high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
  • 18
    Greek Architectural Development
    • Explore architectural basics in the Doris and Ionic temples.
    • Cite architectural components and terminology.
  • 19
    Figure 5-13 Temple of Hera I (“Basilica”), Paestum, Italy, ca. 550 BCE.Right: Plan of the Temple of Hera I, Paestum, Italy, ca. 550 BCE.
  • 20
    Figure 5-17 Gigantomachy, detail of the north frieze of the Siphnian Treasury, Delphi, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, approx. 2’ 1” high. Archaeological Museum, Delphi.
  • 21
    Early Classical Period
    • Discuss the evolution of the human figure and how it is represented in Greek art.
    • Discuss individual artists and their respective styles in Greek vase painting.
    • Examine the development of sculpture related to temple architecture.
  • 22
    Greek Vase Painting
    • Discuss the evolution of the human figure related to early Greek vase painting.
    • Know the different vase types, materials, and techniques.
    • Identify individual painters and potters who signed their vases.
  • 23
    Figure 5-18 KLEITIAS and ERGOTIMOS, François Vase (Attic black-figure volute krater), from Chiusi, Italy, ca. 570 BCE. General view (left) and detail of centauromachy on other side of vase (right). Approx. 2’ 2” high. Museo Archeologico, Florence.
  • 24
    Figure 5-19 EXEKIAS, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (detail from an Attic black-figure amphora), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 540–530 BCE. Whole vessel approx. 2’ high. Vatican Museums, Rome.
  • 25
    Figure 5-20 ANDOKIDES PAINTER, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (Attic bilingual amphora), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 525–520 BCE. Black-figure side (left) and red-figure side (right). Approx. 1’ 9” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  • 26
    Figure 5-21 EUPHRONIOS, Herakles wrestling Antaios (detail of an Attic red-figure calyx krater), from Cerveteri, Italy, ca. 510 BCE. Whole vessel approx. 1’ 7” high. Louvre, Paris.
  • 27
    Figure 5-22 EUTHYMIDES, Three revelers (Attic red-figure amphora), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 510 BCE. Approx. 2’ high. Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich.
  • 28
    Figure 5-23 ONESIMOS, Girl preparing to bathe (interior of an Attic red-figure kylix), from Chiusi, Italy, ca. 490 BCE. Tondo approx. 6” in diameter. Musées Royaux, Brussels.
  • 29
    Early Classical Sculpture in Temples
    • Examine the development of sculpture related to temple architecture.
    • Compare early classical sculpture with sculpture of the high classical period.
  • 30
    Figure 5-24 Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500–490 BCE.
  • 31
    Figure 5-25 Plan (left) and restored cutaway view (right) of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500–490 BCE.
  • 32
    Figure 5-26 West pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, Greece, ca. 500-490 BCE. Marble, approx. 5’ 8” high at center. Glyptothek, Munich.
  • 33
    High and Late Classical
    • Understand the impact of the conquest of the Greeks on their respective art forms.
    • Examine the development – and perfection – of the human figure in sculpture.
    • Explore the Acropolis, its architecture and sculpture.
    • Understand changes in the art in the Late Classical period
  • 34
    Perfection in Sculptural Form
    • Understand the concepts of contrapposto and the Polykleitos’ cannon, as well as Greek ideas of human bodily perfection.
    • Examine the art materials, techniques and individual artists that made the sculptural forms possible.
  • 35
    Figure 5-29 Temple of Hera II, Paestum, Italy, ca. 460 BCE.
  • 36
    Figure 5-32 Athena, Herakles, and Atlas with the apples of the Hesperides, metope from the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, Greece, ca. 470–456 BCE. Marble, approx. 5’ 3” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
  • 37
    Figure 5-33Kritios Boy, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, approx. 2’ 10” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
    Figure 5-8Kouros, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, approx. 6’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  • 38
    Figure 5-34 Warrior, from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, approx. 6’ 6” high. Archaeological Museum, Reggio Calabria.
  • 39
    Figure 5-35 Charioteer, from a group dedicated by Polyzalos of Gela in the Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi, Greece, ca. 470 BCE. Bronze, approx. 5’ 11” high. Archaeological Museum, Delphi.
  • 40
    Figure 5-36 Zeus (or Poseidon?), from the sea off Cape Artemision, Greece, ca. 460–450 BCE. Bronze, approx. 6’ 10” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • 41
    Figure 5-37 MYRON, Diskobolos (Discus Thrower). Roman marble copy after a bronze original of ca. 450 BCE, 5’ 1” high. Museo Nazionale Romano—Palazzo Massimo alle Terme.
  • 42
    Figure 5-38 POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). Roman marble copy from Pompeii, Italy, after a bronze original of ca. 450–440 BCE, 6’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale, Naples.
  • 43
    The Acropolis of Pericles
    • Examine the architectural detail of the Parthenon, the Propylaia, and the Erechtheion.
    • Explore the sculpture of Phidias at the Acropolis.
  • 44
    Figure 5-40 Aerial view of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece.
  • 45
    Figure 5-41 Model of the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 1. Panteon 2. Propylaia 3. Erechtheion 4. Temple of Athena Nike.
  • 46
    Figure 5-42 IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES, Parthenon, the Temple of Athena Parthenos (view from the northwest), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447–438 BCE.
  • 47
    Figure 5-43 Plan of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, with diagram of sculptural program (after A. Stewart), 447–432 BCE.
  • 48
    Figure 5-44 PHIDIAS, Athena Parthenos, in the cella of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438 BCE. Model of the lost statue, which was approx. 38’ tall. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
  • 49
    Figure 5-46 Helios and his horses, and Dionysos (Herakles?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height approx. 4’ 3”. British Museum, London.
  • 50
    Figure 5-47 Three goddesses (Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 438–432 BCE. Marble, greatest height approx. 4’ 5”. British Museum, London.
  • 51
    Figure 5-48 Details of the Panathenaic Festival procession frieze, from the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 447–438 BCE. Marble, approx. 3’ 6” high. Horsemen of north frieze (top), British Museum, London; Acropolis Museum, Athens; and elders and maidens of east frieze (bottom), Louvre, Paris.
  • 52
    Figure 5-50 Erechtheion (view from the southeast), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE.
  • 53
    Figure 5-51 Plan of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE.
  • 54
    Trivia Fact: The male counterpart of the caryatid figure is the Atlantid or Atlas figure.
    Figure 5-52 Caryatid from the south porch of the Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 421–405 BCE. Marble, 7’ 7” high. British Museum, London.
  • 55
    Figure 5-53 KALLIKRATES, Temple of Athena Nike (view from the northeast), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 427–424 BCE.
  • 56
    Figure 5-54 Nike adjusting her sandal, from the south side of the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 410 BCE. Marble, approx. 3’ 6” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
  • 57
    Figure 5-55 Grave stele of Hegeso, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 400 BCE. Marble, 5’ 2” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • 58
    Late Classical Vases and Painting
    • Examine polychromy and white-ground vase painting.
    • Learn about Polygnotos, landscape painting, and mosaic copies of Greek painting.
  • 59
    Figure 5-57 NIOBID PAINTER, Artemis and Apollo slaying the children of Niobe (Attic red-figure calyx krater), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 450 BCE. Approx. 1’ 9” high. Louvre, Paris.
  • 60
    Figure 5-59 Youth diving, painted ceiling of the Tomb of the Diver, Paestum, Italy, ca. 480 BCE. Approx. 3’ 4” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Paestum.
  • 61
    Figure 5-60 PRAXITELES, Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman marble copy after an original of ca. 350–340 BCE. Approx. 6’ 8” high. Vatican Museums, Rome.
  • 62
    Figure 5-62 PRAXITELES, Hermes and the infant Dionysos, from the Temple of Hera, Olympia, Greece. Marble copy after an original of ca. 340 BCE, approx. 7’ 1” high. Archaeological Museum, Olympia.
  • 63
    Figure 5-64 Grave stele of a young hunter, found near the Ilissos River, Athens, Greece, ca. 340–330 BCE. Marble, approx. 5’ 6” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • 64
    Figure 5-65 LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman marble copy after a bronze original of ca. 330 BCE, approx. 6’ 9” high. Vatican Museums, Rome.
  • 65
    Figure 5-66 LYSIPPOS, Weary Herakles (Farnese Herakles). Roman marble copy from Rome, Italy, signed by GLYKON OF ATHENS, after a bronze original of ca. 320 BCE. Approx. 10 ‘ 5” high. Museo Nazionale, Naples.
  • 66
    Figure 5-67 Head of Alexander the Great, from Pella, Greece, ca. 200–150 BCE. Marble, approx. 1’ high. Archaeological Museum, Pella.
  • 67
    Figure 5-68 GNOSIS, Stag hunt, from Pella, Greece, ca. 300 BCE. Pebble mosaic, figural panel 10’ 2” high. Archaeological Museum, Pella.
  • 68
    Figure 5-69 PHILOXENOS OF ERETRIA, Battle of Issus, ca. 310 BCE. Roman copy (Alexander Mosaic) from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy, late second or early first century BCE. Tessera mosaic, approx. 8’ 10” X 16’ 9”. Museo Nazionale, Naples.
  • 69
    Late Classical Architecture
    • Explore the development of late classical architecture in the Greek theater, the Corinthian capital, and the tholos.
  • 70
    Hellenistic Period
    • Understand the impact of the conquest of the Greeks on their respective art forms.
    • Relate the influence on Greek architecture as a result of the expansion of the Greek world.
    • Examine the elements of Hellenistic art in Greek sculpture.
  • 71
    Figure 5-74 PAIONIOS OF EPHESOS and DAPHNIS OF MILETOS, Temple of Apollo, Didyma, Turkey, begun 313 BCE
  • 72
    Architecture in the Hellenistic World
    • Relate the influence on Greek architecture as a result of the expansion of the Greek world.
    • Examine the architecture – and architectural sculpture – at Pergamon in Turkey.
  • 73
    Figure 5-79 Athena battling Alkyoneos, detail of the gigantomachy frieze, from the Altar of Zeus, Pergamon, Turkey. Marble, approx. 7’ 6” high. Staatliche Museen, Berlin.
  • 74
    Sculpture in the Hellenistic Period
    • Examine the dynamic motion and emotion in Hellenistic sculpture.
    • Understand how and why it is different from sculpture of the Classical period.
  • 75
    Figure 5-80 EPIGONOS(?), Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife. Roman marble copy after a bronze original from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 230–220 BCE, approx. 6’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Altemps, Rome.
  • 76
    Figure 5-81 EPIGONOS(?), Dying Gaul. Roman marble copy after a bronze original from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 230–220 BCE, approx. 3’ 1/2” high. Museo Capitolino, Rome.
  • 77
    Figure 5-82 Nike alighting on a warship (Nike of Samothrace), from Samothrace, Greece, ca. 190 BCE. Marble, figure approx. 8’ 1” high. Louvre, Paris.
  • 78
    Figure 5-83 ALEXANDROS OF ANTIOCH-ON-THE-MEANDER, Aphrodite (Venus de Milo), from Melos, Greece, ca. 150–125 BCE. Marble, approx. 6’ 7” high. Louvre, Paris.
  • 79
    Figure 5-84 Aphrodite, Eros, and Pan, from Delos, Greece, ca. 100 BCE. Marble, 4’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • 80
    Figure 5-85 Sleeping satyr (Barberini Faun), from Rome, Italy, ca. 230–200 BCE. Marble, approx. 7’ 1” high. Glyptothek, Munich.
  • 81
    Figure 5-89 ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, and POLYDOROS OF RHODES, Laocoön and his sons, from Rome, Italy, early first century CE Marble, approx. 7’ 10 1/2” high. Vatican Museums, Rome.
  • 82
    Discussion Questions
    • How have funerary markers or stelae changed in contemporary times? What do these monuments say about our culture? Our identities?
    • What Greek beliefs about the human being and and the human body are continued to this day?
    • How does Greek art change with the conquests of Alexander the Great and later, being conquered by the Persians and the Romans?
    • How is Greek influence reflected in contemporary art and architecture?