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Chapter 13

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  • 1. 1
    Gardner’s Art Through the Ages:The Western Perspective
    Chapter 13
    The Age of the Great Cathedrals:
    Gothic Art
  • 2. 2
    Europe About 1200
  • 3. 3
    Goals
    • Understand the origins and spread of the Gothic style.
    • 4. Understand the changes in European religious concepts that make Gothic art and architecture possible.
    • 5. Understand the art, architecture and architectural decoration of the Gothic style in France.
    • 6. Examine the variations of the Gothic Style in England, Germany and Italy.
    • 7. Examine the development of sculpture, book arts, and other media in the Gothic era.
    • 8. Name and identify important Gothic cathedrals.
  • 4
    French Gothic
    • Examine architecture and architectural decoration in the Gothic style.
    • 9. Examine the basic architectural elements of the Gothic style.
    • 10. Understand the religious attitude that makes the Gothic style desirable.
    • 11. Examine the great Gothic Cathedrals of France.
    • 12. Explore the art media used to express religious concepts in the Gothic era.
    • 13. Explore sculpture, book illustration and luxury arts.
  • 5
    Abbott Suger and the Gothic Style
    • Understand the origins and spread of the Gothic style.
    • 14. Examine the basic architectural elements and decoration.
    • 15. Understand the religious attitude of the Gothic era.
  • 6
    Figure 13-2 Plan of the east end, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144 (after Sumner Crosby).
    Figure 13-1 Ambulatory and radiating chapels, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144.
  • 16. 7
  • 17. 8
    Figure 13-3 Vaults of the ambulatory and radiating chapels of the choir, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144.
  • 18. 9
    The Chartres Cathedral
    • Examine the sculpture at the Chartres Cathedral.
  • 10
    Figure 13-4 Aerial view of Chartres Cathedral (from the northwest), Chartres, France, begun 1134; rebuilt after 1194.
  • 19. 11
    Figure 13-6 Old Testament kings and queens, jamb statues, central doorway of Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1145–1155.
  • 20. 12
    Great Gothic Cathedrals
    • Examine the Gothic Cathedrals of France.
  • 13
    Figure 13-7 West facade of Laon Cathedral, Laon, France, begun ca. 1190.
  • 21. 14
    Figure 13-8 Interior of Laon Cathedral (view facing northeast), Laon, France, begun ca. 1190.
  • 22. 15
    Figure 13-9 Nave elevations of four French Gothic cathedrals at the same scale (after Louis Grodecki): (a) Laon, (b) Paris, (c) Chartres, (d) Amiens.
  • 23. 16
    Figure 13-10 Notre-Dame (view from the south), Paris, France, begun 1163; nave and flying buttresses, ca. 1180–1200; remodeled after 1225.
  • 24. 17
    Figure 13-11 Plan of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, as rebuilt after 1194 (after Paul Frankl).
  • 25. 18
    French Stained Glass Windows
    • Examine the stained glass windows, the materials, techniques, and the Gothic spiritual attitude about the light of God.
  • 19
    Figure 13-13 Virgin and Child and angels (Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière), window in the choir of Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1170, with 13th century side panels. Stained glass, 16’ X 7’ X 8”.
  • 26. 20
    Figure 13-14 Rose window and lancets, north transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220. Stained glass, rose window approx. 43’ in diameter.
  • 27. 21
    Figure 13-15 Saints Martin, Jerome, and Gregory, jamb statues, Porch of the Confessors (right doorway), south transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220–1230.
  • 28. 22
    Gothic Interiors and Heights
    • Examine the interior of Gothic structures, Gothic rib vaulting and the extension of height.
  • 23
    Figure 13-17 ROBERT DE LUZARCHES, THOMAS DE CORMONT, and RENAUD DE CORMONT, interior of Amiens Cathedral (view facing east), Amiens, France, begun 1220.
  • 29. 24
    Figure 13-19 ROBERT DE LUZARCHES, THOMAS DE CORMONT, and RENAUD DE CORMONT, west facade of Amiens Cathedral, Amiens, France, begun 1220.
  • 30. 25
    High Gothic Architecture
    • Understand how the builders at Reims and in Sainte-Chapelle carried the High Gothic style further both architecturally and sculpturally.
  • 26
    Figure 13-21 West facade of Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1225–1290.
  • 31. 27
    Figure 13-23 Interior of the upper chapel, Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, France, 1243–1248.
  • 32. 28
    High Gothic Sculpture
    • Examine the classicizing forms and suggestion of portraits in the sculpture at the Reims Cathedral and in free standing sculpture.
  • 29
    Figure 13-22 Visitation, jamb statues of central doorway, west facade, Reims Cathedral, Reims, France, ca. 1230.
  • 33. 30
    Figure 13-24 Virgin and Child (Virgin of Paris), Notre-Dame, Paris, France, early fourteenth century.
  • 34. 31
    Figure 13-26 Aerial view of the fortified town of Carcassonne, France. Bastions and towers, 12th–13th centuries, restored by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc in the 19th century.
  • 35. 32
    Figure 13-27 Hall of the cloth guild, Bruges, Netherlands, begun 1230.
  • 36. 33
    Figure 13-28 House of Jacques Coeur, Bourges, France, 1443–1451.
  • 37. 34
    Figure 13-35 Virgin of Jeanne d’Evreux, from the abbey church of Saint-Denis, France, 1339. Silver gilt and enamel, 2’ 3 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris.
  • 38. 35
    Book Illumination in the Gothic Era
    • Examine the art of illumination and book manufacture, especially the creation of prayer books and Bibles in the Gothic era.
  • 36
    Figure 13-31 Blanche of Castile, Louis IX, and two monks, dedication page (folio 8 recto) of a moralized Bible, from Paris, France, 1226–1234. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 1’ 3” X 10 1/2”. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.
  • 39. 37
    Figure 13-32 Abraham and the three angels, folio 7 verso of the Psalter of Saint Louis, from Paris, France, 1253–1270. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 5” X 3 1/2”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.
  • 40. 38
    Figure 13-33 MASTER HONORÉ, David anointed by Samuel and battle of David and Goliath, folio 7 verso of the Breviary of Philippe le Bel, from Paris, France, 1296. Ink and tempera on vellum, 7 7/8” X 4 7/8”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.
  • 41. 39
    Figure 13-34 JEAN PUCELLE, David before Saul, folio 24 verso of the Belleville Breviary, from Paris, France, ca. 1325. Ink and tempera on vellum, 9 1/2” X 6 3/4”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris.
  • 42. 40
    The Gothic Style in England
    • Understand the decorated and perpendicular variations of the Gothic style in England.
    • 43. Examine the complex tombs of royalty and other art forms in Gothic England.
  • 41
    The Gothic Cathedral in England
    • Examine the decorated and perpendicular qualities of the English cathedrals.
  • 42
    Figure 13-38 Plan of Salisbury Cathedral, Salisbury, England, 1220–1258.
  • 44. 43
    Figure 13-39 Interior of Salisbury Cathedral (view facing east), Salisbury, England, 1220–1258.Compare with Laon, above
  • 45. 44
    Figure 13-41 ROBERT and WILLIAM VERTUE, Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey, London, England, 1503–1519.
  • 46. 45
    The Gothic Tomb in England
    • Examine the distinctive and complex sculpture displayed in the tomb of Edward II.
  • 46
    Figure 13-42 Tomb of Edward II, Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, England, ca. 1330–1335.
  • 47. 47
    The Gothic Style in Germany
    • Understand the building of the Cologne Cathedral and its emphasis on height.
    • 48. Examine the structure and origins of the German Hallenkirke and why it differs from the French-influenced Gothic.
    • 49. Examine the emotional expression and drama of the German Gothic sculpture.
    • 50. Explore the complex altars, shrines, and reliquaries of the German Gothic.
  • 48
    The Cologne Cathedral
    • Examine the Gothic architectural elements of the Cologne Cathedral.
  • 49
    Figure 13-44 Gerhard of Cologne, aerial view of Cologne Cathedral (from the south), Cologne, Germany, begun 1248; nave, facade, and towers completed 1880.
  • 51. 50
    Figure 13-45 GERHARD OF COLOGNE, Choir of Cologne Cathedral (view facing east), Cologne, Germany, completed 1322.
  • 52. 51
    Figure 13-47 Interior of Saint Elizabeth (view facing west), Marburg, Germany, 1235–1283.
  • 53. 52
    Figure 13-48 Death of the Virgin, tympanum of left doorway, south transept, Strasbourg Cathedral, Strasbourg, France, ca. 1230.
  • 54. 53
    German Gothic Sculpture
    • Examine the humanizing trend in German Gothic sculpture, as well as the dramatic poses and gestures.
  • 54
    Figure 13-49 Ekkehard and Uta, statues in the west choir, Naumburg Cathedral, Naumburg, Germany, ca. 1249–1255. Painted limestone, approx. 6’ 2” high.
  • 55. 55
    Figure 13-50 Equestrian portrait (Bamberg Rider), statue in the east choir, Bamberg Cathedral, Germany, ca. 1235–1240. Sandstone, 7’ 9” high.
  • 56. 56
    Figure 13-51 Virgin with the Dead Christ (Röttgen Pietà), from the Rhineland, Germany, ca. 1300–1325. Painted wood, 2’ 10 1/2” high. Rheinisches Landemuseum, Bonn.
  • 57. 57
    Figure 13-52 NICHOLAS OF VERDUN, the Klosterneuburg Altar, from the abbey church at Klosterneuburg, Austria, 1181. Gilded copper and enamel, 3’ 6 3/4” high. Stiftsmuseum, Klosterneuburg.
  • 58. 58
    Figure 13-53 NICHOLAS OF VERDUN, Sacrifice of Isaac, detail of the Klosterneuburg Altar, from the abbey church at Klosterneuburg, Austria, 1181. Gilded copper and enamel, 5 1/2” high. Stiftsmuseum, Klosterneuburg.
  • 59. 59
    Figure 13-54 NICHOLAS OF VERDUN, Shrine of the Three Kings, from Cologne Cathedral, Cologne, Germany, begun ca. 1190. Silver, bronze, enamel, and gemstones, 5’ 8” X 6’ X 3’ 8”. Cathedral Treasury, Cologne.
  • 60. 60
    The Gothic Style in Italy
    • Understand reasons for the regional diversity of the Gothic style in Italy.
    • 61. Understand the relationship of the Gothic style to earlier Romanesque, Early Christian, and Classical styles.
    • 62. Examine the horizontality and surface decorations of the Italian Gothic cathedrals.
  • 61
    Gothic Variations in Italy
    • Examine the regional variations of the Gothic style which developed in Italy, especially in the Orvieto and Milan cathedrals.
  • 62
    Figure 13-55 LORENZO MAITANI, west facade of Orvieto Cathedral, Orvieto, Italy, begun 1310.
  • 63. 63
    Figure 13-57 Milan Cathedral (view from the southwest), Milan, Italy, begun 1386.
  • 64. 64
    Discussion Questions
    • What are the key architectural and decorative elements of the Gothic cathedrals?
    • 65. How would you compare sculpture in the Gothic era to the earlier Romanesque sculpture? What are the reasons for the differences?
    • 66. Consider a person’s reaction in 14th-century upon viewing a Gothic cathedral for the first time. What might the reaction be to viewing an enormous building supported by glass walls?

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